Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery plan for the Cocos (Keeling) Buff Banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi) (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi [64439]
Family Rallidae:Gruiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Mathews, 1911)
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi

Common name: Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands)

Other names: Cocos Malay name: Ayam Hutan (forest chicken)

The subspecific status of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) was questioned by Marchant and Higgins (1993), presumably on the grounds that there had not been a recent review of the population (Reid 2000). Despite their query, they concluded that it was a distinctively coloured and patterned population. Distinguishing features include the greater amount of white spotting on the lower back and rump, and the almost complete absence of olive-brown tints in the dorsal plumage. The average tarsus (ankle bone) length is also considerably longer than any of the other 22 subspecies studied so far. There also appears to be no obvious geographic patterns, suggesting that the closest geographic populations are not necessarily the closest relatives (Reid 2000). Thus, Reid (2000) considered the subspecific status to be valid, but recommended a molecular study of the subspecific limits within the species, concentrating on the taxonomic position of Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi.

The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) is a short billed rail, with a slight size difference between males and females (male 300-316mm, female 280-294mm) (Johnstone & Darnell 2004). Both sexes are similar in appearance with russet-flecked dusky crown, a light rust nape and dark grey-black feathers with a tinge of brown on the mantle, back and scapular (Reid 2000; Schodde & Tidemann 1986). The back is heavily spotted with white all the way down to, and including, the rump. Prominent white barring occurs on the dark grey-black tail (Reid 2000). Wings are dusky with broad rust-buff bars grading whiter. The face has a prominent white-grey eyebrow, a broad rust stripe through the eye to the nape and grey cheeks. The eye is red. The sides of the throat and neck are pale grey (Johnstone & Darnell 2004). Black and white bars cover the ventral surface broken at the breast centre by a wide vertical buff band. The bill is brown, and legs and feet are light brown. Immature birds are duller without russet on the hind neck or buff band on the breast, and the eye is brown. Downy young are sooty black (Schodde & Tidemann 1986).

There is no specific information available about the social structure of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) (Reid 2000).

This subspecies of the Buff-banded Rail occurs on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and currently thought to be restricted to North Keeling Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Reid 2000). Located in the Indian Ocean (lat. 12° 12'S, long. 96° 54'E), the Cocos (Keeling) Islands are approximately 2900 km northwest of Perth, 975 km west-southwest of Christmas Island and 1000 km southwest of Java Head. They are an Australian offshore territory, comprising 27 separate islands, 26 in the southern atoll, and North Keeling Island, located 24 km to the north (lat. 11° 50'S, long. 96° 49'E).

The current extent of occurrence is the whole of North Keeling Island, with an area of 1.20 km², the sole island in the Northern Atoll of the Cocos (Keeling) in the Indian Ocean. There is sparse but sufficient data to indicate no decline over the past 10 years (Reid 2000; Reid & Hill 2005). There is no data to indicate future changes in extent of occurrence.

The current area of occupancy is the whole of North Keeling Island, with an area of 1.20 km², the sole island in the Northern Atoll of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in the Indian Ocean. The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) use all habitats on North Keeling Island. There is sparse but sufficient data to indicate no decline over the past 10 years (Reid 2000; Reid & Hill 2005). There is no data to indicate future changes in area of occupancy.

The subspecies only occurs in one location, North Keeling Island. The island is 1.20 km² and highly isolated. The nearest land to North Keeling Island is the southern atoll of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, 24 km to the south, and the next nearest land is Java Heads, approximately 900 km to the north.

The Recovery Plan for the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) identifies the re-introduction of the species to an island on the southern atoll as a priority action for reducing the possibility of extinction. Although no island has been specified in the plan, discussions have been held with the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Council about the possibility of reintroducing the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) to Direction Island initially and possibly Horsburgh Island in the future (Reid & Hill 2005a, pers. comm.).

Reid and Hill (2005) suggest that if there are any remnants of the southern atoll population they are highly fragmented and prone to extinction (if not already effectively extinct).

The subspecies, Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Island) occurs only on the North Keeling Island which is an Australian External Territory.

The species, Gallirallus philippensis, however, is widespread in southeastern Asia (the Philippines to Indonesia), Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and occurs on many islands of the southwestern Pacific (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa) (Marchant & Higgins 1993). It is extinct on Macquarie and Chatham Islands (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1993).

There are at least 20 different subspecies that are currently recognised throughout the southwestern Pacific, Australasia, Lesser Sundas and Philippines (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Reid 2000).

Reid (2000) undertook multiple, distance-based line-transect counts on North Keeling Island in order to estimate population size and density, and recommended surveys be conducted on the island four times a year during 2000-01. Reid and Hill (2005) resurveyed North Keeling Island in 2005 and analysed data from surveys conducted by Parks Australia North during 2000 and 2004. Given the small size of the island the number of transects conducted is sufficient for estimating the population size. Reid and Hill (2005) found no sign of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) on the southern atoll, and believed new anecdotal observations reported may have been dispersing birds that had not or could not establish a population due to existing threats.

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands comprise of a southern atoll of 26 islands, and a northern atoll of one island, North Keeling Island (Reid 2000). Transect counts of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) conducted on North Keeling Island in May 2005 yielded a density estimate of 7.77 birds ha-1. This density translates to a population estimate of approximately 850-1000 birds on North Keeling Island (Reid & Hill 2005). The proportion of mature individuals in this population is not known (Reid & Hill 2005). North Keeling Island was declared a National Park in 1985 (Director of Parks 2004).

The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) was also once found on the southern atoll but is now considered extinct on this atoll (Reid & Hill 2005). The southern atoll was converted to broad scale coconut plantations in the 1800s and is now primarily residential and recreational, with a large commercial airstrip operating on West Island (Bunce 1988).

There is only one remaining population of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Island) and it is confined to North Keeling Island (DEH 2005d).

On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi was presumably widespread and found on all 27 islands until the early 1900s, and was considered to be abundant in 1878 (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Reid 2000; Stokes 1984). The suggestion that the rail was introduced to the islands is considered unlikely due to its distinctive morphology (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000). In 1949, it was also considered to be abundant on Horsburgh (Pulu Luar) and North Keeling Islands, and less so on Home (Pulu Selma) and West (Pulu Panjang) Islands (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Gibson-Hill 1949, 1949b; Reid 2000). It is now confined to North Keeling Island, but persisted on South (Pulu Atas) and West Islands off the southern atoll until the early 1980s (Stokes 1984), with a single record from West Island, in 1991 (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000). No evidence of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) was found during surveys of the southern atoll in 2005 despite earlier anecdotal reports (Reid & Hill 2005). In the past 10 years no Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) populations have been recorded on the southern atoll, suggesting they are locally extinct. Trends on North Keeling Island suggest no future population decline in the absence of catastrophic events or new threatening processes (Reid & Hill 2005).

The North Keeling Island population is the last remaining population and as such is essential for the survival of the species (DEH 2005d).

The remnant population on North Keeling Island occurrs within the National Park. The abundance of Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) is monitored and visits to the park are regulated to reduce the potential of accidental invasion of threats.

The following information describes habitat for the species as a whole.

Buff-banded Rails occupy permanent and ephemeral (non-permanent), fresh and saline, terrestrial, estuarine and littoral (costal) wetlands. These include swamps, marshes, lakes, coastal lagoons, billabongs, rivers, creeks, pools, temporarily inundated depressions, saltmarsh, tidal mudflats and artificial wetlands, such as sewage farms, farm dams, channels and ditches (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

In coastal areas, they may occur on beaches, reef flats and sand banks. They also occur in damp grasslands, heathland, woodlands and forests, and on coral cays and other islands. They are usually found in dense vegetation, including overgrown grass, reeds, rushes, sedges and other rank vegetation, and sometimes in mangroves. They also occur in non-wetland vegetation, including grasslands, pastures, crops, forests, rainforests and woodlands (Reid 2000).
The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) utilises all habitats equally and occurs throughout North Keeling Island (Reid 2000), even foraging occasionally in the intertidal zone and venturing into shallow rock pools to bathe (Reid & Hill 2005). Up to 40 birds at one time have been seen foraging on the lagoon shore, and this seems to be a preferred feeding habitat (Hopton 2003; Reid & Hill 2005).

The Cocos-Keeling Islands are situated in the tropics and comprise two coral atolls, the islands of which attain only a few metres height above sea level (Reid 2000). On North Keeling Island, the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) occurs in all habitats, including Pisonia grandis forest (53% of North Keeling Island), Cordia woodland (8%), coconut plantation (5%), mixed Pisonia forest and coconut plantation (29%) and along the lagoon shore (5%); they appear to use each habitat in approximate proportion to each habitats' occurrence (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000; Stokes 1984). On West Island, the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) formerly used an airstrip for feeding, and sheltered in thickets of Scaevola taccada (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Stokes 1984).

Breeding:
In general, Buff-banded Rails often nest on or close to the ground (< 1.5 m) around wetlands or in pasture or crops among tall and dense clumps of grass, rushes, sedges, samphire, shrubs e.g. Melaleuca or fallen timber (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Gibson-Hill 1949; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Reid 2000; Stokes 1984). On North Keeling Island, the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) nests in the fallen debris of Pisonia trees, including among logs, in the hollows of stumps, and in the forks. They may also nest at the base of a frond in a Coconut Palm Cocus nucifera or in grass tussocks or other similar ground vegetation (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000; Stokes 1984).

Feeding:
In general, Buff-banded Rails forage around the vegetated margins of wetlands on mud among or adjacent to tall grass, rushes, sedges and samphire. They feed at grassy banks or flats next to wetlands, or among other concealing vegetation such as shrubs or willows Salix. They also feed among mangroves at low tide; on beaches and reef flats; in heathlands, especially those intersected by creeks; in pastures; on lawns and pathways in gardens; and in rubbish tips (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Rails may also feed from the trunks of mangrove trees, from which they take encrusting invertebrates (Robertson 1985).

On North Keeling Island, the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) forages along the lagoon shore taking crustaceans from stranded sea grass, or on the forest floor and in open purslane herbland; on West Island, birds fed on the airstrip (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000; Stokes 1984).

Roosting:
The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) either roost in trees (e.g. Pisonia trees) and shrubs to a height of 2 m above the ground, or on the ground amongst rank grass (Reid 2000).

Loafing and perching:
There is no specific information for the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands). In general, the species roosts, loafs and perches in thick, tall clumps of concealing vegetation, such as grass, reeds, rushes or shrubs. On Raine Island, rails have been recorded sheltering in petrel burrows and under coralline rocks during the heat of the day (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

Little is known about the age of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality. In general, sexual maturity is assumed to be around one year (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

The breeding biology (other than clutch size) has not been studied on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, thus, most information comes from mainland Australia and New Zealand as summarised by Marchant and Higgins (1993) and refers to the species, Gallirallus philippensis, in general.

During the breeding season mainland birds form stable monogamous pairs, holding or defending a territory against other pairs and single birds (Dunlop 1970, 1975; Elliot 1989; Taylor 1998). Territoriality indicates regular spacing of pairs through the breeding season, which is expected to break down outside of the breeding season (Reid 2000). When feeding, non-breeding birds are also known to chase off other rails at times, while at other times loose groups of rails may forage together peacefully (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

The clutch size of the Buff-banded Rail, including birds of Australia and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands is usually 5-8 (Reid 2000; Stokes 1984). Smaller clutches of 2-3 may also be recorded, or of 4-5 during drought years. Egg laying usually occurs at intervals of 24 hours, and the incubation period is 18-25 days. Successive clutches may be laid at intervals of two months, and pairs may breed up to three times in a year in Australia. Young birds are fully grown and able to fly at two months of age, and can probably breed at one year. In Australia, of nine eggs laid, seven hatched (two clutches). In New Zealand, of 38 eggs laid, 13 young hatched and left the nest (eight clutches). This equates to 1.6 young hatched per nest. Of the unhatched eggs, three were infertile, eight were lost when the tide flooded the nest, nine were lost when adults were taken by predators (cat Felis catus, Swamp Harrier Circus approximans), and the four remaining young were abandoned after a Stoat Mustela erminea took a newly hatched chick from the nest (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

In general, rails nest on or close to ground level (Stokes 1984), and therefore chicks, adults and eggs appear to be prone to predation (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Predators of young and adults include feral and domestic cats, dogs Canis familiaris, Swamp Harriers, Stoats, Weasels Mustela nivalis, Black Rats Rattus rattus and Brown Rats R. norvegicus, and possibly Kiore R. exulans (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Reid 2000). Furthermore, nests within lucerne paddocks are often destroyed during mowing. Some nests may be flooded by high spring-tides, or eggs may be trampled by cattle (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

In the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, eggs have been recorded in January, May and June, whilst chicks estimated to be 2-3 days old have been recorded in late November (Gibson-Hill 1949; Marchant & Higgins 1993; Stokes 1984). Chicks estimated to be only one day old have also been recorded in January (Stokes 1984). In 1999, Cocos (Keeling) Island birds were observed mating in May and November, whilst nests with eggs were found in August (Reid 2000). The 1999 observations led Reid (2000) to conclude that birds were breeding continuously from May to December, and he considered it likely that the population was capable of breeding at any time of year depending on resources. In southern Australia, the breeding season is restricted to spring (Marchant & Higgins 1993). In northern Australia, the breeding season may be extended and aseasonal (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Reid 2000).

In general, Buff-banded Rails are omnivorous, taking mostly crustaceans, molluscs, worms and other invertebrates (e.g. insects), but also plants, seeds, fruits, frogs, eggs, carrion and refuse (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1993). The Cocos (Keeling) Islands population behaves like small chickens and the birds appeared to have a fairly generalised diet (Reid 2000).

The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) share a similar diet to that of Jungle Fowls which have been introduced to many islands on the southern atoll of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Although there have been no studies focusing on dietary overlap it is possible that the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) may have to compete with the larger Jungle Fowl where they co-occur in the low nutrient environment of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Reid 2000).

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands subspecies, Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi, is resident.

The movements of the species, Gallirus philippensis, elsewhere within its range is generally poorly known (Marchant & Higgins 1993). It is regarded as resident and dispersive, and possibly migratory. In Australia, it may be less conspicuous during winter which may affect its recording rate, but it may breed all year in northern Australia, and therefore may have been observed (by call) more regularly there. In Australia, except in parts of South Australia, where there are no autumn-winter records, it is reported all year, but at a lower rate during winter. In northern Australia, it is apparently present all year around at Rockhampton, Atherton and Murphy's Creek in Queensland, and Darwin and Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory. Near Brisbane, southern Queensland, it is apparently resident, although numbers drop toward winter. It is suggested that rails migrate or disperse on Cape York, in the Torres Strait and between islands in the Coral Sea. There have been casualties on Booby Island in every month except April and November, with most recorded in June 1975 (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

In southern Australia, the Buff-banded Rail is generally considered to be a spring-summer visitor. In NSW and Tasmania, it arrives in August and departs in February. It is suggested that rails in southern Australia move in response to the availability of water, and move into areas of high rainfall, leaving after drought and cold. Around Brisbane, most offspring disperse by the end of April. On islands, the number of rails tends to fluctuate, but the cause of this is not known, and may not be caused by movement of birds (Marchant & Higgins 1993).

The Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) has a range of fairly distinctive calls that are easily detected and recognised by a trained surveyor. In addition no other ground-dwelling land bird species occurs on North Keeling Island, making detection by sight easier.

On the southern atoll (where the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) may occur and is planned to be introduced) this species may be confused with the White-breasted Waterhen which has similar chicks. The adults of the two species can be distinguished by plumage colour. White-breasted Waterhens have black body feathers and a plain white breast, whereas Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) are smaller and have a predominantly brown appearance with a striped breast.

Methods for sampling the North Keeling Island population were established by Reid (2000). Multiple, distance-based line-transect counts on North Keeling Island were undertaken in November 1999 in order to estimate population size and density. Thirteen line transects were established across the island, and the perpendicular distance to each bird seen or heard was recorded (Reid 2000). Parks Australia monitored eight of these transects, in August 2004; they were again monitored in May 2005 (Reid & Hill 2005). Transects counts should be conducted from dawn to mid morning and from mid afternoon to shortly before sunset, avoiding the middle of the day (Reid 2000).

Inexperienced observers should undergo training in Rail detection, by sight and hearing, and in estimation of perpendicular distance of each detection, again by sight and hearing, before their observations are used for Rail monitoring. No formal analyses have been undertaken to statistically guide the survey-effort requirements of sampling. However, in consultation with Parks Australia North management staff, Reid and Hill (2005) advise that nine permanently marked transects on North Keeling Island should be counted once each, twice a year, for at least the next three years. Provided between-transect variability does not differ greatly from that experienced to date, this sampling design will have sufficient power to detect a reduction in Rail density of 30% at the 5% significance level.

The conversion of diverse Pisonia forests to simplified coconut plantations, predation by feral cats, Black Rats, Brown Rats and perhaps people (hunting), and competition for food with feral chickens have all probably contributed to the extinction of Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi on the main (southern) atoll (DEH 2005; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Gibson-Hill 1949b; Reid 2000; Stokes 1984). It is difficult to retrospectively identify which is the most important factor in the decline of the subspecies (Reid 2000).

The loss of critical food resources on the southern islands may have also contributed to the decline of the species (Reid 2000), although Reid (2000) considers that the most significant agent of decline on the southern islands is predation by cats. North Keeling Island escaped the worst of the habitat transformation and other threatening factors associated with human settlement due to its isolation and lack of a safe landing place for settlers (Reid 2000). Nonetheless, the population of North Keeling Island supports less than 1000 mature individuals in a small area of 120-130 ha (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000).

For the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands), the genetic problems associated with small populations (e.g. genetic and demographic failure, inbreeding depression, genetic bottlenecks), as well as environmental catastrophes (e.g. cyclones, droughts) also threaten this small and sole population (Reid 2000). Environmental catastrophes pose the biggest threat to the security of this population (Reid 2000). Rising sea levels associated with climatic change, poses a significant future threat to the islands, which attain no more than 4 m in height above sea level (JR Reid 2002, pers. comm.). Furthermore, the potential for more extreme cyclones in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands region associated with climatic change warrants further investigation (JR Reid 2002, pers. comm.).

An additional threat is the introduction of any threatening processes to North Keeling Island. These include rats, cats and chickens and also other diseases, parasites or invertebrates (such as the scale insect that allows crazy ants to create supercolonies) (DEH 2005a). North Keeling Island has quarantine procedures in place to reduce the possibility of this threat (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Reid 2000).

Tropical cyclones occur throughout the region. In the past 40 years, 30 have passed within 100 km of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Director of National Parks 2004). Recently, Tropical Cyclone Walter passed within 19 km of North Keeling Island. Although there was damage to the vegetation, the cyclone had little medium-term impact on the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) population (Reid & Hill 2005).

Biological characteristics threatening to the survival of the species are currently not known. Given the isolation and small population size it is likely that the North Keeling Island population has low genetic diversity (D. Alpers 2005, pers comm.).

A reintroduction of the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) to an island on the southern atoll is proposed in the National Recovery Plan for the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) (DEH 2005a). Threats would be removed from the island before reintroduction took place. No specific recovery activities are currently underway, although Parks Australia North actively undertakes activities to manage and protect Pulu Keeling National Park, and to survey the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) regularly.

Early papers from Wood Jones (1909) and Gibson-Hill (1949b), and later from Stokes (1984) contain descriptive information about the birds of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands including Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi. The most comprehensive study was a survey carried out by Reid (2000) on the remnant population of North Keeling Island.

Department of the Environment and Heritage 2005. National Recovery Plan for the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Director of National Parks (Parks Australia, AGDEH) 2004. Pulu Keeling National Park Management Plan. Second Management Plan. Parks Australia North, Darwin.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Global warming and associated sea level changes Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Storms and Flooding:Natural events such as storms and cyclones leading to habitat destruction and flora/fauna mortality Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Gallirallus philippensis andrewsiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lq) [Internet].

Alpers, D. (2005). Personal communication.

Bunce, P. (1988). The Cocos (Keeling) Islands : Australian atolls in the Indian Ocean. Jackaranda Press, Milton, QLD.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (2005d). Draft National Recovery Plan for the Buff-banded Rail (Cocos (Keeling) Islands) Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi.Unpublished report . Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Director of National Parks (2004). Pulu Keeling National Park Management Plan. Second Management Plan. Parks Australia, AGDEH. Parks Australia North, Darwin.

Dunlop, R.R. (1970). Behaviour of the Banded Rail, Rallus philippensis. Sunbird. 1:3-15.

Dunlop, R.R. (1975). A note on the Breeding in banded rail. Sunbird. 6:95-96.

Elliot, G. (1989). The distribution of Banded Rails and Marsh Crakes in coastal Nelson and the Marlborough Sounds. Notornis. 38:199-209.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1949). Notes on the nesting habits of seven representative tropical sea birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 48:214-235.

Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1949b). The birds of the Cocos-Keeling Islands (Indian Ocean). Ibis. 91:221-243.

Hopton, D. (2003). Bird Survey Cocos (Keeling) Islands May - July 2003 Unpublished Report to Parks Australia North, Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (2004). Passerines (Blue-winged Pitta to Goldfinch): Annotated Checklist of Christmas Island Birds. In: Handbook of Western Australian Birds. 2:439-476. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 2 - Raptors to Lapwings. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Reid, J.R. (2002). Personal communication.

Reid, J.R. & B.M. Hill (2005). Recent Surveys of the Cocos Buff-banded Rail. CRES ANU, Canberra.

Reid, J.R. & Hill B.M (2005a). Personal communication.

Reid, J.R.W. (2000). Survey of the Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi) in Pulu Keeling National Park, Cocos Islands, Indian Ocean. Author, Canberra.

Robertson, C.J.R., ed. (1985). The Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Sydney, NSW: Reader's Digest Services.

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Stokes, T. (1984). An Indicative Appraisal of the Effects of Proposed Clearing and Mining on Terrace-nesting Seabirds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. ANPWS, Christmas Island.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Gallirallus philippensis andrewsi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 10:29:36 +1000.