Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche carteri
Listed marine as Thalassarche carteri
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche carteri
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Thalassarche chlororhynchos [66481].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche carteri.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2014 for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Marine bioregional plan for the South-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012z) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche carteri.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea chlororhynchos carteri.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche carteri.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 181 - Nine Threatened Seabirds (Holliday, I., 2003c) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Thalassarche carteri
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea chlororhynchos carteri
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Thalassarche carteri
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Thalassarche carteri
Scientific name Thalassarche chlororhynchos bassi [85249]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Mathews, 1912)
Reference  
Other names Thalassarche carteri [64464]
Diomedea chlororhynchos carteri [85250]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross, Thalassarche carteri, under Australian legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as a Vulnerable, Marine and Migratory species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999).

Scientific name: Thalassarche carteri

Common name: Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. The Yellow-nosed Albatross Diomedea chlororhynchos was previously thought contain two subspecies: One in the Indian Ocean (the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross: D. c. bassi) and another in the Atlantic (the Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross: D. c. chlororhynchos). Recently however, the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. This working group has agreed to follow Robertson and Nunn (1997) in resurrecting the historic generic name Thalassarche for medium sized albatrosses, and splitting the D. chlororhynchos complex into two species. Under this revised taxonomy Thalassarche chlororhynchos represents the Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross, while the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross is raised to full species status as Thalassarche carteri.

This taxonomy is not accepted by all authorities however, and the old name Diomedea chlororhynchos is still being used by some authors (Pizzey & Knight 1999). As such, some of the information contained within this profile refers to the Yellow-nosed Albatross, previously thought to contain both an Indian and an Atlantic sub-species (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The head and neck of the Yellow-nosed Albatross are white, with a small dusky patch before the eye, a narrow white line bordering the rear of the eye and extending beneath. They have a light grey wash across the cheeks and ear-coverts, which may be lost through wear.The rump and upper tail-coverts are white. The tail is grey, becomming darker with wear. The underwings are mostly white with inky-black wing-tips and narrow margins. The bill is glossy black with a distinctive, narrow bright yellow strip, becoming more orange over the hill ridge, and yellow again at the extreme tip of the bill. The isis is dark brown, and the legs and feet are blueish to pinkish-blue (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross forages mostly in the southern Indian Ocean where it is particularly abundant off Western Australia (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross occurs in the southern Indian Ocean. The species breeds on Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), Kerguelen Islands, Crozet Island, Amsterdam and St Paul Islands (France) (Gales 1998).

The current global population of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross is estimated at 160 000-180 000 individuals, with 36 500 pairs breeding annually (Gales 1998).

High adult and juvenile mortality has reduced the main breeding colony of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross on Amsterdam Island by approximately 30% since the early 1980s, with the decline continuing (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). A decrease in the population size of at least 20% has been recorded over the last three generations (45 years), and is likely to continue, as a result of fishing bycatch (Environment Australia 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant &Higgins 1990).

The generation length of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross is 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross is a marine bird, located in subtropical and warmer subantarctic waters (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross has been observed over waters of surface-temperature 10° to 23°C, but is most abundant over the warmer parts of the subtropical zone (Biermann & Voous 1950; Brown et al. 1975; Cooke & Mills 1972). In breeding and non-breeding seasons, the species concentrates over the productive waters of continental shelves, often at coastal upwellings and the boundaries of currents (Brown et al. 1975; Cooke & Mills 1972; Weimerskirch et al. 1985). Birds breeding south of the Subtropical Convergence may be pelagic and travel far to subtropical feeding grounds (Weimerskirch et al. 1986).

In the Australasian region, the species occupies inshore and offshore waters (Latham 1980; Storr 1964; Swanson 1983), particularly where there are calm seas and light winds (Cox 1973; Storr 1964). The birds fly low or at medium heights over the sea, using air currents rising off swells for lift (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross breeds on islands of the southern Indian Ocean. The southern limit of breeding may be determined by the distance to subtropical waters used for feeding (Weimerskirch et al. 1986).

The species nests on tussock-covered coastal cliffs and slopes, often in rocky situations (Grindley 1981; Weimerskirch et al. 1986). On Ile Amsterdam, the birds are confined to steeper slopes, nesting up to 800 m asl., on bare ground or among Poa or Scirpus (Jouventin et al. 1983) (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The age at first breeding of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross is probably five years (Jouventin et al. 1983).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross nests biennially in colonies (Environment Australia 1999), but little is known about their nesting biology. Adult birds arrive at Amsterdam Island in late August and there is a pre-breeding period of 15 to 20 days during which courtship and pair formation takes place (Richardson 1984). The length of pair-bond is possibly shorter than in other albatrosses, as birds remate and breed even if the partner of the previous season does not return (Jouventin et al. 1983).

The nest of this species is a cylindrical structure of mud, grass and moss, lined with grass, and is usually built by both adults (Serventy et al. 1971). It is usually located among thick Poa novarae or Scirpus nodosus on Amsterdam Island (Segonzac 1972), and on ledges of unvegetated rocky cliffs on the lee side of the Crozet Islands (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

A single egg is laid mid-September and is incubated by both sexes. There is no data on the length of shifts, but the total incubation period is 71 to 72 days (Jouventin et al. 1983). The eggs hatch in late November to early December (Serventy et al. 1971). Both parents guard the chick continually for the first three weeks and feed chicks until time of fledging in late March to mid-April (Environment Australia 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Jouventin et al. 1983; Higgins 1990).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross takes cephalopods (squid) and fish.

The species frequently follows fishing boats, leading to it being caught in considerable numbers on longline fishing gear (Cherel & Klages 1998; Klaer & Polacheck 1997; Weimerskirch et al. 1986).

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross is migratory. During the non-breeding period, movement is generally north, with all sightings north of 37°S in September (Jouventin et al. 1982). The recovery of banded birds from Ile Amsterdam suggests the movement of adults to the west coast of south-western Australia, with young birds, in particular, moving farther east (Jouventin et al. 1983; Weimerskirch et al. 1985).

In waters off southern Western Australia and South Australia the species is most abundant between March and May. Large numbers occur in the Tasman Sea, off southern NSW, in May to June, with adult birds first to arrive, then immatures (Barton 1979). Apparently, the species moves northwards along the coast, favouring inshore waters. The immature birds return south in September to October (Barton 1979; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

There is considerable and continuing population decline of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross as a result of its association with fishing boats. The most serious threat in Australian waters is probably drowning in longline fishing gear and collision with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers (Environment Australia 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Klaer & Polacheck 1997; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross has been identified as a conservation value in the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Indian yellow-nosed albatross in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the South-west (DSEWPaC 2012z) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions provide additional information.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Thalassarche carteri in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vr) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Shipping Lanes:Collision with shipping infrastructure Thalassarche carteri in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vr) [Internet].

Barton, D. (1979). Albatrosses in the western Tasman Sea. Emu. 79:31-35.

Biermann, W.H. & K.H. Voous (1950). Birds observed and collected during the whaling expeditions of the Willem Barensz in the Antarctic, 1946-47 and 1947-48. Ardea, Suppl. Page(s) 123.

Brown, R.G.B., F. Cooke, P.K. Kinnear & E.L. Mills (1975). Summer seabird distributions in Drake Passage, the Chilean fjords, and in southern South America. Ibis. 117:339-356.

Cherel, Y. & N. Klages (1998). A review of the food of albatrosses. In: G. Robertson & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 113-136. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Cooke, F. & E.L. Mills (1972). Summer distribution of pelagic birds off the coast of Argentina. Ibis. 114:245-251.

Cox, J.B (1973). The identification of the smaller Diomedea, and the status of the Diomedea. South Australian Ornithologist. 26:67-75.

Env. Aust (1999). Draft Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant Petrels. Environment Australia. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Gales, R. (1998). Albatross populations: status and threats. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 20-45. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Grindley, J.R. (1981). Observations of sea-birds at Marion and Prince Edward Islands in April and May (1973). In: Cooper, J., ed. Proceedings of the Symposium on Birds of the Sea and Shore 1979. Page(s) 169-188. Cape Town: African Seabird Group.

Jouventin, P., J-P Roux, J-C Stahl & H. Weimerskirch (1983). Biologie et frequence de reproduction chez l'albatros a bec jaune (Diomedea chlororhychos). Gerfaut. 73 (2):161-171.

Jouventin, P., J.L. Mougin, J.C. Stahl, J.A. Bartle & H. Weimerskirch (1982). Données préliminaires sur la distribution pélagique des oiseaux des T.A.A.F. Comite National Francais des Recherches Antarctiques. 51:427-436.

Klaer, N. & T. Polacheck (1997). By-catch of albatrosses and other seabirds by Japanese longline fishing vessels in the Australian Fishing Zone from April 1992 to March 1995. Emu. 97:150-167.

Latham, P.C.M. (1980). Yellow-nosed mollymawks in the Bay of Plenty. Notornis. 27:393-394.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Pizzey, G. & F. Knight (1999). The Graham Pizzey and Frank Knight Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Pymble, Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Richardson, M.E. (1984). Aspects of the ornithology of the Tristan da Cunha group and Gough Island, 1972-1974. Cormorant. 12:123-201.

Robertson, C.J.R. & G.B. Nunn (1997). Toward a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) pp. 413-19. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Segonzac, M (1972). Donnees recentes sur la faune des Iles Saint-Paul et Nouvelle Amsterdam. Oiseau Revue Fr. Orn. 42:Mar-68.

Serventy, D.L., V.N. Serventy & J. Warham (1971). The Handbook of Australian Seabirds. Sydney, NSW: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Storr, G.M. (1964). Zonation and seasonal occurrence of marine birds in the seas off Fremantle, Western Australia. Emu. 63:297-303.

Weimerskirch, H. & J. Jouventin (1998). Changes in population size and demographic parameters of six albatross species in French sub-Antarctic islands. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 84-91. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Weimerskirch, H., Jouventin, P. & Stahl, J-C (1986). Comparative ecology of six albatross species breeding on the Crozet Islands. Ibis. 128:195-213.

Weimerskirch, H., P. Jouventin, J.L. Mougin & J-C. Stahl (1985). Banding recoveries and dispersion of seabirds breeding in the French austral and Antarctic territories. Emu. 85:22-31.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche chlororhynchos bassi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 04:10:08 +1000.