Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Gastrolobium papilio
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Gastrolobium papilio (Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014di) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (29/04/2014).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Brachysema papilio.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Gastrolobium papilio.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Butterfly-Leafed Brachysema (Brachysema papilio) Interim Recovery Plan No. 85 (Phillimore, R., M. Soutar & V. English, 2001) [State Recovery Plan].
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Gastrolobium papilio
Scientific name Gastrolobium papilio [78415]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Crisp) G.Chandler & Crisp
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Systematic Botany 15(5): 698, fig. 129 (map) (2002).
Other names Brachysema papilio [64644]
Brachysema papilio Crisp ms. [67397]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium under Australian and State/Territory Government legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Gastrolobium papilio

Common name: Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium

Prior to the taxonomic revision of the genus Gastrolobium by Chandler and colleagues (2002), this species was known as Brachysema papilio or the Butterfly-leaved Brachysema.

This species is a shrub with wiry stems forming tangled clumps ascending to 1.5 m, often climbing through other shrubs (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b). The flowers are pale red to cream (Chandler et al. 2002; Williams et al. 2001).

The Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is endemic to southwestern Western Australia (Chandler et al. 2002). It is known only from one site east-south-east of Busselton on the northern edge of the Whicher Range (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b), and two translocated sites within the same locality.

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is endemic to Western Australia, where it is known from only one wild population in the Busselton area, approximately 200 km south of Perth. As the species is only known from a single population, the extent of occurrence is estimated to be the same as the area of occupancy, which is approximately 0.015 km². Including the two translocated subpopulations, the extent of occurrence is approximately 6 km². The computer program Arcview GIS and a dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each population) was used to determine the area of the polygon.

There is no data to indicate a past decline in extent of occurrence or occupancy, however there is evidence that 90% of it its associated habitat (Busselton Ironstone community) has been destroyed (English 1999c). More recently the population has suffered a 70% decline in the number of plants. The decline in numbers has not affected the area of occupancy.

It is possible that the extent of occurrence may decline in the future due to threatening processes.

The Interim Recovery Plan for this species (Phillimore et al. 2001) identified the need to translocate plants. A translocation of this species into two locations managed by DEC was undertaken in June 2001.

The species distribution is not considered severely fragmented as it is only known from a single location.

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium was first discovered in 1991 by G. J. Keighery during surveys of the southern Swan Coastal Plain. All other potential locations were subsequently surveyed in 1992-1993 (Gibson et al. 1994), but only the original population, in an area of State Forest southwest of Busselton, could be located. DEC District staff regularly monitor the known population.


Sub-population Survey History Number of Plants Recorded Condition
1a 02/11/2006
18/2/2005
26/6/2002
15/5/1998
12/6/1997
19/11/1996
02/9/1994
01/5/1993
40
40
20
100
150
50
20
50
unhealthy
poor
healthy
Undisturbed
Healthy
Healthy
Recently burnt
1b 02/11/2006
18/2/2005
26/6/2002
12/6/1997
19/11/1996
02/9/1994
01/5/1993
See1a
See 1a
20
see 1a
see 1a
see 1a
see 1a

Fairly good condition
2T 2005
2002
2001
26
59
328
Declining- no recruitment
3T 2005
2002
2001
25
29
52
Declining - no recruitment
(DEC 2007a)

The Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is known from a single natural population containing approximately 40 mature plants. This figure was estimated during the most recent population monitoring. It is difficult to determine the exact number of individuals as they tend to group together, therefore the actual number of individuals may be higher.

The natural population can be further divided into two smaller subpopulations, due to some plants being located 250 m east of the main subpopulation. However, during the most recent survey, data was not recorded in this manner.

Subpopulations are defined as geographically distinct groups that exchange little or no genetic material.

There are also two translocated subpopulations at two separate locations totaling 88 plants.

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium has recently suffered a severe decline in the number of plants from what appears to be drought-stress. This may be due to a reduction in the water table. In 2005, District staff noted that up to 70% of the plants from this population had died or were nearly dead. Most recent monitoring in 2006 reported that the population is slowly recovering due to the installation of a watering system and seedling recruitment has been noted. The watering system was only used for a short period of time after the drought event and is currently not in use. It is still operational if required in the future (DEC 2007a).

The species does not appear to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers.

All subpopulations are necessary for the species survival (DEC 2007a).

No subpopulations occur in the formal conservation reserve system. They do, however, occur in State Forest which is managed by DEC (DEC 2007a).

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium grow in shallow, peaty grey-brown sandy clay (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b) or very shallow red sandy-clay soil (Brown et al. 1998) over ironstone in winter-wet flats (Brown et al. 1998). Vegetation is a low open, mixed heath (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b) with Hakea aff. varia, sedges (Mesomelaena), Melaleuca and Stirlingia (Crisp 1995b).

DEC staff have noticed that the species can grow in the open, however the most viable and healthy plants are situated under a larger plant or overstorey. This suggests that they require some shade/protection from the elements. This was most noticed in the decline in health of a number of plants once the overstorey was lost (DEC 2007a).

The species grows on flat plains and winter wet areas.

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is located within one occurrence of the Endangered (EPBC Act) Busselton Ironstone Community or Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones Threatened Ecological Community (TEC). Five other listed (EPBC Act) threatened flora are associated with this particular occurrence of the TEC: Chamelaucium roycei ms (Vulnerable), Darwinia sp. Williamson (Endangered), Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa (Endangered), Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea (Vulnerable) and Petrophile latericola (Endangered). Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis occurs nearby (DEC 2007a).

Flowering for this species is variously reported as from October onwards (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b), from September to October (Brown et al. 1998) or from September to November (Williams et al. 2001). The fruiting period is unknown (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b), though it has been observed from late November to early January. A number of hot days will dry the fruit and they will almost pop open (i.e. dehisce), spreading seed, generally starting mid to late January (DEC 2007a).

After a wildfire burnt most of the population in 1993, plants regenerated from seed and rootstocks (Keighery 1995).

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium can be identified as a tangled bush growing to 1.5 m in height when amongst tall associated vegetation and low growing when in the open. Initially spindly, the plant becomes dense as it matures. The leaves are distinctively butterfly shaped, tipped with sharp points and grow to 20 mm wide. The flowers are pea-shaped, pale red to cream in colour and hang attractively in loose inflorescences at the end of the stems (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b; Williams et al. 2001).

Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium may be confused with the Broad-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium modestum) and with Gastrolobium praemorsum, which has similar leaves, but differs in having softer, herbaceous leaves with a paler marginal band in the leaf that contrasts with the darker leaf tissue. It can also be distinguished by different flowering times (Chandler et al. 2002; Crisp 1995b).

Surveys should focus on remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types during September to November (DEC 2007a).

The Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM, now DEC) Interim Recovery Plan (Phillimore et al. 2001) identified the main threats to this species as disease, fire, hydrological changes and weed invasion.

Clearing for agriculture has been extensive on the heavy soils on the eastern side of the Swan Coastal Plain, with some 97% of all vegetation in the area cleared historically (Keighery & Trudgen 1992). Clearing has massively impacted the Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone community type, with which Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is associated, and this community has suffered almost total destruction. In accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding for the protection of remnant vegetation on private land in the agricultural region of Western Australia (Commissioner for Soil and Land Conservation et al. 1997), new proposals to clear occurrences of this community would be subject to Environment Protection Authority assessment.

Changes to hydrology may in future become a threat to the population (Tille & Lantzke 1990c). Extensive clearing for agriculture in the area is likely to have caused an increase in surface runoff and recharge of the groundwater (Phillimore et al. 2001). Mining may also potentially lower the water table.

A mineral sands mine is situated within 70 m of the ironstone community in which the Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium occurs. As the adjacent mine site was being dewatered to enable mining in early March 2004, an artificial watering system was established to maintain the groundwater level and prevent plant deaths in the ironstone community. At the end of Summer 2004, there was noticeable stress in the community which was possibly attributed to drought or hydrological change. The vegetation at this site appeared to recover soon after rains. In early 2005 the adjacent mine pit was completely backfilled and there was a rapid response in water levels (DEC 2007a).

In February 2005 there was evidence of major stress of 90% of the vegetation. Immediate actions were commenced to determine the cause and lessen the impact on Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium. A sprinkler system was set up to water the plants in the area most affected by this stress event. About 70-80% of the plants within the community were showing signs of recovery by May 2005, unfortunately Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium did not respond to watering or rainfall (English 2005). The most recent monitoring in November 2006 estimated the population consisted of 40 mature individuals, 20 seedlings and 15 dead. The recruitment is a positive sign of the population recovering, however the watering system may need to be implemented in future to ensure survival of recruits (DEC 2007a).

Waterlogging and salinity will require monitoring. Hirschberg (1989) measured levels of salinity in the groundwater in the South West Capes area, and found the groundwater near the population ranged between 200-400 per litre total dissolved solids, which is reasonably fresh. Adjacent land development such as mining has the potential to alter hydrological processes and therefore to threaten the population (Phillimore et al. 2001).

There has been a continuing decline in the size of the single known population for some three to five years. The habitat appears to be drought prone during the summer months (DEC 2007a).

Weed invasion is currently a threat to the population around the margin of the remnant bush block in which it occurs. Deadly nightshade, flat and cape weed are encroaching from the northern and western boundaries. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of large amounts of fuel, which are produced annually by many grass weed species. Weed levels will be monitored (Phillimore et al. 2001). Edge effects have significantly increased since the stress event, likely to relate to falls in the water table, and weeds are encroaching at a higher rate than previously recorded (DEC 2007a).

Disease caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi (Pc) is known to exist in the habitat of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium, however, initial laboratory testing indicates the species has some degree of resistance. Even if the Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is resistant to the disease in situ, Phytophthora may have indirect impacts on the species through altering the composition and structure of the community. Such changes can result in altered levels of shade, soil moisture retention and competition and other factors. There have been deaths of Phytophthora indicator species including the Endangered (EPBC Act) species Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa in the habitat of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium and the protection of the community as a whole is considered a priority. It is also likely that canker (probably Armillaria luteobubalina) is present at the site (Phillimore et al. 2001).

Fire may affect the viability of the population. The Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium appears to regenerate from both seed and rootstock following fire. Too frequent fire could, however, deplete soil stored seed and reserves held in rootstocks of individual plants, and also exacerbate the impact of disease on the habitat. A lack of fire may also have a long-term impact on the species as old plants senesce and are not replaced (Philimore et al. 2001).

Grazing by rabbits and kangaroos has recently been identified as a threat, particularly to seedlings. Rabbit baiting is occurring at the location to reduce this threat (DEC 2007a).

EXISTING RECOVERY ACTIONS

The Department of Minerals and Energy was formally notified of the presence of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium in October 1994. The adjacent private property owners were notified in February 1999. These notifications detailed the Declared Rare status (in Western Australia) of the species and the associated legal obligations. The mining company with a tenement over an area containing the population was notified of the presence of the species in June 1999. A Notice of Intent to mine the private property adjacent to the population was issued in November 2000 (Phillimore et al. 2001). Mining operations began in 2004, and an artificial watering system was established to maintain the groundwater level and prevent plant deaths. However in early 2005 there was evidence of a major stress event so a sprinkler system was set up to water the plants (DEC 2007a).

DEC's Blackwood District has informed wildflower pickers and provided maps that indicate the area in which Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium occurs is an exclusion zone not available for commercial wildflower picking. This will help to ensure that pickers do not enter the area (DEC 2007a; Phillimore et al. 2001).

Approximately 460 seeds of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium were collected in December 1995, 205 seeds in December 1995 and 160 seeds in December 1997. These are stored in DEC's Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) at -18°C. The initial germination rates of the seed were 80%, 55% and 100% respectively. After one year in storage the germination rate of the seed was 80% and 88% (A. Cochrane pers. comm. as cited in Phillimore et al. 2001). Seeds were also collected by DEC TFSC in January/February 2006 (DEC 2007a).

Experimental application of phosphite to the habitat of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium commenced in 1996. A 4.2 hectare area of the Ironstone community was sprayed in May, June and again in spring in 1996. Follow-up spraying occurred in April and December 1998, and May 2000. DEC District staff are assessing the effectiveness of this treatment by monitoring the local key dieback indicator species Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis and Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa (R. Smith pers. comm. as cited in Phillimore et al. 2001). Spraying has occurred each year since 2004 and there are enough resources to continue until 2009 (DEC 2007a).

Bollards were installed across the access track in 1999 to prevent vehicular access to the habitat of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (Phillimore et al. 2001).

The population of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium was surveyed and boundaries mapped with a differential GPS in 1999 and 2000 (Phillimore et al. 2001). This information is stored in the DEC District Geographic Information System database. Mapping occurred again in 2005 (DEC 2007a).

The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) currently have 95 Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium plants, representing six clones, in cultivation. Three clones were received as cutting material and the other three were germinated from seed. The species strikes well from cuttings with a success rate ranging from 42% to 80% (A .Shade pers. comm. as cited in Phillimore et al. 2001). Cuttings from a further 20 individuals from the population were forwarded to the BGPA in November 2000 for propagation. Seed was collected in December 2000 for propagation into plants for translocations in 2001 (Phillimore et al. 2001).

Three occurrences of the threatened ecological community 'Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone' (Endangered, EPBC Act), encompassing an area of approximately 30 hectares in total, have been purchased (Phillimore et al. 2001). Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (380 plants) were translocated into two of the newly created Nature Reserves. In 2001 approximately 23% of the plants had survived (DEC 2007a).

Laboratory testing of eleven Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium plants for susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi by DEC Science staff resulted in the death of 18% of plants following inoculation. This suggests that the species has some immunity to Phytophthora cinnamomi (C. Crane pers. comm. as cited in Phillimore et al. 2001).

A coordinated fire response for the Region has been prepared for each location of the species. This has been incorporated in the Fire Control Working Plan and includes strategies for fire control, and the information will also be communicated to other fire response organisations (DEC 2007a).

The South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWRTFCRT) is overseeing the implementation of the Interim Recovery Plan and will include information on progress in its annual report to DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies (Phillimore et al. 2001).

Staff from DEC Blackwood District office regularly monitor the population (Phillimore et al. 2001).

FUTURE RECOVERY ACTIONS

The Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM, now DEC) Interim Recovery Plan (IRP; Phillimore et al. 2001) lists the following recovery actions for the species:

Monitoring of the following future recovery actions will be the responsibility of the Western Australian DEC through the SWRTFCRT.

Coordinate recovery actions
The SWRTFCRT will continue to oversee the implementation of recovery actions for Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium and will include information on progress in its annual report to DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies.

Apply phosphite
Phytophthora cinnamomi is known to occur within the threatened ecological community in which Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium occurs. DEC will continue to apply phosphite through its aerial spraying program to provide protection to the plant community as a whole. Application to the entire community will have the added benefit of protecting a number of other threatened plant species and will help prevent the disease from further impacting the threatened community.

Monitor the impact of phosphite application
The impact of the application of phosphite on Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium and on the control of Phytophthora cinnamomi will be monitored.

Implement disease hygiene measures
The area that contains Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is inundated over the winter months, and this favours the establishment and spread of Phytophthora species. Many flora species in the plant community are presumed susceptible to this disease. It is necessary to maintain disease hygiene measures, to reduce the likelihood of introducing or amplifying the impacts of the disease. Access to the area will be restricted, especially when the soil is moist. A sign advising of the dieback risk will be posted at this site.

Undertake weed control
Weeds are a minor threat to the population and the following actions will be implemented:

  • Selection of appropriate herbicides after determining which weeds are present.
  • Controlling invasive weeds by hand removal or spot spraying around Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium plants when weeds first emerge.
  • Scheduling weed control to include spraying at other threatened flora populations within the district.

The tolerance of associated native plant species to herbicides at the site of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium is not known and weed control programs will be undertaken in conjunction with research.

Develop and implement a fire management strategy
Fire appears to kill most adult plants, with recruitment occurring from seed and rootstocks. Frequent fire may prevent the accumulation of sufficient soil stored seed and deplete the reserves held in rootstocks of individual plants. As the habitat was burnt in 1992, there will therefore be no planned burns in the area for the life of this IRP. A fire management strategy will be developed that describes fire control measures, and timing and fire frequency.

Monitor population
Annual monitoring of factors such as habitat degradation (including the impact of Pc), population stability (expansion or decline), weed invasion, pollination activity, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation is essential. Salinity and groundwater levels, and depth and timing of inundation in the community will be monitored as part of the implementation of the recovery actions outlined in the IRP for the community 'Shrublands on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' (EPBC listed as Endangered) (English 1999c). Some Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium plants on the extremities of the population have brown foliage that may be occurring as a result of sun exposure or ageing. The foliage health will also be monitored.

Liaise with relevant land managers
Staff from DEC's Blackwood District will continue to liaise with relevant land managers to ensure the population is not accidentally damaged or destroyed. Due to the susceptibility of the habitat of this species to dieback caused by Phytophthora spp., the need for the application of dieback hygiene procedures will be included in information provided to land managers. This will stress the need to restrict the movement of soil into the habitat of the population.

Alter care control and management of habitat
Negotiations will continue to place the care, control and management of the area of State Forest that contains Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium with the Conservation Commission as a Class A reserve for the purpose of Conservation of Flora and Fauna.

Obtain biological and ecological information
Increased knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species will provide a scientific basis for management of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium in the wild. Investigations will include:

  • Investigation of the impacts of dieback disease and control techniques on the Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium and its habitat.
  • Study of the soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various factors including disturbance (such as fire and weeds), competition, rainfall, and grazing in recruitment and seedling survival.
  • Determination of reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth.
  • Investigation of the mating system and pollination biology.
  • Investigation of population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size.

Promote awareness
The importance of biodiversity conservation and the protection of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium will be promoted to the public. Awareness will be encouraged in the community through a publicity campaign utilising the local print and electronic media and poster displays. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will also be encouraged. An information sheet that includes a description of the plant, its habitat type, threats, management actions and photos will be produced. Due to the potential susceptibility of the habitat of this species to dieback caused by Phytophthora spp., the need for the application of dieback hygiene procedures will be included in information provided to people entering the habitat of Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium.

Write a full Recovery Plan
At the end of the second year of implementation of this IRP, the need for further recovery will be assessed. If the species is still ranked Endangered, a revised IRP will be developed to prescribe actions required for long-term maintenance and recovery. A revised IRP will be prepared with the benefit of knowledge gained over the time frame of this IRP.

Key management documentation for this species is as follows:

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Aerial Canker disease Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Gastrolobium papilioin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lu) [Internet].
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Chandler, G.T., M.D. Crisp, L.W. Cayzer & R.J. Bayer (2002). Monograph of Gastrolobium (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). Australian Systematic Botany. 15(5):619-739. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Commissioner for Soil and Land Conservation, Chairman EPA, CEO Department of Environmental Protection, CEO Agriculture WA, Executive Director CALM, CEO Water and Rivers Commission (1997). Memorandum of Understanding between the authors for the protection of the remnant vegetation on private land in the agricultural region of Western Australia. Perth.

Crisp, M.D. (1995b). Revision of Brachysema (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). Australian Systematic Botany. 8(3):307-353.

Department of Environment and Conservation (WA) (DEC) (2007a). Records held in the DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Western Australia, Department of Environment and Conservation.

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

English, V. (1999c). Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone (Busselton Area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim recovery Plan 1999 - 2002. Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain ironstones in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=23.

English, V. (2005). Ironstone Community Recovering. WATSNU - WA Threatened Species Newsletter. 12 (1). Perth, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Gibson, N., B.J. Keighery, G.J. Keighery, A.H. Burbidge & M.N. Lyons (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission. Prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).

Hirschberg, K.J.B. (1989). Busselton shallow-drilling groundwater investigations, Perth Basin Professional Papers, Geological Survey of Western Australia Report 25. Page(s) pp. 17-37.

Keighery, G.J. (1995). Endangered: The Whicher Brachysemas. Landscope. 10(2):35.

Keighery. B., & Trudgen, M. (1992). Remnant Vegetation on the Alluvial Soils of the Eastern Side of the Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for Department of Conservation and Land Management, Australian Heritage Commission and Heritage Council of WA.

Phillimore, R., M. Soutar & V. English (2001). Butterfly-Leafed Brachysema (Brachysema papilio) Interim Recovery Plan No. 85. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.naturebase.net/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/bra_pap_irp85.pdf.

Tille, P. J., and N. C. Lantzke (1990c). Busselton - Margaret River - Augusta land capability study; methodology and results Volume 2 Appendices. Technical Report 109. Division of Resource Management. Western Australian Department of Agriculture. Perth.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Gastrolobium papilio in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 13:02:20 +1000.