Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Pterodroma neglecta [1037].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for competition and land degradation by unmanaged goats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008ada) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Kermadec Petrel - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005kn) [Internet].
NSW:Kermadec Petrel Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999bx) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
Scientific name Pterodroma neglecta neglecta [64450]
Family Procellariidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Schlegel, 1863)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Kermadec Petrel (western), Pterodroma neglecta neglecta, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The species is listed as Marine as Pterodroma neglecta under the EPBC Act.

New South Wales (NSW): Listed as Vulnerable as Pterodroma neglecta under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Scientific name: Pterodroma neglecta neglecta

Common name: Kermadec Petrel (western)

There are three recognised plumage colour morphs of the Kermadec Petrel: pale, dark and intermediate. The western subspecies can express any of these colour morphs (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Kermadec Petrel (western) has a length of 38 cm, a wingspan of 92 cm and a mass of 370–590 g (Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990). On Lord Howe Island, most birds express a dark plumage morph, which consists of an almost entirely dark brown or blackish-brown body, with a few spots of white or grey on the face, white bases to the primary feathers, and black legs and feet (Brown 1979; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990; McAllan et al. 2004). However, some birds express a light plumage morph, which consists of a white or grey head, sooty-brown upperparts, white underparts, white bases to the primaries, and whitish-pink legs and feet. Others display plumage characters that are intermediate between these two extremes. In all plumage morphs the irides are brown and the bill is black (Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

In Australia, the Kermadec Petrel (western) breeds on Balls Pyramid, which lies to the south of Lord Howe Island, and on Phillip Island, in the Norfolk Island group (Baker et al. 2002; Fullagar et al. 1972; Hutton 1991; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; McAllan et al. 2004; Wood 1988). Its pelagic distribution is poorly known. It generally occurs in subtropical and tropical waters from about 20° S to 35° S, although it may disperse north of the equator (to 42° N) (Gould 1983; Gould & King 1967; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; McAllan et al. 2004; Spear et al. 1992; Wahl 1978) or south into temperate waters of the Tasman Sea (Reid et al. 2002) in the non-breeding season. It occasionally reaches the eastern coast of mainland Australia (Queensland and NSW) (Barrett et al. 2003; Holmes 1971; Redhead 1986; Reid et al. 2002; Rogers 1975, 1977) and the coast of the North Island of New Zealand (including records at Cuvier Island) (Oliver 1974; Powlesland 1983, 1989; Reed 1976; Sibson 1981). There is thought to be little or no exchange of birds between breeding populations in Australian territory and elsewhere, but there is no evidence to confirm this (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with low reliability, to be 1 300 000 km². The extent of occurrence has not changed since the earliest records of the subspecies were made (Garnett et al. 2011).

Based on breeding populations, the area of occupancy is estimated, with high reliability, to be 2 km² (Garnett et al. 2011). The area of occupancy has declined since the early 20th century (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The Kermadec Petrel (western) formerly bred on Lord Howe Island (Hindwood 1940), but it is now extinct there and restricted to Balls Pyramid to the south (Baker et al. 2002; Fullagar & Disney 1975; Hutton 1991).

Global distribution

Outside the Australian territory, the Kermadec Petrel (western) breeds in the Kermadec Islands (New Zealand), Austral Islands (French Polynesia), Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) and Pitcairn Islands (British Overseas Territory). It may also breed on Easter Island (Chile), but its status there is unknown (Bourne & David 1983; Brooke 2004; Garnett 1984; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; Merton 1970; Robertson & Bell 1984; Schlatter 1984).

Global population

The global population of the Kermadec Petrel (western) is estimated to consist of 55 000 to 200 000 pairs (Birdlife International 2006; Brooke 2004). This is based on estimates of 50 to 100 pairs in Australia (Baker et al. 2002), 6000 to 10 000 pairs in the Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Heather & Robertson 1997), 100 to 999 pairs in the Austral Islands (French Polynesia) (Thibault & Varney 1991), 40 000 pairs in the Pitcairn Islands (British Overseas Territory) (Brooke 1995), and probably only a few hundred pairs in the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) (Holyoak & Thibault 1984). On Raoul Island, nesting density can be 4000 nests/ha.

Breeding site trends

The most notable and significant decline has occurred on Raoul Island in the Kermadec Islands, where predation by the Cat (Felis catus) and the Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus), and excessive hunting by humans (an estimated 12 000 young were harvested by European settlers in 1889 alone (Cheeseman 1890)), has reduced the local breeding population from an estimated 500 000 pairs in 1908 (Iredale 1914) to two pairs in 1966 (Veitch et al. 2004).

Breeding may no longer occur on Easter Island and nearby islets are threatened by egg collecting and the Black Rat(Rattus rattus) (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Breeding is virtually nil on Henderson Island, near Pitcairn Island, because of predation by the Cat and the Black Rat, however, the population on other islands in the Pitcairn Islands is likely to be increasing in size (Birdlife International 2006).

The population of the Kermadec Petrel (western) that breeds in Australian territory has been poorly surveyed. The subpopulation that breeds on Balls Pyramid was surveyed in 1978 (Brown 1979). The subpopulation that breeds on Phillip Island was first recorded in 1987 (Wood 1988) and has since had regular, but limited, monitoring by the Norfolk Island Flora and Fauna Society (Carlile 2007; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Priddel 2007).

It is estimated that about 50 to 100 pairs of the Kermadec Petrel (western) breed in Australian territory (Baker et al. 2002) that consists of 50 to 100 breeding pairs on Balls Pyramid (Baker et al. 2002; Brown 1979) and 10 to 50 breeding pairs on Phillip Island (Carlile 2007; Priddel 2007). The subspecies previously bred on Lord Howe Island (Hindwood 1940), but it is now extinct there (Baker et al. 2002; Fullagar et al. 1972; Hutton 1991). The subspecies is stable (Garnett et al. 2011) and possibly increasing on Phillip Island (Carlile 2007; Priddel 2007).

The larger of the two breeding subpopulations in Australian territory occurs on Balls Pyramid, which is part of the Lord Howe Island Group World Heritage Area. The other, smaller subpopulation occurs on Phillip Island, which is included as part of Norfolk Island National Park (DEH 2000).

The Kermadec Petrel (western) is a pelagic seabird that occurs in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters of the Pacific Ocean (Gould 1983; Gould & King 1967; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; Reid et al. 2002; Spear et al. 1992; Wahl 1978). It has been recorded in waters of 15–25 °C in the subtropics (Gould 1983; Jenkins 1970) and in colder waters in temperate regions, with one bird sighted in the northern Pacific Ocean in waters of about 6 °C (Wahl 1978). It breeds on islands, atolls and islets in the southern Pacific Ocean (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Mayr & Cottrell 1979).

Breeding habitat in Australia includes: Balls Pyramid, a tall rock stack where it occurs above an altitude of 400 metres, and nests on sheltered tussock ledges on steep cliff faces, and may be seen flying at high altitudes around the cliffs (Brown 1979; Hutton 1991; McAllan et al. 2004); and on Phillip Island, where pairs nest beneath Olive (Olea europaea) shrubs in elevated regions around the centre of the island (Carlile 2007; Priddel 2007). It formerly nested on almost inaccessible ledges at Mount Gower and Mount Lidgbird on Lord Howe Island (Hindwood 1940) and, although this breeding colony is now extinct, it is thought that some birds continue to fly about the cliffs of Mount Gower (Hutton 1991).

Based on information from other Pterodroma spp., and other genera of petrels, the Kermadec Petrel (western) probably first breeds at five to seven years of age, although it could potentially first breed at anywhere from two to 16 years of age, and is probably capable of surviving for more than 10, and perhaps for more than 20 or 30 years (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Simons 1984; Warham 1996; Zino et al. 2001). Generation length is 16 years (Garnett et al. 2011).

It has been suggested that the Kermadec Petrel (western) may occasionally hybridise with the Herald Petrel (Pterodroma heraldica) and the Phoenix Petrel (Pterodroma alba) (Bourne & David 1983). The three species occur in the western Pacific Ocean, and the Herald Petrel breeds in Australian territory, but not on Balls Pyramid or Phillip Island (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Breeding in Australia

The Kermadec Petrel (western) breeds from October to May in Australian territory (Brown 1979; Mathews 1928; Hutton 1991; Wood 1988). It lays a single white egg on the ground, in a hollow scrape lined with grass, leaves or palm fibre, on a sheltered ledge of a steep cliff (on Balls Pyramid), or beneath Olive (Olea europaea) shrubs (on Phillip Island) (Brown 1979; Carlile 2007; Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991; McAllan et al. 2004; Priddel 2007; Wood 1988). Precise nest site requirements not known, but shade may be important factor (Merton 1970). If adjacent nests too close, both pairs vigorously bicker, sometimes to the exclusion of feeding young (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Eggs are incubated by both parents for a period of about 52 days (Hutton 1991; Oliver 1974). Nestlings are fed by both parents (Oliver 1974) and depart the nest about 15–18 weeks after hatching (Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990). At Balls Pyramid there is a regular spring-summer seasonality (Fullagar 2002 pers. comm.)

Breeding globally

On Kermadec Island, the subspecies breeds on lush grass against rock-walls, partly hidden under clumps of Cyperis on scrub-covered slope; under ferns; and under low understorey of Ngaio (Myoporum laetum) and Coprosma on south-east slopes, shading perhaps being factor in selection of sites (Marchant & Higgins 1990). On Austral Island, breeding occurs on the main island on inaccessible cliffs and rocky slopes; and on islets, where the Cat is absent, on flat ground, often at base of Pandanus tectorius grove (Thibault & Varney 1991).

On Raoul Island, Kermadec group, birds arrived in August, with eggs laid from 20 October to 6 December and first young appear in mid-December and plentiful after 20 December. Incubation ceases by 9 February and all young have left by the first week in June. On Meyer Island, Kermadec group, there is no consistent seasonality with clutches recorded in most months of year, although most laying recorded in November to March, continuing to lesser degree to June (Veitch & Harper 1998).

The Kermadec Petrel (western) feeds on squid, fish, crustaceans and, during the breeding season, insects (Hutton 1991; Imber et al. 1995; Oliver 1974). It forages by skimming low over the ocean and snatching prey from the surface, or by diving from higher altitudes to take prey from below the surface (Hutton 1991; Prince & Morgan 1987). It may also engage in kleptoparasitism, or food piracy, from other species of petrel (Spear & Ainley 1993).

The Kermadec Petrel (western) is migratory/dispersive, breeds in colonies, but is usually solitary at sea (Baker et al. 2002; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990). It breeds on islands in Australian territory from October to May (Hutton 1991; Mathews 1928; McAllan et al. 2004; Wood 1988), and then disperses into subtropical, tropical and temperate waters of the Pacific Ocean, on both sides of the equator (Gould 1983; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Spear et al. 1992). It is a vagrant to the east coast of mainland Australia.

Birds arrive in October–December on Lord Howe Island and depart in April–June. Some birds depart Norfolk Island in July–October (Marchant & Higgins 1990). There is a report in August off Queensland, January, March, April and June in NSW (sightings and beachcast birds) and in April east of Tasmania (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002).

Global movement

The Kermadec Petrel (western) is present around Kermadec Island throughout the year and is a vagrant to mainland NZ. There have been several sightings offshore of Mexico, Peru and Chile west of 120° W, mainly from 5–20° N. The subspecies occurs regularly in Polynesia, occassionally off Hawaii, there are a few irregular records from Tonga and an old record from the Bismarck Archipelago (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The subspecies is recorded as far west as Japan and the Philippines (Tatara 2000; Warham 1996).

In the western part of its range most breeding occurs in summer, birds depart Raoul Island April–June, but on Meyer Island some leave as late as July–October (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Arrival on Raoul Island occurs between October–December and Meyer Island in late February–April (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Kermadec Petrel (western) is a conspicuous bird at sea and on land (DSEWPaC 2010l). It can be difficult to identify, especially at sea, because it is similar in appearance to the Herald Petrel (Pterodroma heraldica) and the Providence Petrel (Pterodroma solandri), which breeds on Lord Howe Island and on Phillip Island in the Norfolk Island group (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The recommended method to survey for the Kermadec Petrel (western) at sea is to conduct shipboard surveys. The recommended method to survey for the subspecies on land is to conduct area searches or transect-point surveys, in the breeding season, in known or potential colony sites, to locate nests. Because the subspecies is nocturnal, observers should return to the colony site at night and use a spotlight to locate active birds on the ground or in flight around the colony. Potential surveyors should note that the sites of breeding colonies are well documented. Surveys for beachcast birds might also provide some information about the dispersal of this subspecies, although such records are of limited use because ocean currents and winds may carry a dead bird beyond the limits of its normal distribution. The subspecies can be detected by sight or by its call (DSEWPaC 2010l).

Due to their small size, breeding populations of the Kermadec Petrel (western) in Australian territory are threatened by stochastic events (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Other threats include predation and longline fishing. Outside of Australia, the subspecies is threatened by predation, collection by humans and habitat degradation caused by the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Merton 1970; Schlatter 1984; Warham 1996).

Predation

Accidental introduction of the Cat (Felis catus) or the Black Rat (Rattus rattus) to either of the two predator-free breeding locations could have a significant impact to the subspecies in Australia (Baker et al. 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Priddel 1996). Predation by the Cat and the Black Rat is thought to have caused the extinction on Lord Howe Island (Fullagar & Disney 1972; Priddel 1996), declines on Henderson Island in the Picairn Isands and Raoul Island in the Kermadec Islands group (Merton 1970), and prevented establishment of breeding colonies on Norfolk Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000)

The Nankeen Kestrel (Falco cenchroides) is reported to prey on adults and the Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) is reported to 'destroy' nests on Phillip Island (Carlile 2007; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Longline fishing

Longline fishing is another potential threat to the Kermadec Petrel (western). It is not known if the Kermadec Petrel (western) suffers any mortality as a result of longline fishing (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but the threat is a known major threat to other species of petrel in Australian territory (Baker et al. 2002).

The following recovery actions have been recommended:

  • Census of the breeding population on Balls Pyramid and Phillip Island every three to five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
  • Conduct a study of the breeding cycle and collect data on breeding success and population demographics (Priddel 1996).
  • Eradicate the Black Rat from Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
  • Enhance control programs for the Black Rat and the Cat on Norfolk Island and monitor the effectiveness of these programs (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following recovery actions have been implemented:

  • Limited monitoring of the subpopulation that breeds on Phillip Island (Carlile 2007; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Priddel 2007).
  • Control programs for the Cat and the Black Rat on Norfolk Island (Baker et al. 2002; Environment Australia 2000; Garnett & Crowley 2000) and control programs for the Black Rat and the House Mouse (Mus musculus) are conducted on Lord Howe Island. The Cat has been eradicated from Lord Howe Island and the Rabbit has been eradicated from Phillip Island (Carlile 2007; Priddel 2007).
  • Planning is currently underway to develop a scheme to eliminate the Black Rat from Lord Howe Island (Lord Howe Island Board 2009; Priddel 2007; Wilkinson & Priddel 2009).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations is listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act. The Commonwealth's Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) long-term aim is to achieve zero bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species to bycatch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird bycatch within the AFZ) within five years by:

  • Mitigation - Effective measures will be put in place, both through legislative frameworks and fishing practices, to ensure the rate of seabird bycatch is continually reduced.
  • Education - Results from data analysis will be communicated throughout the community, stakeholder groups and international forums, and programs will be established that provide information and education to longline operators.
  • International Initiatives - Global adoption of seabird bycatch mitigation targets and methods will be pursued through international conservation and fisheries management fora.
  • Research and Development - Research into new mitigation measures and their development, trialling and assessment will be supported through the granting of individual permits and the potential certification of new measures to apply throughout a fishery.
  • Innovation - Potential individual accreditation of longline operators who are able to demonstrate `bird-friendly' fishing practices will be supported.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Kermadec Petrel (western) has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Kermadec Petrel (western) in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

Management documents relevant to the Kermadec Petrel (western) are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines Pterodroma neglecta neglectain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vn) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Pterodroma neglecta neglectain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vn) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Porphyrio porphyrio (Purple Swamphen) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Pterodroma neglecta neglectain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vn) [Internet].

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Baker, G.B., R. Gales, S. Hamilton & V. Wilkinson (2002). Albatrosses and petrels in Australia: a review of their conservation and management. Emu. 102:71-97.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Birdlife International (2006). Species factsheet: Pterodroma neglecta. [Online]. www.birdlife.org.

Bourne, W.R.P. & A.C.F. David (1983). Henderson Island, central south Pacific, and its birds. Notornis. 30:233-252.

Brooke, M. (2004). Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Brooke, M. de L. (1987a). The Birds of the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. Study Report 16. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge.

Brooke, M. de L. (1995). The breeding biology of the gadfly petrels Pterodroma spp. of the Pitcairn Islands: characteristics, population sizes and controls. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 56:213-231.

Brown, I. (1979). Birds of Ball's Pyramid, Lord Howe Island. Australian Birds. 13:41-42.

Carlile, N. (2007). Personal communication. Department of Environment and Conservation (New South Wales). February 2007.

Cheeseman, T.F. (1890). On the birds of the Kermadec Islands. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 23:216-233.

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott & J. Sargatal, eds. (1992). Handbook of the Birds of the World. In: Volume 1. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2000). Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Plans of Management. Canberra, ACT: DEH.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010l). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-birds.html.

Fullagar, P.J. (2002). Personal communication.

Fullagar, P.J. & H.J. de S. Disney (1975). The birds of Lord Howe Island: a report on the rare and endangered species. Bulletin of the International Council for Bird Preservation. 12:187--202.

Fullagar, P.J., J.L. McKean & G.F. van Tets (1972). Report on the birds. Appendix F. Environmental Survey of Lord Howe Island. Recher, H.F., & S.S. Clark, eds. A Report to the Lord Howe Island Board. Page(s) 55-72. Australian Museum, Sydney.

Garnett, M.C. (1984). Conservation of seabirds in the south Pacific region. In: Croxall, J.P., P.G.H. Evans, & R.W. Schreiber, eds. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. Page(s) 547-558. International Council for Bird Preservation. Technical Publication 2. Paston Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Garnett, S., J. Szabo & G. Dutson (2011). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gould, P.J. (1983). Seabirds between Alaska and Hawaii. Condor. 85:286-291.

Gould, P.J. & W.B. King (1967). Records of four species of Pterodroma from the central Pacific Ocean. Auk. 84:591-594.

Heather, B.D. & H.A. Robertson (1997). The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hindwood, K.A. (1940). The birds of Lord Howe Island. Emu. 40:1-86.

Holmes, G. (1971). An Australian specimen of the Kermadec Petrel. Australian Bird Watcher. 4:30-31.

Holyoak, D.T. & J.-C. Thibault (1984). Contribution à l'étude des oiseaux de Polynésie Orientale. Mémoires du Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle Série A. 127.

Hutton, I. (1991). Birds of Lord Howe Island: Past and Present. Coffs Harbour, NSW: author published.

Imber, M.J., J.N. Jolly & M. de L. Brooke (1995). Pelagic food of three sympatric gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.) breeding on the Pitcairn Islands. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 56:233-240.

Iredale, T. (1914). The surface breeding petrels of the Kermadec Group. Ibis. (10) 2:423-436.

Jenkins, J. (1970). Black-capped and other petrels near the Kermadecs. Notornis. 17:130-131.

Lord Howe Island Board (2009). Draft Lord Howe Island Rodent Eradication Plan. Lord Howe Island Board, Lord Howe.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Mathews, G.M. (1928). The Birds of Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands and the Australasian South Polar Quadrant. H.F. & G. Witherby, London.

Mayr, E., & G.W. Cottrell (Eds) (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1. Second Edition. Massachusetts, USA: Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge.

McAllan, I.A.W., B.R. Curtis, I. Hutton & R.M. Cooper (2004). The birds of the Lord Howe Island Group: a review of records. Australian Field Ornithology. 21:1-82.

Merton, D.V. (1970). Kermadec Islands expedition reports: a general account of birdlife. Notornis. 17:147-199.

Murphy, R.C. (1936). Oceanic Birds of South America. American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Oliver, W.R.B. (1974). New Zealand Birds. Wellington, Reed.

Powlesland, R.G. (1983). Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1981. Notornis. 30:125-135.

Powlesland, R.G. (1989). Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1986 and a review of Pachyptila species recoveries since 1960. Notornis. 36:125--140.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterodroma neglecta neglecta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 20 Sep 2014 13:16:52 +1000.