Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche cauta steadi
Listed marine as Thalassarche steadi
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche steadi
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto) [64697].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche cauta steadi.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche steadi.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche steadi.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche steadi.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche cauta steadi.
 
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Thalassarche steadi
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Thalassarche steadi
Scientific name Thalassarche cauta steadi [82344]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Falla, 1933)
Reference  
Other names Thalassarche steadi [64462]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

New South Wales: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Tasmania: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Victoria: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Scientific name: Thalassarche cauta steadi

Common Name: White-capped Albatross

This profile takes the taxonomy applied by Dickinson (2003), the Australian Fauna Directory (AFD 2007) and Christidis and Boles (2008) where the the White-capped Albatross is treated as a subspecies of the Shy Albatross (Thalassarche cauta).

Significant authorities (including the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, of which Australia is a signatory, and Birdlife International) treat the White-capped Albatross as a separate species (i.e. Thalassarche steadi) following Robertson and Nunn (1997). Robertson and Nunn (1997) are responsible for the widely accepted use of Thalassarche for medium sized albatross, with Diomedea still used for large species, such as the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans).

Morphometric differentiation of the Shy Albatross and White-capped Albatross is difficult, especially in juveniles. Double and colleagues (2003) have developed comparative measurements to assist in the classification of this species.

The White-capped Albatross has a grey back and wings; faint or absent greyish wash on cheeks; and a white head, neck and rump. The underwing is mostly white with a narrow black margin and a small dark notch at the wing-pit. The bill is pale greyish straw colour, with a yellowish tip (Pizzey & Knight 1999). There is also a thin black eyebrow and a delicate, grey wash over the face.

The White-capped Albatross is probably common off the coast of south-east Australia throughout the year. This species is similar to the Shy Albatross and can be difficult to identify, especially at sea and as a juvenile (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1993; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Whilst there has been no specific study, the species has been caught on longline hooks off Tasmania (Gales 1993). It has been observed that juveniles are rare in New Zealand waters, being more common off south-east Australia and South Africa (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Breeding colonies occur on islands south of New Zealand (Double et al. 2003).

The extent of occurrence of the White-capped Albatross in Australian waters is estimated to be 5 000 000 km² with an area of occupancy of 5000 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). These estimates are considered to be of medium reliability. Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are thought to be stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Breeding colonies of the White-capped Albatross occur on a number of separate islands. The largest breeding colony occurs on Disappointment Island (70–80 000 pairs), with smaller colonies on Auckland Island (3000 pairs), Adams Island (100 pairs), Bollon's Island (Antipodes Islands group) (100 pairs) and Forty-fours Islands (Chatham Islands group) (one pair) (Birdlife International 2000; Croxall & Gales 1998; Double et al. 2003; Environment Australia 2001f).

White-capped Albatrosses are the most abundant albatross in all New Zealand shelf waters, except on the Chatham Rise and Bounty Platform (displaced by Salvin's Albatross (Thalassarche cauta salvini)) and the Campbell Shelf (displaced by the Campbell Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris impavida)) (Environment Australia 2001f).

The global population of the White-capped Albatross is estimated at 70 000–85 000 breeding pairs (Double et al. 2003). Garnett and Crowley (2000) estimate that the total population may be as high as 150 000 birds and Environment Australia (2001f) estimate a total population of 350 000–375 000 individuals. In 2000, it was predicted that the number of individuals of this species may reduce by 20% by 2020 (Garnett & Crowley 2000), however, it is unknown whether this trend has held as threat abatement measures, especially for seabird bycatch, have been implemented. The monitoring of longline and trawl mortalities is difficult to assess due to limited observer coverage and the similarity of this subspecies and the Shy Albatross (especially in Australian fisheries) (Baker et al. 2007).

Despite breeding on a number of separate islands, the White-capped Albatross occurs as a single population (Garnettt & Crowley 2000). The number of White-capped Albatrosses is declining as a result of interactions with fishing vessels and equipment (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The generation length of the White-capped Albatross is estimated to be 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-capped Albatross is a marine species and occurs in subantarctic and subtropical waters. It reaches tropical areas associated with the cool Humboldt Current off South America (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It is unknown what sea-surface temperatures this subspecies prefers; however, in the southern Indian Ocean it has been observed in waters of 6.4–13.5 °C (Rand 1963).

The White-capped Albatross has been noted in shelf-waters around breeding islands and over adjacent rises. During the non-breeding season, birds have been observed over continental shelves around continents. The species occurs both inshore and offshore (Cox 1976; Falla 1937; Marchant 1977) and enters harbours and bays (Jehl 1973). The species is scarce in pelagic waters (Falla 1937; Jehl 1973). Birds gather to scavenge at commercial fishing grounds.

Birds nest on slopes vegetated with tussock and succulents on Auckland Island (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The breeding biology of the White-capped Albatross is poorly known and there have been no detailed studies. Pairs are thought to breed annually and colonially (Environment Australia 2001f). Unlike most other albatrosses, egg laying is delayed until mid-November, so hatching does not occur until February. The young fledge in spring (mid-August). Adults remain near the colony during the breeding season, and possibly throughout the entire year (Robertson 1985).

Although the Shy Albatross and the White-capped Albatross are closely related, there is no gene flow between the taxa (Abbott & Double 2003a, 2003b).

The White-capped Albatross probably has a diet of inshore cephalopods (squid) and fish, but this has not been studied (Gales 1993; Marchant & Higgins 1990). This subspecies takes food from the surface, or just below, and has been observed diving to depths of 2+ m for offal (Nicholls 1979). The birds scavenge at commercial feeding grounds (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

It is thought that adult White-capped Albatrosses remain near the colony during the breeding season, and possibly throughout the entire year (Environment Australia 2001f). This subspecies flies low to moderately high, using updraft from wave fronts for lift (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Thompson and Sagar (2008) present information regarding the movement and foraging patterns of a number of individuals around New Zealand. Their study showed that some birds migrate to eastern Bass Strait and some to the areas around South Africa. Similarly, they suggest that the White-capped Albatross is far more mobile than the comparatively sedentary Shy Albatross (Thompson & Sagar 2008). White-capped Albatross foraging and movement activity has been monitored around the Benguela Upwelling System in waters off western South Africa and Namibia (Petersen et al. 2008).

Morphometric differentiation of the Shy Albatross and White-capped Albatross is difficult, especially in juveniles and adults at sea. For captured individuals, genetic differentiation, if available, is most useful (100% accurate) and classification (based on wing chord, maximum head width and bill measurements) is less useful but is able to discriminate between the species (80% accurate) and sex of the birds (100% accurate) (Double et al. 2003). Although there is statistical variation between these characterisitics, all measurements overlap between the species and morphometric speciation between juveniles is very difficult (Double et al. 2003).

Marchant and Higgins (1990) suggest the White-capped Albatross varies from the Shy Albatross in having longer wings (> 600 mm compared to 550–560 mm); larger average measurements (e.g. bill, tarsus, tail, toe); greyish wash on cheeks that is faint or absent (rather than prominent); white cap that is much less pronounced; and bill that is more brightly coloured, almost uniform, bluish-horn except for the pale yellow tip. Conversely, Marchant and Higgins (1990) also suggest that photos of White-capped Albatross from the Auckland Islands have seemingly identical bills to the Shy Albatross.

The White-capped Albatross is threatened on Auckland Island by pig predation at nests (Croxall & Gales 1998; Environment Australia 2001f).

The White-capped Albatross is threatened by drowning in longline fishing gear and collision with trawl warps (steel rope connecting trawl gear to vessel) while foraging (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1993, 1998). The partitioning (and quantification) of Shy Albatross and White-capped Albatross longline deaths is very difficult as their appearence is very similar (Gales et al. 2000). The mobile nature of juvenile White-capped Albatrosses exposes them to many fisheries, however, it has been suggested that most deaths occur in South African, Namibian and New Zealand fisheries (Baker et al. 2007). One estimate suggests that 6850–7050 worldwide drownings occur annually and, due to its far greater movement range, this species is far more likely to drown due to fishing rather than the Shy Albatross (Baker et al. 2007). In Australian waters, it is estimated that less than ten White-capped Albatross drown annually (Baker et al. 2007).

When migrating through the East Marine Region the White-capped Albatross may threatened by reduced food stock, ingestion or being caught in marine debris, oil spills, pollution and commercial fishing that occurs within the region (DEW 2007a).

Garnett & Crowley (2000) report that the following actions have been undertaken to address the threats to the White-capped Albatross:

  • A threat abatement plan to minimise seabird bycatch has been prepared (AGDEH 2006q).
  • Seabird bycatch rates in the Australian Fishing Zone, and the success of mitigation measures, are monitored and analysed.
  • Mitigation techniques, especially to reduce bycatch, have been developed and are being assessed.
  • Measures known to be effective in mitigating seabird bycatch within the Australian Fishing Zone are promoted by legislation, a code of practice and education programs.
  • A recovery plan has been written (Environment Australia 2001f) and a recovery team is in place.

Future actions outlined by Garnett and Crowley (2000) include:

  • Develop genetic profiles to determine provenance of birds caught as bycatch.
  • Further reductions to at-sea threats.
  • Develop global agreement on conservation measures required.
  • Promotion of public awareness and conservation needs of albatrosses.

The following Commonwealth documents provide management outlines for the White-capped Albatross:

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The White-capped Albatross has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for white-capped albatross in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

Abbott, C.L. & M.C. Double (2003a). Phylogeography of Shy and White-capped Albatrosses inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: implications for population history and taxonomy. Molecular Ecology. 12:2747-2758.

Abbott, C.L. & M.C. Double (2003b). Genetic structure, conservation genetics, and evidence of speciation by range expansion in Shy and White-capped Albatrosses. Molecular Ecology. 12:2953-2962.

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2007). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/index.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Baker, G.B., M.C. Double, R. Gales, G.N. Tuck, C.L. Abbott, P.G. Ryan, S.L. Petersen, C.J.R. Robertson & R. Alderman (2007). A global assessment of the impact of fisheries-related mortality on shy and white-capped albatrosses: Conservation implications. Biological Conservation. 137(3):319-333.

Birdlife International (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK:.BirdLife International and Lynx Edicions.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Cox, J.B (1976). A review of the Procellariiformes occurring in South Australian waters. South Australian Ornithologist. 27:28-82.

Croxall, J.P. & R.I. Gales (1998). An assessment of the conservation status of albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 46-65. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) (2007a). Draft East Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region.

Dickinson, E.C., ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Page(s) 1039. London: Christopher Helm.

Double, M.C., R. Gales, T. Reid, N. Brothers & C.L. Abbott (2003). Morphometric comparison of Australian Shy and New Zealand White-capped Albatrosses. Emu. 103:287-294.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001f). National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/albatross/index.html.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche cauta steadi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Jul 2014 13:56:55 +1000.