Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Caladenia anthracina
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia anthracina (Black-tipped Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001an) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia anthracina.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia anthracina.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/10/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001c) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia anthracina.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Caladenia anthracina (Black-tipped Spider-orchid): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014n) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina (Threatened Species Unit, 2001b) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Flowering Times of Tasmanian Orchids: A Practical Guide for Field Botanists (Wapstra, M., N. Roberts, H. Wapstra & A. Wapstra, 2008) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012) as Caladenia anthracina
Scientific name Caladenia anthracina [64855]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.L. Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Orchid Research 3: 21 (1998).
Other names Arachnorchis anthracina [76216]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia anthracina

Common name: Black-tipped Spider-orchid

This species is similar to Caladenia patersonii and has undoubtedly been confused with it in the past. It can be distinguished by its short stature; smaller flowers which are heavily marked with crimson to purplish lines and suffusions; stiffly spreading to obliquely deflexed segments; and, thinner, blackish, densely glandular caudae, frequently bearing multiseriate glands (Jones 1998d).

The Black-tipped Spider-orchid belongs to the genus Caladenia. Like all species in this genus, the Black-tipped Spider-orchid is deciduous and die back after flowering to small subterranean tubers enclosed by a fibrous sheath or tunic. The plant has a single narrow basal leaf that appears above ground in late autumn or early winter following rains. The flowers have a labellum which is hinged at the base and bears rows of conspicuous, variously shaped and coloured calli on the upper surface. The labellum margins often bear calli or may be deeply lobed or toothed (Threatened Species Unit 2001b).

The Black-tipped Spider-orchid flowers from late September to early November and in flower, the plants are 10–20 cm tall with a wiry and densely hairy stalk bearing a single flower. The flower is 45–65 mm across and is white to cream with pale reddish lines and prominent black tail-like extensions. The dorsal sepal is 35–55 mm long and 2–3 mm wide. The lateral sepals are 35–55 mm long and 3.5–5 mm wide and the petals are 35–45 mm long and 2–3 mm wide. The labellum is white to cream with dark reddish purple calli and the column behind the labellum is translucent with reddish markings. The leaf of the Black-tipped Spider-orchid is densely haired with a purple blotched base and is 5–12 cm long and 3–7 mm wide (Threatened Species Unit 2001b).

The Black-tipped Spider-orchid has a small distribution. Prior to the discovery of two new localities the extent of occurrence was 66 km², it is now estimated at 462 km². The known locations are summarised below (Threatened Species Unit 2001b):


Locality Area (ha) Number 2010 status
West of Campbell Town -2 sites
Private land
0.25 30 (1) 21 in 2007; area now covered by a vegetation management agreement under the NC Act;
(2) 19 in 2007
Campbell Town Golf Course
Private land
0.25 25 2 in 2007, 2 in 2009, 25 in 2009; area now covered by a conservation covenant
Northeast of Ross
Private land
1.5 25 No recent data
East of Ross
Private land
0.0008 10 10 in 2007; area now covered by a vegetation management agreement under the NC Act
Smiths Lagoon
Private land
  3 3 plants in 2001; area covered by conservation covenant
Annandale
Private land
    Herbarium collection rediscovered in 2002 - no data on numbers etc; area covered by conservation covenant
Granton presumed extinct    
New Norfolk presumed extinct    

The Black-tipped Spider-orchid occurs in grassy woodland with silver wattle and bracken on well-drained sandy soil (Threatened Species Unit 2001b). The Black-tipped Spider Orchid is strongly associated with basalt (Wapstra & Wapstra 2002).

Spider orchids have large flowers with long, tapered or filamentous segments. They are mostly pollinated by male thynnine wasps that attempt to mate with the labellum. The wasps are attracted by the scents resembling pheromones of the female wasps that are produced in the glands of the flowers. A few spider orchids may be pollinated by bees (Threatened Species Unit 2001b).

This species is likely to have declined due to agricultural development. Its woodland habitat is disjointed and is subject to further decline from the impact of agricultural activities such as nutrient enrichment, overgrazing and trampling in sandy sites especially in periods of drought, and inappropriate fire frequency. None of the colonies have much hope of expanding due to being surrounded by unsuitable habitat. This species occurs in colonies that are extremely restricted in extent and number of plants (Threatened Species Unit 2001b).

The Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (TSS 2006a) was developed to address the threats facing 68 threatened orchid species in Tasmania. The overall objective of recovery is to minimise the probability of extinction in the wild of threatened orchid species listed on the Tasmanian TSP Act and the Commonwealth EPBC Act and to increase the probability of each taxon becoming self-sustaining in the long-term.

Within the life span of the plan (five years), the specific objectives for recovery for Tasmania's threatened orchids are:

  • Acquire accurate information for sound management decisions and conservation status assessments.
  • Ensure priority populations are managed appropriately and are securely protected.
  • Increase the number of known populations of threatened orchid taxa.
  • Raise public awareness of orchid conservation issues and develop mechanisms to encourage and coordinate community participation in orchid recovery programs.
  • Establish a network of government and non-government organisations and individuals that can provide input into recovery programs and undertake recovery actions.
  • Develop a better understanding of the life history and ecological requirements of threatened orchids in Tasmania.
  • Increase the size of priority populations in the wild.
  • Identify critical and potential habitat.
  • Establish a genetically representative ex situ collection of orchid taxa facing imminent extinction in the wild.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia anthracina (Black-tipped Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001an) [Listing Advice].
Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina (Threatened Species Unit, 2001b) [Information Sheet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina (Threatened Species Unit, 2001b) [Information Sheet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia anthracina (Black-tipped Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001an) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina (Threatened Species Unit, 2001b) [Information Sheet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia anthracina (Black-tipped Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001an) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina (Threatened Species Unit, 2001b) [Information Sheet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia anthracina (Black-tipped Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001an) [Listing Advice].
Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina (Threatened Species Unit, 2001b) [Information Sheet].

Jones, D.L. (1998d). Contributions to Tasmanian Orchidology 1-9. Australian Orchid Research. 3. Essendon, Victoria: Australian Orchid Foundation.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006a). Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: DPIWE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tasmanian-orchid.html.

Threatened Species Unit (2001b). Listing Statement Black-tipped spider orchid Caladenia anthracina. [Online]. Dept Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Tas. Available from: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SJON-5L93VE/$FILE/Arachnorchis%20anthracina%20listing%20statement.pdf.

Wapstra, H. & A. Wapstra (2002). Assessment of the likelihood of Black-tipped Spider Orchid Caladenia anthracina occurring on a section of the pipeline route in the Midlands. Development Proposal and Environmental Management Plan Stage Three-Botanical Assessment. Duke Energy International.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia anthracina in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 04:49:09 +1000.