Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Diomedea exulans antipodensis
Listed marine as Diomedea antipodensis
Listed migratory - Bonn as Diomedea antipodensis
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) [1073].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Diomedea exulans antipodensis.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea antipodensis.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea antipodensis.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea antipodensis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea exulans antipodensis.
 
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Diomedea antipodensis
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Diomedea antipodensis antipodensis
Scientific name Diomedea exulans antipodensis [82269]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Robertson & Warham, 1992
Reference  
Other names Diomedea antipodensis [64458]
Diomedea antipodensis antipodensis [82268]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

International: Listed as Vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Redlist of Threatened Species.

Listed at the species level, Diomedea exulans, as Migratory under Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS/BONN).

Scientific name: Diomedea exulans antipodensis

Common name: Antipodean Albatross

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the Albatross group. The Antipodean Albatross is now recognised as the subspecies Diomedea exulans antipodensis according to ABRS (2009), Christidis and Boles (2008), and Dickinson (2003). As such, it is one of four subspecies within the species Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross.

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of Albatrosses and Petrels. This working group agreed to follow Brooke (2004) in splitting the Wandering Albatross complex and naming the Antipodean Albatross as the subspecies Diomedea antipodensis antipodensis.

This profile treats the Antipodean Albatross as the subspecies D. exulans antipodensis, following ABRS (2009), Christidis and Boles (2008), and Dickinson (2003).

Antipodean Albatrosses are difficult to distinguish from the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans). Adult Wandering Albatrosses are significantly larger, however juvenile Antipodean Albatrosses are very similar to juvenile Wandering Albatrosses. Breeding Antipodean Albatrosses have a mixed white and brownish plumage. Breeding females have chocolate-brown upperparts with white winding, wavy outlines on their back; a white face mask and throat; a white lower breast and belly with brown undertail-coverts; a white underwing with dark tips; and a broad brown breast-band. Breeding males are whiter than females but darker than the Wandering Albatross. Males and females have pink bills. Male Antipodean Albatrosses may be distinguished from other D. exulans subspecies by their darker cap and tail, and less white on their humeral flexure (BirdLife International 2009).

The Antipodean Albatross is endemic to New Zealand, however forages widely in open water in the south-west Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean and the Tasman Sea, notably off the coast of NSW (Elliott & Walker 2005; Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Antipodean Albatross breeds on the New Zealand islands of Antipodes Island, Campbell Island, Pitt Island and the Auckland Islands (BirdLife 2009; DEWHA 2009k; Elliott & Walker 2005; Environment Australia 2001f).

Data from satellite tracking indicate that birds from the Auckland Islands forage mostly west of New Zealand over the Tasman Sea and south of Australia, while those from Antipodes Island forage east of New Zealand in the South Pacific, as far as the coast of Chile, and have a larger overall range (BirdLife 2009).

The current extent of occurence of Antipodean Albatrosses is estimated to be 37 400 000 km², while the estimated area of occupancy of breeding birds is 670 km² (BirdLife International 2009).

Global population
Elliott and Walker (2005) estimated that approximately 11 500 pairs of Antipodean Albatrosses breed each year, translating to a total of approximately 15 100–17 300 breeding pairs accounting for their typical biennial breeding pattern.

An estimated 5150 pairs breed each year on Antipodes Island (Elliott & Walker 2005; Walker & Elliott 2005), less than six on Campbell Island (Gales 1998) and a single pair nested on Pitt Island in the Chatham Island group in 2005 (C. Miskelly, pers. comm., cited in Elliott & Walker 2005). For the Auckland Island group, in 1997, 72 pairs bred on Auckland Island, 352 on Disappointment Island and 6993 on Adams Island (Walker & Elliott 1999).

After a period of significant decline in the 1970s and 1980s, the Antipodes Island population has been increasing at a rate of about 3% per annum (Elliot & Walker 2005). The Campbell Island population has been stable at low numbers (Taylor 2000a, cited in DEWHA 2009k) for at least three decades. The Adams Island population was estimated at 13 000 pairs in the 1970s; however, this was a poor quality estimate and it is uncertain whether it represents an accurate indication of the decrease in the population (K. Walker pers. comm., in Gales 1998). In 2005 the Auckland Islands population was assessed as stable by Elliott and Walker (2005).

BirdLife International (2009) note that in 1998, it was estimated that there were approximately 39 000 mature individuals in the total population. However, they also indicate that recent estimates put this at 25 260 mature individuals.

The Antipodean Albatross is marine, pelagic and aerial. It rarely enters the belt of icebergs region of Antarctica (Hicks 1973), but in late summer, it may approach the edge of pack-ice (Darby 1970). It sleeps and rests on ocean waters when not breeding.

The Antipodean Albatross nests in open patchy vegetation, such as among tussock grassland or shrubs on ridges, slopes and plateaus (BirdLife International 2009; Warham & Bell 1979). On Antipodes Island, they nest in relatively uniform densities, but avoid areas of tall vegetation on steep coastal slopes, or amongst the tall ferns on poorly drained parts of the peaks near the island's centre (Walker & Elliott 2005).

Antipodean Albatrosses are: long lived at greater than 40 years; first breed between 7–19 years old; and may produce a single chick every two to three years (Elliott & Walker 2005; Walker & Elliott 2005). Nests are built in very loose colonies estimated to be 26 nests per 10 000 m² on Antipodes Island (Warham & Bell 1979). The peak arrival time at colonies on Antipodes Island is in late November and early December. Females lay from January at Antipodes Island and February at Campbell Island.

Fledglings on Campbell Island depart between late December and February (Bailey & Sorensen 1962), while fledglings on Antipodes Island depart between the end of January and mid March the following year (Warham & Bell 1979). The average annual survival over 10 years was 96% (Walker & Elliott 2005; Walker et al. 2002) and productivity over 11 years (1994–2005) averaged 0.74 chicks per nesting pair.

For the Auckland Islands population, pairs begin returning to the colonies from December. Females usually lay from late December to early February (Walker & Elliott 1999). The egg is incubated for 80 days before it hatches in about late March and the chick fledges the following year between January and February (Bailey & Sorensen 1962). Breeding success was 64% during the 1989–90 breeding season (P. Dilks pers. comm., in Gales 1993) and between 1991 and 2001, 61–78%, averaging 63% annually (Walker & Elliott 1999, 2002).

Birds that fail in their nesting attempt during, or soon after, incubation usually return to breed in the following season, but most successful breeders, and those that fail after incubation, usually wait at least a year before attempting to breed again (Walker & Elliott 2005).

The Antipodean Albatross feeds primarily on cephalopods, fish and crustaceans (BirdLife International 2009; Gales 1998).

Large seabirds, such as Albatrosses, feed on or close to the surface of the water. Their foraging behaviours, such as flying long distances to search for food, following boats, feeding aggressively on offal and diving for baits, make them susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (AGDEH 2006q).

Antipodean Albatrosses are migratory and disperse over the Tasman Sea and South Pacific Ocean as far as the coast of South America during the non-breeding period (Warham & Bell 1979) following weather systems, in order to exploit food resources (Gales 1998; Nicholls et al. 1997). Between each nesting cycle, adults that fail to breed before June are usually absent from their colonies for around 5–12 months. Those that fail to breed after June remain absent from their colonies for 12–17 months (Tickell 1968).

Satellite tracking data taken between 1994 and 2004 showed that birds from the Antipodes Island population forage mainly in the Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand, and the range of non-breeding birds was larger than that of breeders (Walker & Elliott 2006). Non-breeding males had the largest range, foraging off the coast of Chile, Antarctica and in the tropical South Pacific. They preferred to forage at the outer edge of shelves and over seamounts, particularly where there were strong currents or eddies and productivity was enhanced, as well as over deep water. Individuals of all stages of maturity preferred large foraging areas (Walker & Elliot 2006). They can travel great distances; a male flew 8000km to Chile in 17 days (Nicholls et al. 1996, 2000, cited in DEWHA 2009k).

For the Auckland Islands population, males and females appear to utilise different foraging areas. The females tend to frequent the Tasman Sea in the vicinity of 40° S, while the males either disperse westwards at lower latitudes or travel north-east towards the mid-Pacific Ocean (Elliot et al. 1995).

Distinctiveness
In the field, it may be difficult to distinguish the Antipodean Albatross from the Wandering Albatross (D. exulans), other subspecies of the Wandering Albatross, and from the Amsterdam Albatross (D. amsterdamensis) (BirdLife International 2009). Wandering Albatrosses are significantly larger, and male Antipodean Albatrosses may be distinguished from other Wandering Albatross subspecies by their darker cap and tail, and less white on their humeral flexure. Bills of Antipodean Albatrosses lack the dark marks of the Amsterdam Albatross (BirdLife International 2009).

Longline fisheries
The primary threat to the Antipodean Albatross is drowning in longline fishing gear (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Walker & Elliott 2006). The study by Walker and Elliott (2006) found that 75% of the range of the Antipodean Albatross is likely to have overlaped with longline fisheries in the past 40 years, and since the 1990s, approximately 40% overlap. Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (AGDEH 2006q). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial bycatch mitigation measures. Therefore, birds breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ) are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside the AFZ (Environment Australia 2001f).

Other fisheries
Although Walker and Elliott (2006) found there is substantial range overlap with longline fisheries over Antipodean Albatrosses' full dispersal range, currently there is little longline fishing for tuna near their breeding islands. There are however, significant demersal and trawl fisheries on both the Campbell Shelf and the Chatham Rise. The high densities of Antipodean Albatrosses around the Auckland and Antipodes Islands means these are areas where even a small amount of fishing could result in significant losses of birds, particularly if fishing was conducted during the courting and hatching period in late summer when birds forage near the islands.

Trolling, trailing a line with baited hooks, for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is another potential threat (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998).

Litter ingestion
Hook and plastic ingestion also potentially threaten the Antipodean Albatross. Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (Environment Australia 2001f). Walker and Elliott (2006) note that there have been occasional reports of Antipodean Albatrosses foraging on discards from longline fishing boats operating in shelf waters of the Chatham Rise, and that fisheries litter (hooks, nylon braid, plastic bags, fresh food scraps) are often found in chick regurgitations on both Adams and Antipodes Islands. This can potentially impact on breeding success because the large amounts of fisheries litter consumed chicks can lead to their poor condition and death.

Other threats
The Antipodean Albatross may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the AFZ, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality in Albatrosses (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998).

When migrating through the East Marine Region the Antipodean Albatross may also be at threat from a loss of food stock, ingestion or being caught in marine debris, oil spills, pollution and commercial fishing that occurs within the region (DEWHA 2009m). The species may also be shot by fishermen to protect bait or for sport (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998). An albatross chick is unlikely to survive if a parent is killed while it is foraging at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Predation by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) may be responsible for the near extirpation of the subspecies on Auckland Island, and are probably still taking eggs and chicks. Feral cats (Felis catus) may also kill some chicks (BirdLife International 2009).

Fishing mortality will probably decrease the global population of the species over the next three generations, around 75 years (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act. The Department of the Environment and Heritage developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q). The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird bycatch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird bycatch within the AFZ) within five years by:

  • Mitigation - Effective measures will be put in place, both through legislative frameworks and fishing practices, to ensure the rate of seabird bycatch is continually reduced.
  • Education - Results from data analysis will be communicated throughout the community, stakeholder groups and international forums, and programs will be established that provide information and education to longline operators.
  • International Initiatives - Global adoption of seabird bycatch mitigation targets and methods will be pursued through international conservation and fisheries management fora.
  • Research and Development - Research into new mitigation measures and their development, trialling and assessment will be supported through the granting of individual permits and the potential certification of new measures to apply throughout a fishery.
  • Innovation - Potential individual accreditation of longline operators who are able to demonstrate `bird-friendly' fishing practices will be supported.

The long-term aim is to achieve zero bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened Albatross and Petrel species.

The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts is updating the National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2009-2014 (DEWHA 2009s). The overall objective of the recovery plan is to ensure the long term survival and recovery of Albatross and Giant Petrel populations breeding and foraging in Australian jurisdiction by reducing or eliminating human related threats at sea and on land.

This will be achieved through the following specific objectives:

  • Research and monitor the biology, ecology and population dynamics of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels breeding within Australian jurisdiction to understand conservation status and to implement effective and efficient conservation measures.
  • Quantify and reduce land-based threats to the survival and breeding success of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels breeding within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Quantify and reduce marine-based threats to the survival and breeding success of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels foraging in waters under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Educate fishers and raise public awareness on the threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels.
  • Promote and develop favourable conservation status of Albatrosses and Giant Petrels globally in international conservation and fishing fora.

Walker and Elliott (2006) studied the overlap in the Antipodean Albatrosses' range with longline fisheries over oceanic zones broken up coarsely into 5º longitude/latitude squares. They propose that 42% of potential Antipodean Albatross and fisheries interactions can be avoided if longline fishing is excluded in the few 5º squares showing the highest interactions. Walker and Elliott (2006) further note that four of the six 5º squares lie within the Australian and New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zones, making regulatory action potentially possible.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000), the Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia 2001f) and the Draft National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2009-2014 (DEWHA 2009s) provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Antipodean Albatross.

The Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q), The East Marine Bioregional Plan, Bioregional Profile (DEWHA 2009m) and the Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (DEWHA 2009t) also provide management documentation.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Antipodean Albatross has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Antipodean albatross in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009k). Draft Background Paper: Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/pubs/albatrosses-giant-petrels-background.pdf.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009m). The East Marine Bioregional Plan, Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/east/pubs/bioregional-profile.pdf.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009s). Draft National Recovery Plan for Threatened Albatrosses and Giant Petrels 2009-2014.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009t). Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/marine-debris.html.

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Elliott, G. & K. Walker (2005). Detecting population trends of Gibson's and Antipodean wandering albatrosses. Notornis. 52:215-222.

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Gales, R. & N. Brothers (1995). Characteristics of seabirds killed in the Japanese tuna longline fishery in the Australian region. Document prepared for the first meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Ecologically Related Species Working Group, 18-20 December 1995, Wellington, New Zealand. CCSBT-ERS/95.

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Walker, K. & G. Elliott (1999). Population changes and biology of the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans gibsoni at the Auckland Islands. Emu. 99:239-247.

Walker, K. & G. Elliott (2002). Monitoring Antipodean wandering albatross, 2000/2001. DOC Science International Series. 79:28p. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation.

Walker, K. & G. Elliott (2005). Population changes and biology of the Antipodean wandering albatross (Diomedea antipodensis). Notornis. 52:206-214.

Walker, K. & G. Elliott (2006). At-sea distribution of Gibson's and Antipodean wandering albatrosses, and relationships with longline fisheries. Notornis. 53:265-290.

Warham, J. & B.D. Bell (1979). The Birds of Antipodes Island, New Zealand. Notornis. 26:121-169.

Weimerskirch, H. & J. Jouventin (1998). Changes in population size and demographic parameters of six albatross species in French sub-Antarctic islands. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 84-91. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea exulans antipodensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 14:17:09 +1000.