Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
NSW:Acacia terminalis subsp. terminalis (a shrub) endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
Scientific name Acacia terminalis subsp. terminalis MS [64829]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Salisb.) J.F.Macbr.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Kodela, P.G. & Harden, G.J. in Harden, G.J. (Ed) (2002), Flora of New South Wales Revised Edition 2: 466 [autonym, nom. inval.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Acacia terminalis subsp. terminalis

Common name: Sunshine Wattle

Sunshine Wattle is a slender or spreading shrub, occasionally a small tree, growing to 6 m high. The flower heads are cream-coloured, pale yellow or golden yellow, and the seed pods are 3–11 cm long (NSW DEC 2005b; Orchard & Wilson 2001). Sunshine Wattle differs from other subspecies of A. terminalis by being hairier and possessing a thicker flower stalk and wider seed pods (NSW DEC 2005b).

Sunshine Wattle is essentially confined to the eastern suburbs area of Sydney, NSW, between Botany Bay and the northern foreshore of Port Jackson (Benson & McDougall 1996; NSW DEC 2005b).

The southern-most record is 6 km north of Cronulla on the south side of Kurnell, and the northern-most record is around North Head. Sunshine Wattle is restricted to a few isolated points, mainly in Council Reserves (NSW NPWS 2000 pers. comm.). Specific known localities include Chifley, Cooper Park, North Head (Benson & McDougall 1996) and Waverley (Hirschfeld 1999). In 2005, recent collections of the species were only recorded from the Quarantine Station, Clifton Gardens, Dover Heights, Parsley Bay, Nielson Park, Cooper Park, Chifley and Watsons Bay (NSW DEC 2005b).

This species' distribution may be considered to be highly fragmented, as most areas of habitat or potential habitat are small and isolated (NSW DEC 2005b).

There is no information on the total population size of this species. Acacia terminalis is available from nurseries, and the stock source is uncertain (NSW DEC 2005b).


There is potential for Sunshine Wattle to hybridise with horticultural cultivars (NSW DEC 2005b).

Some small populations are located within conservation reserves (NSW Scientific Committee 1998b).

Sunshine Wattle is found in open coastal eucalypt woodland or forest, usually in sandy soil on creek banks, hill-slopes or in shallow soil in rock crevices and sandstone platforms on cliffs (NSW DEC 2005b; World Wide Wattle 2005).

Sunshine Wattle flowers in autumn, and is pollinated by small birds and bees. The seeds mature in November and are dispersed by ants. Recruitment in this species mainly occurs after fire (NSW DEC 2005b).

The greatest threat to Sunshine Wattle is habitat loss due to urban development and clearing. This species' habitat is also being degraded through rubbish dumping, weed invasion, and access by people. Recreational use of the area and park management may affect Sunshine Wattle, since some plants are growing at the edge of walking tracks and roads (NSW DEC 2005b).

Inappropriate fire regimes may threaten some populations (NSW DEC 2005b).

Priority recovery actions recommended by the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC 2005b) are to:

  • Ensure personnel involved in track and road maintenance are aware of Sunshine Wattle locations and can identify the sub-species.
  • Develop an appropriate fire regime to avoid frequent fire and long absence of fire.
  • Undertake weed control as necessary.
  • Protect known sites from clearing and degradation.
  • Implement a monitoring program for known populations.
  • Undertake research into Sunshine Wattle's biology and ecology (especially fire response).
  • Conduct surveys of suitable habitat to search for new populations of Sunshine Wattle.

  • The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Andropogon virginicus (Whisky Grass, Broomsedge) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Nephrolepis cordifolia (Fishbone Fern, Herringbone Fern, Sword Fern, Pop Rock Fern) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle, Chinese Honeysuckle Hall's Honeysuckle) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cortaderia selloana (Pampas Grass, Common Pampas-grass) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Coreopsis lanceolata (Coreopsis, Kalliopsis) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ligustrum lucidum (Broad-leaved Privet, Tree Privet, Large Leaf Privet, Glossy Privet, Ligustrum, Wax Leaf Privet) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet, Narrow-leaved Privet. Small-leaved Privet, Privet, Hedge Privet, Narrow-leaf Privet, Chinese Ligustrum, Ligustrum) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ipomoea indica (Purple Morning Glory, Blue Morning Glory, Blue Dawnflower, Dunny Creeper, Lear's Morning Glory, Morning Glory) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phytolacca octandra (Inkweed, Red-ink Weed, Poke Weed) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Weeds of National Significance Bitou Bush and Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata and monilifera) Strategic Plan (Agriculture & Resources Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers, 2000b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
    National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus densiflorus National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Cotoneaster spp. National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Glochidion ferdinandi (Cheese-tree) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pittosporum undulatum (Sweet Pittosporum, Snowdrop Tree, Engraver Wood, Mock Orange, Native Laurel, Wave Leaved Pittosporum, White Holly, Native Daphne, Victorian Box, Australian Cheesewood, New Zealand Daphne, Victorian Laurel, Wild Coffee) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
    Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
    Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis (Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Sunshine Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005b) [Internet].

    Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1996). Ecology of Sydney plant species Part 4: Dicotyledon family Fabaceae. Cunninghamia. 4(4):553-756. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.

    Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (2010). National Recovery Plan for Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis terminalis. [Online]. Sydney, New South Wales: DECCW. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/acacia-terminalis-terminalis.html.

    Hirschfeld, D (1999). Waverly Environmental Matters. Waverly Council.

    Morcombe, J. (2009). Engraving, plants may hamper sale. Manly Daily. April 8. [Online]. Available from: http://manly-daily.whereilive.com.au/news/story/engraving-plants-may-hamper-sale/.

    NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005b). Sunshine Wattle - profile. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10028.

    NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2000). Personal communication. Sydney: NSW NPWS.

    NSW Scientific Committee (1998b). Endangered species listing: Acacia terminalis subsp terminalis (a shrub). Sydney, NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

    Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson (eds) (2001). Flora of Australia, Volume 11A, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 1.

    World Wide Wattle 2005 (2005). Acacia terminalis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.worldwidewattle.com/speciesgallery/terminalis.php..

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia terminalis subsp. terminalis MS in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 00:21:51 +1000.