Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20 (Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates, 1995) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Acacia auratiflora [64824]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Cowan & Maslin
Infraspecies author  
Reference Nuytsia 12(3) (1999) 414-415
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific Name: Acacia auratiflora

Common Name: Orange-flowered Wattle

The Orange-flowered Wattle is a dense spreading shrub 0.3–1 m tall and 0.6–2 m wide. Phyllodes (flattened stems that resemble and function as a leaf) are 2–4 cm long and hooked at the tip. New growth has a resinous appearance. The flower head is single, 5–7 mm in diameter, with 30–42 golden to almost orange, flowers. The flower heads are held in the axis of the phyllodes and stem (Brown et al. 1998; WA DEC 2009). Young pods are covered in light golden hairs (Cowan & Maslin 1999).

The Orange-flowered Wattle is endemic to the Lake Grace-Newdegate area of south-west Western Australia (Stack & Brown 1999).

The species is located on private property, Main Roads Western Australia reserves, Shire of Lake Grace reserves, a roadside stopping place, a nature reserve and a WestNet Rail reserve (WA DEC 2009) (see Table 1).

Table 1 - Population location, vesting and land purpose (WA DEC 2009)

Population number & Location Vesting Purpose
1a. West of Newdegate Main Roads Western Australia road reserve
1b. West of Newdegate Freehold private property
1c. West of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace shire reserve
2. West of Newdegate Unvested roadside stopping place
3a. North-west of Newdgate Public Transport Authority rail reserve
3b. North-west of Newdgate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
3c. North-west of Newdegate Public Transport Authority rail reserve
3d. North-west of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
4. West of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
5a. North-west of Newdegate Freehold private property
5b. North-west of Newdegate Freehold private property
6a. North-west of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
6b. North-west of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
7. West of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
8. West of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace road reserve
9a. West of Newdegate Main Roads Western Australia road reserve
9b. West of Newdegate (Nature Reserve) Conservation Commission of Western Australia conservation of flora and fauna
10. South of Newdegate Freehold private property
11. North-west of Newdegate Freehold private property
12. North-west of Newdegate Shire of Lake Grace shire reserve
13. North-west of Newdegate Freehold private property
14. North-west of Newdegate Freehold private property
15. North-west of Newdegate Freehold private property

The Orange-flowered Wattle has an area of occupancy of 390 km² in the Southern Wheatbelt of Western Australia (WA DEC 2009).

Approximately 180 seeds were collected from population 3 in 1997 and 4500 seeds were collected from 24 plants in population 4 in 1998 (Stack & Brown 1999). Seeds from another (unknown) population were also collected in 2002. All seeds are stored in Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation's (WA DEC) Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC). Further seed collection and storage is to be undertaken by the TFSC and the Botanic Gardens Parks Authority (BGPA) (WA DEC 2009).

The Orange-flowered Wattle was well surveyed between 1995 and 2002 (see Table 2). Surveys in 1999 located four populations while later surveys discovered 11 additional populations, bringing the current known number of populations to 15 (WA DEC 2009).

Table 2 - Population information and survey data for the Orange-flowered Acacia (WA DEC 2009)

Population number & location Year surveyed Number of plants Condition
1a. West of Newdegate 1995
2001
2003
15
48 (1)
29
moderate
1b. West of Newdegate 1995
2001
15
15
healthy
1c. West of Newdegate 1995
2001
2001
5
(1)*
(9)
healthy
2. West of Newdegate 1995
2001
35
29 (1)*
healthy
3a. North-west of Newdegate 1995
1997
2000
20*
19*
24*
moderate
3b. North-west of Newdegate 1995
1997
2000
20*
19*
24*
moderate
3c. North-west of Newdegate 1999 92* healthy
3d. North-west of Newdegate 1999 2* healthy
4. West of Newdegate 1997
2001
3
134 (2)
moderate
5a. North-west of Newdegate 2000 February
2000 August
4
305 (13) *
moderate
5b. North-west of Newdegate 2000 August 305 (13) * moderate
6a. North-west of Newdegate 1995 5 moderate
6b. North-west of Newdegate 2000 6 poor
7. West of Newdegate 2000 15 moderate
8. West of Newdegate 2000 19 moderate
9a. West of Newdegate 2000
2002
12
94
healthy
9b. West of Newdegate 2001
2002
1
1
healthy
10. South of Newdegate 2000
2002
53
16+
healthy
11. North-west of Newdegate 2002 April
2002 November
75±
75±
healthy
12. North-west of Newdegate 2002 411 healthy
13. North-west of Newdegate 2002 50+ (2) healthy
14. North-west of Newdegate 2002 20+ healthy
15. North-west of Newdegate 2002 50 moderate

Note: * = total for both subpopulations, ( ) = number of seedlings

The known population for the Orange-flowered Wattle is around 1200 mature, individual plants (WA DEC 2009). The species occurs in 15 populations with 7 subpopulations (WA DEC 2009).

All populations are considered necessary for the species' long-term survival and recovery (WA DEC 2009).

Populations of the Orange-flowered Wattle occur in a nature neserve, Main Roads Western Australia reserves, Shire of Lake Grace reserves and WestNet Rail reserves (WA DEC 2009).

The Orange-flowered Wattle grows in sandy clays and occassionally sandy loams with clay, in drainage lines and depressions on plains that are prone to inundation (Orchard & Wilson 2001a; Stack & Brown 1999; WA DEC 2009). The species is found amongst open shrub mallee or low Gimlet (Eucalyptus salubris) woodland over Melaleuca spp. thicket (WA DEC 2009).

Species associated with the Orange-flowered Wattle include Broom Bush (Melaleuca uncinata), M. adnata, M. lateriflora, Grevillia huegelii, Slender Phebalium (Phebalium filifolium), Templetonia sulcata and Eucalyptus spp. (WA DEC 2009).

Orange-flowered Wattle germination trials indicate that initial germination rates are low (5–19%) and increase after one year of storage to 94% (WA DEC 2009). Flowering is from late June–August, occassionally extending to late October if conditions are suitable. Immature fruit has been collected from August–November, with mature fruit recorded in early November (Robinson & Coates 1995; WA DEC 2009).

The main threats to the Orange-flowered Wattle are road, rail and firebreak maintenance, salinity, weeds and grazing. Potential threats include drought, waterlogging, degradation of associated vegetation (WA DEC 2009) and inappropriate fire regimes (Stack & Brown 1999).

Current threats

Road, rail and firebreak maintenance
Plants can be damaged by grading and spraying of verge vegetation and the maintenance of roadside spoon drains. Grading also disturbs the habitat and encourages weed invasion (WA DEC 2009).

Salinity
Several of the populations of the Orange-flowered Wattle are threatened by salinity because the species favours drainage lines and depressions that are susceptible to salinisation. Salinity has the potential to affect up to 50% of the known plants as well as the vegetation associated with these populations (WA DEC 2009).

Weeds
Weeds compete for resources and affect the health of mature plants and seedlings which, in turn, reduces overall fecundity. Heavy weed infestation also generates high fuel loads that increase the frequency and intensity of fire (WA DEC 2009).

Grazing
The grazing of plants by stock is an issue for unfenced populations. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) can also damage populations by grazing on seedlings (WA DEC 2009).

Potential threats

Drought
Drought has the potential to affect all populations of the Orange-flowered Wattle (WA DEC 2009).

Waterlogging
Waterlogging of soil is a potential issue because populations of the species are found in drainage lines and natural depressions in the landscape. Water collects around roots of the plants making it difficult for them to take up nutrients, and causing the root systems to rot (WA DEC 2009).

Degradation of associated vegetation
Degredation of associated vegetation can cause serious problems for plants. Surrounding vegetation provides shelter for plants, provides habitat for pollinators, protects the soil from erosion and reduces the incidence of weed invasion and salinity (WA DEC 2009).

Inappropriate fire regimes
The species' fire ecology is not understood (Stack & Brown 1999).

The Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (2008-2013) (WA DEC 2009) provides the following completed recovery actions:

  • Relevant land managers have been made aware of the threatened nature of the species, its location and their legal obligations to protect it.
  • Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at populations 2, 4, 7 and 12 and subpopulations 1a, 3a-3d, 6b and 9a-9b.
  • Populations 10, 11, 13-15 and subpopulations 5a-5b, on private property, have been fenced.
  • Surveys of suitable habitat within the Shire of Lake Grace have resulted in the discovery of new populations, increasing the known populations from 4 to 15.
  • The TFSC holds two bulk collections of Orange-flowered Wattle seed made in 1997 and 2002 and one segregated collection made in 1998. Together, these total 4479 seeds.
  • Research into the susceptibility of the species to Phyophthora cinnamomi has been undertaken and the Orange-flowered Wattle has been confirmed to be resistant to the pathogen.

The Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (2008-2013) (WA DEC 2009) provides the following ongoing and future recovery actions to be undertaken by the Great Southern District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (GSDTFRT) in conjunction with WA DEC:

  • coordinate recovery actions
  • liaise with relevant land managers
  • monitor populations
  • install Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers
  • undertake weed control
  • conduct further surveys
  • collect seed
  • promote awareness
  • map areas prone to salinity
  • develop and implement disturbance trials
  • obtain biological and ecological information
  • map habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations
  • review the recovery plan and assess the need for further recovery actions.

The Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack & Brown 1999) and the Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (2008-2013) (WA DEC 2009) provide a biological overview and management recommendations.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Stress caused by rising water tables Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Changes in hydrology leading to rising water tables and dryland salinity Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & A. Brown, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Cowan, R.S. & B.R. Maslin (1999). Acacia miscellany 17. Miscellaneous taxa and lectotypifications in Western Australian Acacia, mostly section Plurinerves (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Nuytsia. 12(3):413-452.

Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson, eds. (2001a). Flora of Australia, Volume 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2. In: Flora of Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABRS & CSIRO.

Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates (1995). Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20. [Online]. Como, Western Australia: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Stack, G. & A. Brown (1999). Orange-flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Interim Recovery Plan - 1999-2002. Waneroo, Western Australia: Natural Heritage Trust, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009). Orange-Flowered Wattle (Acacia auratiflora) Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/a-auratiflora/index.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia auratiflora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 15:19:13 +1000.