Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006eg) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (48) (10/11/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Eucalyptus paludicola [64276]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.Nicolle
Infraspecies author  
Reference Nicolle, D., (1995) A new series, Incognitae, of Eucalyptus L'Her., including a new species endemic to Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 16: 75, figs 1-3, map 1 [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Eucalyptus paludicola

Common name: Mount Compass Swamp Gum

Other names: Marsh Gum (Brooker & Kleinig 1999); Fleurieu Swamp Gum (Brooker & Kleinig 2000).

It has been suggested that the Mount Compass Swamp Gum may be a hybrid, however at present the species is conventionally accepted (CHAH 2013).

There is debate concerning the species' taxonomy given that its morphology is intermediate in some respects (including seed characteristics) between Eucalyptus cosmophylla and E. ovata. In addition, herbarium specimens have, in the past, been identified as unusual forms of E. ovata var. ovata or E. ovata var. grandiflora. E. cosmophylla is known to hybridise with a number of other Eucalyptus species (Nicolle 1995).

Nicolle (1995) argues against recent hybridisation between the aforementioned species on the basis of minor variation in the seedlings and the absence of E. cosmophylla and E. ovata at many E. paludicola sites. In contrast, another expert, Lang (2005 pers. comm.), considers that the hybrid status of E. paludicola warrants investigation, and questions whether it should be maintained as a distinct species. Lang (2005 pers. comm.) stated that the individuals referred to as E. paludicola do appear to have arisen as a result of hybridisation.

The holotype (the first identified specimen) of E. paludicola was collected near Mount Compass on the Fleurieu Peninsula and is housed in the Adelaide Herbarium (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum is a small tree, growing 4—10 m tall with dark brown, rough bark on the lower trunk, and smooth grey or cream bark on the upper trunk and branches . The leaves are broadly lanceolate (lance-shaped) (Nicolle 1995) and large, cylinder, cone or bell-shaped flowering capsules usually occur in clusters of seven (TSSC 2006eg).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum is endemic to the Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island in South Australia (TSSC 2006eg).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum occurs on the southern Fleurieu Peninsula from Waipinga, north to near Myponga and east towards Currency Creek and Ashbourne over a linear range of about 50 km (Adelaide Herbarium 2005; Nicolle 1995). The species grows only on the eastern and southern side of the Mount Lofty Ranges watershed, where streams flow east or south into the Murray River Lakes or Southern Ocean (Nicolle 1995).

The species has also been found at one site on Kangaroo Island, in Cape Bouguer Wilderness Area (formerly Kelly Hill Conservation Park) on the western side of the island (Nicolle 1995).

Extent

Based on herbarium collections (Adelaide Herbarium 2005) from 1990 and data in Nicolle (1995), it is estimated that the current extent of occurrence of the Mount Compass Swamp Gum is approximately 269 km2 (268 km2 on Fleurieu Peninsula and 0.6 km2 on Kangaroo Island). Early herbarium records are inadequate to estimate the previous extent of occurrence of the species, although past declines are likely  given the extensive clearance of the species' habitat along watercourses on the Fleurieu Peninsula (TSSC 2006a).

There have been no comprehensive field surveys for the Mount Compass Swamp Gum over its entire range. The species' habitat has been extensively cleared on the Fleurieu Peninsula. Although small tree remnants survive along many creek valleys in the region, it is unlikely that many large populations survive on the mainland. 

Undiscovered large populations may occur on Kangaroo Island, as numerous lagoons are protected in conservation reserves at the western end of the island (Davies 2005 pers. comm.). The number of undiscovered individuals is unlikely to be in the hundreds, as the type of ephemeral swamp habitat in which the species is found on Kangaroo Island is not widespread on the island (they are associated with areas where lateritic soils meet calcareous soils).

Herbarium collections, since 1990, describe a total of 147 or more Mount Compass Swamp Gum trees occurring across five of the sites, with the species being "common" at another site (Adelaide Herbarium 2005). "Scattered trees", "scattered plants" and a "clump of trees" occurred at another three collection sites, while no details of population size is given for a further site. These numbers exclude sites where collections were made of specimens of questionable identity or determined as having only affinities to the Mount Compass Swamp Gum.

Fleurieu Peninsula

On the Fleurieu Peninsula, the Mount Compass Swamp Gum is known from about 15 subpopulations over a range of about 50 km (Nicolle 1995). Most subpopulations are restricted to small remnants in roadside vegetation or isolated patches on private farmland (Nicolle 1995). However, one subpopulation of approximately 50 trees occurs along a sandy creek on the boundary of Cox's Scrub Conservation Park (mostly within the reserve) and one population occurs just outside the boundary of Scott Conservation Park (Nicolle 1995).

At least three subpopulations occur on privately owned land:

  • Near the Mount Compass to Goolwa Road.
  • Near Nangkita Road (seen in 1994).
  • In an area of private land covered by a conservation covenant (Heritage Agreement) near Nangkita.

Herbarium collections made since 1990 indicate that at least four subpopulations occur in roadside vegetation. Roadside subpopulations are known to occur west of Waitpinga, along Hindmarsh Valley Road (12 trees) and in a creek alongside Mosquito Hill Road (15-20 trees). The species is also considered to be common on roadsides around Nangkita (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).

The population trends of the Mount Compass Swamp Gum are difficult to determine, given the lack of past and present population numbers. The species was collected at Tooperang in 1945 (Adelaide Herbarium 2005) but has not been collected there since. It is likely that the species has declined due to habitat clearing, particularly on the mainland.

Kangaroo Island

The entire Kangaroo Island population is conserved in a remote part of Cape Bouger Wilderness Park (Nicolle 1995). Only 20—30 trees were seen at this site (Nicolle 2005 pers. comm.). Scattered trees also occur in Mount Billy Conservation Park (Adelaide Herbarium 2005; Taplin 2005 pers. comm.).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum occurs in two conservation parks; Cox's Scrub Conservation Park and Cape Bouguer Wilderness Area (Nicolle 1995; Nicolle 2005 pers. comm.). Scattered trees also occur in Mount Billy Conservation Park (Adelaide Herbarium, 2005; Taplin 2005 pers. comm.). The species also occurs on privately owned land legally protected under a conservation covenant (Heritage Agreement) near Nangkita (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum occurs in low depressions, broad gullies or occasionally on hillsides near permanent creeks on sands and loams, which are usually high in organic matter and waterlogged in winter. The species' roots are able to tolerate submersion in water up to 30 cm deep for up to three months (Nicolle 1995). Details with herbarium collections also describe the species occurring at the margins of swamps, including perched peat bog swamps which occur in depressions and valleys (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).

Where it occurs in native vegetation, the Mount Compass Swamp Gum is always in small, usually pure stands (only canopy species present) of between 10 and 100 trees, surrounded by heath or low forest vegetation (Nicolle 1995). When it occurs in mixed stands, the Mount Compass Swamp Gum may be associated with other tree species such as Brown Stringybark (Eucalyptus baxteri), Cup Gum (E. cosmophylla), Grey Ebony (E. fasciculosa), Blue Gum (E. leucoxylon), Peppermint Box (E. odorata), Swamp Gum (E. ovata) and Rough-barked Manna Gum (E. viminalis cygnetensis) (Nicolle 1995; SA DEH 2005).

Details from herbarium collection specimins indicate that the associated understorey usually consists of dense Xanthorrhoea spp. and sedges, or Leptospermum spp. (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum can usually be readily identified, as the species inhabits a specific habitat and often occurs as a monospecific stand (Nicolle 1995). However, the species has some similarities with Cup Gum (E. cosmophylla) and, where they occur together, the following differences can be used to differentiate between the species: the Mount Compass Swamp Gum has a predominantly seven-flowered inflorescence (three flowered in E. cosmophylla), erect tree habit, longer predicels and peduncles, more cylindrical, smaller buds and fruits without prominent ridges (cup-shaped fruit with two opposite ridges in E. cosmophylla), thinner adult and juvenile leaves and thick, rough bark on mature trees (Nicolle 1995).

The Mount Compass Swamp Gum is distinguished from E. cosmophylla by its predominantly seven-flowered inflorescence (three flowered in E. cosmophylla), erect tree habit, longer predicels and peduncles, more cylindrical, smaller buds and fruits without prominent ridges (cup-shaped fruit with two opposite ridges in E. cosmophylla), thinner adult and juvenile leaves, thick rough bark on mature trees and swampy habitat (Nicolle 1995).

Roadworks

Most subpopulations of the Mount Compass Swamp Gum occur in roadside vegetation or on private farmland and are therefore in danger of accidental destruction or damage from roadworks and maintenance activities such as slashing (Nicolle 2005 pers. comm.).

Grazing

While the adult tree Mount Compass Swamp Gum is relatively resistant to grazing and weed competition, seedlings are highly succeptible (Davies 2005 pers. comm.) and grazing may have a significant impact on recruitment levels. While the Mount Compass Swamp Gum is relatively long lived, it is likely that many subpopulations will decline in the longer term where reduced seedling recruitment occurs, as there will be no replacement of mature trees when they senesce and die (Davies 2005 pers. comm.).

Weed Invasion

The species is thought to be highly succeptible to invasion of blackberries (Rubus fruiticosis), which form dense thickets and prevent the establishment of seedlings. Areas containing subpopulations in Cox's Scrub Conservation Park and in the Heritage Agreement area near Nangkita are presently weed free (Taylor 2005 pers. comm.) although may be threatened by weeds in the long term.

Altered Hydrology

Given that the species presently occurs in the wettest areas of their distribution it is likely that reduced water availability would cause drought stress and lead to increased deaths. The construction of dams is the most likely means by which hydrology would be altered throughout the habitat of this species (Taylor 2005 pers. comm., TSSC 2006eq).

Stochastic Events

A number of the surviving subpopulations have very small numbers of individuals and therefore have a high risk of extirpation due to stochastic or catastrophic events (intense fire, storms etc.) or inbreeding depression (Ellstrand & Elam 1993).

The following priority recovery and threat abatement actions have been recommended for the Mount Compass Swamp Gum (TSSC 2006eq):

Local

  • Survey work in suitable habitat or potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
  • Weeding of known sites to control blackberries.
  • Fencing of known sites on private property to promote recruitment.
  • Elimination of inappropriate build-up of woody or herbaceous debris, which could act as fuel for a potential fire.
  • Investigation of formal conservation arrangements on private property, such as covenants or inclusion in reserve tenure.

Regional

  • Appropriate road-widening and maintenance activities where the species occurs to minimise impact on known populations.
  • Management of any change to hydrology which may result in changes to the water table levels and increased shifting of sediment.

Documents relevant for the management of the Mount Compass Swamp Gum can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Genista monspessulana (Montpellier Broom, Cape Broom, Canary Broom, Common Broom, French Broom, Soft Broom) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].

Adelaide Herbarium (2005). ADHERB database. South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.

Barker, W.R., R.M. Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow, eds. (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants, 5th edition. In: Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens Supplement 1. [Online]. Adelaide: Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/pdfs/Census_5.0_web.pdf.

Brooker, M.I.H. (2000). A new classification of the Genus Eucalyptus L'Her. (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 13(1):79-148. CSIRO.

Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (1999). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 1, South-eastern Australia. Hawthorn, Victoria: Bloomings Books.

Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (2000). EUCLID. Eucalypts of south-eastern Australia. Revised.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2013). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apclist.

Davies, R. (2005). Personal communication.

Ellstrand, N.C. & D.R. Ellam (1993). Population genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 24:217-242.

Lang, P. (2005). Personal communication.

Nicolle, D. (1995). A new series, Incognitae, of Eucalyptus L'Her., including a new species endemic to Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 16:75.

Nicolle, D. (2005). Personal communication.

O'Leary, M. (2005). Personal communication.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005). Databases: Opportune, Plant Population, Reserves, Roadside Vegetation and Survey. Viewed 31 May 05. Adelaide: SA DEH.

Taplin, R. (2005). Personal communication.

Taylor, R. (2005). Personal communication.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2006eg). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/eucalyptus-paludicola.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2006eq). NON-APROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus paludicola. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/eucalyptus-paludicola.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus paludicola in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Jul 2014 23:43:37 +1000.