Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche bulleri
Listed marine as Thalassarche bulleri
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche bulleri
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche bulleri.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche bulleri.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea bulleri.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche bulleri.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche bulleri.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 181 - Nine Threatened Seabirds (Holliday, I., 2003c) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Thalassarche bulleri
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea bulleri
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Thalassarche bulleri
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Near Threatened (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Thalassarche bulleri [64460]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Rothschild, 1893)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Diomedea bulleri [1068]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Buller's Albatross, Thalassarche bulleri, under Australian and State Government legislation and international conventions, is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable, Marine and Migratory under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

South Australia: Listed as Vulnerable under the name Diomedea bulleri under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Victoria: Listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarentee Act 1988.

International: Listed as Near Threatened under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species 2009.

Listed under Appendix I under the family Diomedeidae under the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Listed under Appendix II under the name Diomedea bulleri of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS: Bonn Convention).

Scientific name: Thalassarche bulleri

Common name: Buller's Albatross

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. This profile follows the taxonomy applied by Robertson and Nunn (2007), Dickinson (2003), the Australian Fauna Directory (AFD 2007) and Christidis and Boles (2008) where Buller's Albatross is treated as a full species under Thalassarche, the medium-sized albatross genus.

Previously, some authorities recognised two subspecies: Buller's Albatross (Thalassarche bulleri bulleri, currently known as T. bulleri) and the Pacific Albatross (T. b. platei, currently known as T. bulleri nov., T. sp. nov. or T. platei)) (Christidis & Boles 2008; Marchant & Higgins 1990). The status of the Pacific Albatross, which breeds on Three Kings and Chatham Islands, is uncertain and needs further work (Christidis & Boles 2008). Research has found the type specimen of the Pacific Albatross to be a juvenile Buller's Albatross (Christidis & Boles 2008).

Buller's Albatross is a lightly built albatross that is 76–80 cm long and has a wingspan of 200–213 cm (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Males are slightly larger than females. The bill is long and slender, with striking black and yellow colouration: yellow on the top and bottom of the bill, and black on the sides. They have a light grey head, prominent white or silvery-white forcap and a dark area in front of the eyes (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The underparts are very pale grey, with a wide black margin on the leading edge of the wing, a narrow black margin on the trailing edge and white in-between (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

Buller's Albatross breed in New Zealand (Snares, Solander and Chatham Islands), but are regular visitors to Australian waters. They are frequently seen off the coast from Coffs Harbour, south to Tasmania and west to Eyre Peninsula (Blakers et al. 1984; Stahl et al. 1998), however, some of these birds may be the Pacific Albatross (Environment Australia 2001f). Buller's Albatross are most common off south-east Tasmania between January–April (Environment Australia 2001f).

As Buller's Albatross is a seasonal visitor and does not breed in Australia, it is difficult to estimate extent of occurrence or area of occupancy.

Buller's Albatross is a New Zealand resident, breeding on Snares and Solander Islands (Environment Australia 2001f). During the breeding season, the highest concentrations of Buller's Albatross occur over the shelf and slope waters off southern New Zealand (Stahl et al. 1998). Individuals generally remain near the breeding sites but, even when breeding, may cross the Tasman Sea. Non-breeding birds probably disperse to oceanic subtropical waters of the western South Pacific, or the Humboldt Current off the western South American coast (Stahl et al. 1998).

The total breeding population has been estimated at 11–14 000 pairs, or about 50–55 000 birds in total (Environment Australia 2001f; Sagar & Stahl 2005). More than three quarters of breeding birds occur in the Snares Islands population, with the remainder from Solander and Little Solander Islands (Cooper et al. 1986; Sagar et al. 1994). An increase in breeding pairs has been observed since 1990 on Snares Island, however, this may be the result of an improved survey method (Sagar & Stahl 2005).

It has been estimated that the size of the global population and, therefore, the number of individuals visiting Australian waters could decrease substantially as the result of fishing bycatch mortality (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The breeding colonies of Buller's Albatross have been studied consistently since the 1960s (Sagar & Stahl 2005).

Buller's Albatross are marine and pelagic, inhabiting subtropical and subantarctic waters of the southern Pacific Ocean (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Specific habitat requirements are poorly known, but they have been observed in association with fishing boats close inshore and over waters 180–360 m deep in New Zealand (Robertson & Jenkins 1981; Secker 1969). This species does not appear to be as strongly associated with fishing boats as other albatrosses (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

In Australia, Buller's Albatross are seen over inshore, offshore and pelagic waters. They appear to congregate over currents where water temperature exceeds 16 °C (Blaber 1986).

Breeding habitat of Buller's Albatross occurs on subtropical and subantarctic islands and rock stacks in the New Zealand region. Nests are made in a range of inland habitats including:

  • bare substrate or fern and tussock covered cliffs, slopes or ridges
  • open grassy meadows
  • summit plateaus under Olearia forest (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Like most albatross, Buller's Albatross form tight pair bonds and mate for life (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Arrival at breeding grounds occurs in mid-December with males generally arriving first. Breeding occurs between December–October (Marchant & Higgins 1990). This species breeds colonially, with groups of 2–12 (generally less than 20), irregularly scattered nests at densities of about 1 nest/m². Egg laying occurs over an eight week period, between January–February. Incubation lasts for 26 days and most young fledge by September (Marchant & Higgins 1990). No information is available on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality of this species.

The ground-nesting behaviour of Buller's Albatross make them vulnerable to predation by introduced animals such as Rats (Rattus rattus) and Cats (Felis catus), and to habitat disturbance caused by feral Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), feral Goats (Capra hircus) and feral Pigs (Sus scrofa).

Buller's Albatross feeds mostly on squid, supplemented by fish, krill and tunicates (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Buller's Albatross probably takes food by surface-siezing, although they have been recorded following fishing boats as well as diving to 10 m into swarming euphausiids at Snares Island. Most feeding has been observed during the day (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The movement patterns of Buller's Albatross are poorly known. It is thought that breeding adults may move locally, while pre-breeders move over the Humboldt Current between eastern Australia and western South America (Marchant & Higgins 1990). After fledging, most young leave the breeding grounds in September–October, returning when sexually mature (interval unknown). Most breeding individuals arrive at the breeding grounds on Snares Island between November–December (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels (Environment Australia 2001f) identified incidental catch during longline fishing operations, competition with fisheries for marine resources and marine pollution as the biggest threats to Buller's Albatross populations in Australian waters. When migrating through the East Marine Region, Buller's Albatross may be at threat from a loss of food stock, ingestion or being caught in marine debris, oil spills, pollution and commercial fishing that occurs within the region (DEWHA 2009m).

Incidental catch during longline fishing operations
Longline fishing has been identified as the primary threat currently affecting albatross (Gales 1998). The two main forms of mortality that affect albatross are bycatch during line-setting, and ingestion of (discarded) fishing hooks.

Incidental bycatch during line-setting
Since the 1950s longline fishing fleets have expanded into every major oceanic sector to the point that most individual albatrosses are likely to interact with longline fishing vessels at some stage in their lives. During line-setting, baits attached to hooks are paid out from the stern of the ship. Albatross habitually follow fishing vessels and aggressively compete for baits. In doing so, birds risk getting hooked on the lines and being drawn underwater to drown (Alexander et al. 1997).

Ingestion of fishing hooks
Albatross captured on longline fishing hooks may survive the hauling process, but retain the long-line hooks, causing death or disability (Brothers 1991; Nel & Nel 1999). Presumably, most instances of hook ingestion occur as a result of the processing procedures (notably the discarding of hooked fish heads by factory crew) undertaken on non-Australian and/or illegal demersal longlining vessels. Occasionally, fishing gear is regurgitated to chicks, resulting in chick-death (Environment Australia 2001f). The frequency of longline hooks being regurgitated at South Georgia nest sites of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) and Black-browed Albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris) had reportedly increased six-fold in the 1990s (Cooper 1995; Huin & Croxall 1996). Since almost all albatross species have been recorded on longline hooks, it is very likely that most, or all, albatross species suffer from swallowing fishing equipment (Environment Australia 2001f).

Competition with fisheries for marine resources
The progressive degradation of the marine habitat, particularly the global over-extraction of marine resources, may have serious long-term effects on the status of albatross (Croxall & Gales 1998). Seabird populations have declined through direct competition with fisheries for prey (Croxall & Gales 1998; Environment Australia 2001f). The ecological sustainability of fisheries is crucial to albatross (Environment Australia 2001f).

Marine pollution
Organochlorines and heavy metals degrade very slowly in the environment. These chemical contaminants are retained by organisms and become concentrated in the tissues of higher-order feeders. Consequently, top order predators, such as albatross, may build-up hazardous levels of synthetic chemicals in their tissue. Furthermore, because albatross are a long-lived and typically highly dispersive species, they have even greater opportunity to accumulate high levels of chemical contaminants (Environment Australia 2001f). Elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants can have deleterious population level effects through diminished reproductive success caused by eggshell thinning, embryo non-viability and offspring deformities (Croxall et al. 1984; Ludwig et al. 1998).

In addition, sea-jettisoned marine debris can impact upon albatross in two ways: through ingestion or via entanglement (Huin & Croxall 1996). Many albatross species ingest plastic and other marine debris that have a wide range of lethal or sub-lethal effects. The debris can cause physical damage, perforation, mechanical blockage or impairment of the digestive system, resulting in starvation. Some plastics are also a source of toxic pollutants, which are released into the blood stream (Ryan 1988a; Ryan et al. 1988). The subsequent reduction in fitness can lower the bird's ability to reproduce, catch prey and/or avoid predation (Fry et al. 1987; Sileo et al. 1990).

A substantial number of mitigation measures for reducing the impacts of threatening processes on Buller's Albatross are outlined in the National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001–05 (Environment Australia 2001f). Specific objectives include:

  • Quantify and reduce the threats to the survival of albatross within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Quantify and reduce the threats to the foraging habitat of albatross within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Educate fishers and promote public awareness of the threats to albatross.
  • Achieve substantial progress towards global conservation of albatross in international conservation and fishing fora.
  • Assess and revise the albatross recovery plan as necessary (Environment Australia 2001).

There are a number of published studies regarding Buller's Albatross from Sagar and Stahl (2005), Stahl and Sagar (2006, 2006a), Sagar and colleagues (1994, 2000, 2002, 2005), Stahl and colleagues (1998) and Phillips and colleagues (2004)

The following management plans may have recovery actions relevant to Buller's Albatross:

  • The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000)
  • National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels (Environment Australia 2001f)
  • Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or By-Catch) of Seabirds during Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q)
  • Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (DEWHA 2009t)
  • Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares (DEWHA 2009u)
  • The East Marine Bioregional Plan, Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region (DEWHA 2009m).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

Alexander, K., G. Robertson & R. Gales (1997). The incidental mortality of albatrosses in longline fisheries. Tasmania: Australian Antarctic Division.

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2007). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/index.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Blaber, S.J.M. (1986). The distribution and abundance of seabirds south-east of Tasmania and over the Soela seamount during April 1985. Emu. 86:239-244.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Brothers, N. (1991). Albatross mortality and associated bait loss in the Japanese longline fishery in the Southern Ocean. Biological Conservation. 55:255-268.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Cooper, J.M. (1995). Fishing hooks associated with albatrosses at Bird Island, South Georgia, 1992/1993. Marine Ornithology. 23:17-21.

Cooper, W.J., C.M. Miskelly, K. Morrison & R.J. Peacock (1986). Birds of the Solander Islands. Notornis. 33:77-89.

Croxall, J.P. & R.I. Gales (1998). An assessment of the conservation status of albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 46-65. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche bulleri in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:38:58 +1000.