Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Astacopsis gouldi (Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster, Giant Lobster, Giant Freshwater Crayfish): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014uz) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Astacopsis gouldi [64415]
Family Parastacidae:Decapoda:Malacostraca:Arthropoda:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.ifc.tas.gov.au/fact_sheets/a_gouldi.html
http://www.users.bigpond.com/sunfish.1/shrimp/images/AGOULDI2_web.jpg

Scientific name: Astacopsis gouldi

Common name:Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster

Other names: Giant Lobster, Giant Freshwater Crayfish

The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is the largest freshwater lobster in the world. The species has been reported to grow up to 6 kg but, currently, animals weighing 2–3 kg are considered large. In general, females weigh about 500 g with a carapace length (CPL) of 12 cm and males weigh around 300 g and have a CPL of 7.6 cm. Adults range from dark brown-green to black or blue (TSS 2006j). The species is spiny and has distinct chelae (front pincers), walking legs, carapace (head shell) and abdomen ending in a tail fan. Males have larger pincers than females. The pincers are brown with greenish tips and the tubucles and spines are yellow (Bryant & Jackson 1999b).

The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is endemic to rivers of northern Tasmania. Formerly, it was found in all rivers flowing into Bass Strait from the Arthur River and east across northern Tasmania, but not those of the Tamar catchment (Horwitz 1994).

Presently, distribution is more disjunct and localised extinctions, or large declines in numbers, are thought to have occurred in the Welcome, Montagu, Rubicon, Don, Brid, Boobyalla, Pipers, Ringarooma, Duck, Little and Great Forester Rivers and Claytons Rivulet (Horwitz 1990, 1991a, 1994; TSS 2006j). The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster has been introduced into two catchments: the North Esk catchment (St Patricks River); and the Derwent catchment (Clyde River) (IFS unpub. data cited in TSS 2006j). Within these catchments the species occurs at altitudes below about 400 m, with most caught below 200 m (Horwitz 1991a, 1994).

Populations of the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster are slow-growing with slow colonising abilities (e.g. recolonisation of impacted areas appears to be very slow) and relatively low fecundity (TSS 2006j). Reports of localised extinctions or large declines in numbers are relatively common (Horwitz 1991a, 1994).

The estimated extent of occurrence of the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster, based on catchments where the species is known to occur and historical reports of species presence, is approximately 10 700 km² (TSS 2006j).

No data on population numbers is available for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster, however, the structure of several populations have been studied. The results indicate an absence of large individuals, particularly sexually mature males; most individuals recorded from the Inglis River (north-west Tasmania) between 1985–1988, were 60–90 mm CPL, with few breeding-sized adults or very small juveniles present (Hamr 1996). However, juveniles were not actively sought (Davies & Cook 2004). In the Mersey catchment, the modal range of individuals sampled from 10 sites was 20–60 mm CPL, and again there were few small juveniles or breeding-sized adults. These sites had been impacted upon by fishing and forestry (Growns 1995). In a study of two areas in north and north-western Tasmania, individuals were 39–136 mm CPL, with individuals in both populations being mostly 50–70 mm CPL. No legal-sized lobsters were caught, with the largest male being 109 mm CPL. This has been attributed to the effects of fishing (Lynch & Blühdorn 1997).

This species requires well-shaded streams that have good water quality, low sediment levels, snags, pools and undercut banks (Growns 1995; Hamr 1990a, 1990b; Lynch 1967). The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster requires a stable thermal regime of relatively low water temperature (TSS 2006j). In captivity, the species is not tolerant of water temperatures that exceed 18 °C for several weeks (Forteath 1987). In the wild, temperatures of study streams occupied by the species ranged from 5.2–21 °C (Hamr 1990a; Lynch & Blühdorn 1997; Webb 2001). The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster may also be found in hydroelectric impoundments, e.g. Lake Barrington (TSS 2006j).

The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is believed to occur in all sizes of stream, and is found in flowing and still waters. Adults live in still, deep pools, sheltered beneath submerged and decaying logs and undercut banks, and move through shallow riffle zones (Hamr 1990a; Lynch 1967). Smaller juveniles also inhabit shallow fast-flowing streams (Hamr 1990a) and favour habitats with large rocks that are: big enough to be stable; are not embedded in finer substrates; are overlying coarser substrates; and/or have a distinct cavity underneath them (Davies & Cook 2004).

The species has also been recorded in stream reaches with non-native riparian vegetation (e.g. pine plantations), without riparian vegetation and in farm dams (TSS 2006j).

The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is slow-growing, slow colonising, large-sized, easily caught, and has relatively low fecundity (TSS 2006j). They may live up to 60 years of age (Bryant & Jackson 1999b). Females become sexually mature when they reach about 119 mm CPL and 500 g in weight, which takes approximately 14 years. Males reach sexual maturity earlier than females, at about 76 mm CPL and 300 g, which is thought to take 9 years (Hamr 1996). Females mate and spawn biennially in autumn, after a summer moult (Hamr 1990a, 1992, 1996). Gestation takes about 9 months, with females carrying the eggs on the tail through winter. The number of eggs produced by a female is proportional to its size, and egg counts range from 224–1300 per female. After hatching in mid-summer, young lobsters stay attached to the female until autumn (Hamr 1996).

The main food of the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is decaying wood and its associated microbes, though its diet varies with age. It also eats leaves and animal flesh, including small fish, when available (Forteath 1987; Hamr 1996; Lynch 1967).

The dispersal patterns and migratory activities of the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster are largely unknown, although movements of 2.2 km have been recorded (Webb & Richardson 2004). This species can also walk over land (Horwitz 1991a).

In general, adult Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobsters appear to have two patterns in their movement and behaviour (Webb & Richardson 2004):

  • residential periods, when animals may be inactive, or undertake small-scale movements, usually returning to a specific "home site"
  • less common large-scale movements, after which the animal takes up residence in a new "home site" or pool, or returns to its initial "home site".

Webb and Richardson (2004) used radio telemetry to track the movements of eight adult Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobsters. Tracking durations varied from 14–144 days, depending on the life span of the transmitters. All animals showed substantial periods of inactivity, lasting from 1–10 days; in one animal, inactivity appeared to be related to brooding. Activity was not strongly nocturnal and, when active, the animals moved large distances. One animal covered 700 m in a single night, and the stream lengths over which animals were active during the five month study ranged from 0.09– 2.2 km. Animals often returned to the same refuge after excursions.

The river-dwelling Astacopsis species have ranges that exceed those of most of the burrowing species, because of the opportunities for dispersal through drainage systems and their relative independence of wet soils to burrow in (Richardson et al. 2006).

Surveys can be conducted year-round, although generally smaller individuals (less than 1 kg) are sampled better in summer surveys and larger individuals better in winter surveys. Different survey methods are used for juveniles and larger crayfish (sub-adults and adults). Visual surveys are recommended for juvenile crayfish and trapping methods for sub-adults and adults. Generally, surveys should consist of a combination of trapping and visual surveys to provide better knowledge of the population structure (Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop 2010).

If the population structure needs to be determined, three separate surveys at least three weeks apart are required. The optimal timing is to conduct the three surveys across three seasons (for example, summer, autumn and winter) (Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop 2010).

Trapping – non-juvenile crayfish

Traps, ring nets and bait lines can be used (traps should only be used with measures to avoid capture or entanglement of platypus). Set six traps for a period of four hours over a half-kilometre stretch of river. Within this search area, traps should be placed in the most suitable habitat (deep pools, near large woody debris and overhangs) (Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop 2010).

Visual search – juvenile crayfish

Visual searches are conducted by turning rocks in riffle zones and boulder/cobble areas, with a hand-net held downstream. The effort required can be determined by search area (minimum 250 m river stretch) or time (minimum 4 hours of survey). All rocks in the riffle/rocky substrate zone should be turned and then replaced to their original position (Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop 2010).

Davies and colleagues (2005) recommend that searches should not be conducted for juveniles during periods of high or turbid flows, as the crayfish will be harder to see. They also note that searches should not be conducted when the water temperature is very low, as the juveniles are less active.

Permits are needed to conduct surveys for the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster. Contact the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (www.dpiw.tas.gov.au) and the Inland Fisheries Service (www.ifs.tas.gov.au) for further information and permits (Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop 2010).

The main threats to the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster are past legal, and current illegal, fishing pressure (the species is easily caught), and large-scale habitat disturbance (Growns 1995; Hamr 1990b; Horwitz 1990; Lynch 1967; Lynch & Blühdorn 1997). Other threats include drought and climate change (Eastman & Eastman 2007; TSS 2006j).

Fishing

The impact of fishing on population dynamics of the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is not fully understood, but appears to have resulted in the loss of many large, mature individuals from the populations (TSS 2006j). Assessment of fishing in the past indicates that mainly adults and large sub-adults have been targeted (Davies 1991). From 1993 to 1998, fisheries regulations prohibited the taking of lobsters with a CPL of less than 130 mm (Inland Fisheries Commission 1993a). Fishing for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster was prohibited from 1 January 1998 (Inland Fisheries Act 1995), though enforcement is minimal (Jackson & Blühdorn 1999). A study of baitlines indicated that the regulations applicable at the time (prohibiting capture of males and lobster fishing in certain catchments) had no discernible effect on implied fishing pressure (Jackson & Blühdorn 1999).

Habitat disturbance

Habitat disturbance includes the removal or destruction of riparian vegetation, bank erosion, removal of snags, channelisation, siltation, nutrification, toxic chemical inputs, instream barriers to lobster movement such as culverts and farm dams, and alterations to stream flow and thermal regime (TSS 2006j). Many streams inhabited by the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster have been disturbed as a result of agricultural, forestry and urban activities, and much of the floodplain-riparian area within its range has been heavily modified (Jackson & Blühdorn 1999). Intensification of forestry has resulted in increased access (Jackson & Blühdorn 1999), which may result in increased fishing pressure on previously undisturbed populations (Hamr 1996). Riparian and aquatic habitats continue to be affected by activities associated with roads, logging and plantations. Continuing effects include loss of canopy cover, increased runoff, sedimentation, and changes in hydrology (TSS 2006j). It is known that increased siltation and turbidity places increased stress on the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster's ability to transpire oxygen through the gills (Eastman & Eastman 2007). These threats are known to occur in every catchment (Jackson & Blühdorn 1999).

Drought

The Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster is threatened by the drying up of streams and rivers associated with drought conditions. Low environmental flows in 2006–2007 caused deaths in several catchments in the north-west and north-east of Tasmania. Particular concern has been raised over a lack of contingency planning by authorities to prepare for reduced environmental flows in these areas, which are utilised by land owners for irrigation of crops (Eastman & Eastman 2007).

Climate change

Climate change is a significant overarching threat to the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster that may result in altered stream flows, altered stream temperatures, and changes to catchment vegetation. Such habitat disturbance may affect the entire local lobster population, not just the large individuals (TSS 2006j).

The National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) 2006–2010 (TSS 2006j) lists the following primary objectives for the recovery of the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster:

  • Reduction in fishing pressure.
  • Prevention and amelioration of the effects of habitat disturbance.
  • Monitoring of population recovery, and identification and protection of core populations.
  • Increasing knowledge of the species' biology and habitat requirements.
  • Overall co-ordination of the recovery process.

The National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) 2006–2010 (TSS 2006j) recommends the following management practices to avoid a significant adverse impact on this species:

  • Continue to prohibit any fishing for the species, enforce restrictions and educate to make the ban effective.
  • Restrict access to previously inaccessible areas of high suitability habitat for this species.
  • Allow for free passage of lobsters under roads crossing streams in Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster habitat.
  • Maintain quality and width of riparian vegetation to maintain suitable habitat including stream temperature and light regimes, substrate, inputs of leaf and wood material, and filter surface runoff under heavy rainfall conditions.
  • Manage water quality where the species occurs to maintain waters free of significant levels of nutrient, sediment, pesticide and other pollutants, and to maintain high dissolved oxygen and a natural temperature regime with a maximum temperature of 20 °C.
  • Continue to prohibit the import, translocation and possession of all exotic freshwater lobster species, and enforce and educate to make the ban effective.
  • Maintain adequate flow regimes as required by this species at all life stages.

Management documents for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster include:

  • National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) 2006–2010 (TSS 2006j).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Fertiliser application The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206. (Horwitz, P., 1994) [Journal].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Draft Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Jackson, J.E. & D.R. Blühdorn, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206. (Horwitz, P., 1994) [Journal].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal take National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Draft Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Jackson, J.E. & D.R. Blühdorn, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206. (Horwitz, P., 1994) [Journal].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat deterioration due to soil degradation and erosion National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Habitat loss/conversion/quality decline/degradation National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206. (Horwitz, P., 1994) [Journal].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206. (Horwitz, P., 1994) [Journal].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology due to water diversion The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206. (Horwitz, P., 1994) [Journal].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Removal of wood snags from waterways National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Draft Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Jackson, J.E. & D.R. Blühdorn, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:unspecified National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Draft Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Jackson, J.E. & D.R. Blühdorn, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006j) [Recovery Plan].

Bryant, S. & J. Jackson (1999b). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Hobart, Tasmania: Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service.

Davies, P.E. (1991). The fisheries for freshwater lobster (Astacopsis gouldi) and blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) in Tasmania. Page(s) 24pp. Internal Report. Tasmania: Inland Fisheries Commission.

Davies, P.E. & L.J.S. Cook (2004). Juvenile Astacopsis gouldi in headwater streams: relative abundance and habitat. Report to Forest Practices Board. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Freshwater Systems. Available from: http://eprints.utas.edu.au/418/1/JAG_report_404_final_3.pdf.

Davies, P.E., L.S.J. Cook, S.A. Munks & J. Meggs (2005). Astacopsis gouldi Clark: habitat characteristics and relative abundance of juveniles. Tasforests. 16:1-18. [Online]. Available from: http://www.forestrytas.com.au/uploads/File/tasfor/tasforest_16_pdfs/tasforests_16_1_web.pdf.

Eastman, K. & P. Eastman (2007). Waiting for rain - Who's watching as the rivers run dry: Upper Catchment Issues. Journal of Tasmanian Community Resource Auditors Incorporated. 4(1):5-30.

Forteath, N. (1987). The aquaculture potential of the giant fresh-water crayfish Astacopsis gouldi. Launceston, Tasmania: School of Applied Sciences, State Institute of Technology.

Growns, I.O. (1995). Astacopsis gouldi in streams of the Gog Range, northern Tasmania: the effects of catchment disturbance. Papers & Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 129:1-6.

Hamr, P. (1990a). Comparative reproductive biology of the Tasmanian freshwater crayfishes Astacopsis gouldi Clark, Astacopsis franklinii Gray, and Parastacoides tasmanicus Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Ph.D. Thesis. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Zoology, University of Tasmania.

Hamr, P. (1990b). Rare and endangered: Tasmanian Giant freshwater lobster. Australian Natural History. 23:362.

Hamr, P. (1992). A revision of the Tasmanian freshwater crayfish genus Astacopsis Huxley (Decapoda: Parastacidae) a freshwater crayfish from Tasmania. Papers & Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 126:91-94.

Hamr, P. (1996). A Giant's Tale: the life history of Astacopsis gouldi (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Freshwater Crayfish XI. Ontario, Canada: Lakehead University.

Horwitz, P. (1990). Conservation status of Australian freshwater Crustacea. Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service Report Series, No 14. Canberra, ACT: Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Horwitz, P. (1991a). On the distribution and exploitation of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark. Hobart: Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania.

Horwitz, P. (1994). The distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biological Conservation. 69:199-206.

Inland Fisheries Commission (1993a). Change to freshwater crayfish regulations. Inland Fisheries Newsletter. 22(2):6.

Jackson, J.E. & D.R. Blühdorn (1999). Draft Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster Astacopsis gouldi Clark. Natural Heritage Trust. Hobart, Tasmania: Inland fisheries Service.

Lynch, D.D. (1967). A synopsis of biological data of the giant freshwater crayfish Astacopsis gouldi Clark 1936. Hobart, Tasmania: Inland Fisheries Commision.

Lynch, T.P. & D.R. Blühdorn (1997). Reservation assessment and habitat requirements of the giant Tasmanian freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi. Hobart: Tasmanian RFA Environment & Heritage Technical Committee.

Richardson A., N. Doran & B. Hansen (2006). The geographic ranges of Tasmanian crayfish: extent and pattern. Freshwater Crayfish. 15:347-364.

Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop (2010). Proceedings of the Tasmanian Crayfish Workshop, 28-29 June 2010. Devonport, Tasmania.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006j). National Recovery Plan for the Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Lobster (Astacopsis gouldi). [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/a-gouldi.html.

Webb, M. (2001). Movement patterns and habitat use of adult Astacopsis gouldi in the Dip River, north-west Tasmania. Hons. Thesis. Unpublished. Hobart: School of Zoology, University of Tasmania.

Webb, M. & A. Richardson (2004). A radio telemetry study of movement in the Giant Tasmanian Freshwater Crayfish, Astacopsis gouldi. Freshwater Crayfish. 14:197-204.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Astacopsis gouldi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 09:56:17 +1000.