Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Flora of Tasmania: Dianella amoena (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water (Tas. DPIW), 2008) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Dianella amoena (grassland flaxlily): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014a) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Matted Flax-lily - Dianella amoena (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2005b) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Matted Flax-lily prescription - Melbourne Strategic Assessment (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2010b) [Management Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Rare (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): Rare species: September 2012)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Dianella amoena [64886]
Family Phormiaceae:Liliales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall
Infraspecies author  
Reference Carr, G.W. & Horsfall, P.F., (1995) Studies in Phormiaceae (Liliaceae) 1: New species and combinations in Dianella Lam. ex Juss. Muelleria 8(3): 369, fig. 2 [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Tasmania: Dianella amoena has been downlisted to rare under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. The Tasmanian Government suggests that a Commonwealth reassessment of this species is required (Tas. DPIW 2008).

Scientific name: Dianella amoena

Common name: Matted flax-lily

Other names: Grassland flax lily, Tufted flax-lily

Dianella amoena is conventionally accepted (CHAH 2010). The species was originally included in the D. longifolia group, but has been described as a distinct species since 1995 (Carr & Horsfall 1995). Populations in Tasmania were included with D. longifolia, but are now accepted as Dianella amoena (Tas. DPIW 2008).

The Matted Flax-lily is a perennial, tufted, mat-forming lily. Plants are rhizomatous and can form loose clumps up to 5 m wide. Rhizomes are yellow and slender (4 mm wide), with shoots arising every 10–30 cm. Leaves are grey-green, dull crimson at the base, narrow and tapering, grow to 45 cm long by 12 mm wide, and are broadly V-shaped, with a prominent abaxial keel along the midrib and loose clasping leaf sheaths. Blades, sheaths and midribs usually have small, irregularly spaced teeth. Leaves are deciduous in summer if plants are water-stressed (Carter 2010d; Gray & Knight 2001).

The inflorescence is erect, 20–90 cm long, with a slender, arching scape that bears several bluish, star-shaped, nodding, sweetly fragrant flowers. Perianth segments are pale to deep blue-violet, recurved, elliptic, grow to 10 mm long by 3 mm, the outer tepals with five veins, the inner tepals with three veins. There are six stamens, that grow to 7 mm long, with pale yellow filaments, orange strumae and pale lime-yellow anthers, while the style is whitish-translucent and grows to 6 mm long. Fruits are ovoid purple berries approximately 7 mm long, and seeds are shiny black and smooth and 3 mm long. Flowering occurs from October to April (Carr & Horsfall 1995; Carter 2010d).

The Matted Flax-lily is found in Tasmania (Tas. DPIW 2008) and Victoria (Carter 2010d). 

Tasmania

In Tasmania, the Matted Flax-lily is found mainly in the Midlands, where it grows in native grasslands and grassy woodlands (Curtis & Morris 1994). Key sites include Gagebrook, Bridgewater, Pontville, Tea Tree Road, Hamilton Plains, Township Lagoon (Tunbridge), Campbell Town and Ross. Populations are known from cemeteries in Campbell Town, Ross and Perth, and on roadsides along the Midlands Highway, especially near Tunbridge (Tas. DPIW 2008).

Victoria

The Matted Flax-lily is known from 120 sites in Victoria, although there are thought to be only 50 populations producing seed. This species is found in the Victorian Volcanic Plains, South East Coastal Plain, South Eastern Highlands and Victorian Midlands bioregions (Carter 2010d). Most populations occur in remnant vegetation along roadsides, railways and in small flora and nature reserves within the urban landscape (Carter 2010d).

In the northern suburbs of Melbourne, populations have been recorded at Bundoora, Eltham, Craigieburn, Reservoir, Epping and South Morang (Carter 2010d). Some plants in the South Morang area were associated with EPBC Referral 2009/5313 (SMREP 2010). Populations in rural areas include St Andrews, Yarra Glen, Traralgon (in the La Trobe Valley), Lyndhurst (near Cranbourne in Melbourne's south-east), Castlemaine and Harcourt (in central Victoria), Kyneton Rifle Range and rail reserves at Riddells Creek (Macedon Ranges Shire) (Carter 2010d). On the Victorian Volcanic Plains, there are populations between Sunbury and Bacchus Marsh as well as further west near Mortlake (Carter 2010d). There is a highly disjunct population near Omeo (Carter 2010d). Surveys for EPBC Referral 2009/4888 found this species in the vicinity of Epping Road, Wollert (Ecology Partners 2009c).

In western Victoria, there may be populations near Stawell, Deep Lead Flora and Fauna Reserve and at Dadswells Bridge in the northern Grampians, although the taxonomic identity of these plants requires verification (Carter 2005). New locations, around 27 km south-east of Ballarat, have been found as part of research associated with EPBC Referral 2009/4907 (Brett Lane & Associates 2009a).

Translocation Sites

The rhizomatous nature of Matted Flax-lilies allows plants to be translocated. Translocation has occurred at a number of sites, including:

Location Project Year Number of plants Groups involved Destination of plants  Reference
Merri Creek     Craigieburn Bypass     2004     approximately 1200     Greybox and Grasslands Indigenous Nursery (GAGIN), Victoria's Department of Sustainability and Environment and Parks Victoria Merri Creek (1200) Carter (2005)
Craigieburn Grassland Reserve (CGR) (56 clumps that were planted out to 400 plants) Carter (2005)
Cooper Street Grassland, Campbellfield (25 ha site) Carter (2005), Schnittler (2006)
Central Creek Grassland Reserve (9 ha site) Bush and colleagues (2003), Schnittler (2006)
Jukes Road Grassland (3 ha site) Carter (2005)
Larundell Grassy Woodland Reserve, Bundoora 'Green Triangle' site at Lancaster Gate 2005 6 (planted out to 60 clones) GAGIN and Biosis Research   Carter (2005)
Riddells Creek Rail Reserve   2003/4 5 (planted out to 330 clones) VicRoads and Victorian Indigenous Nurseries Cooperative   Carter (2005)
South Morang Flora and Fauna Reserve, Whittlesea Mill Park Lakes Residential development 2005 76      Schnittler (2006)
Plenty Valley Town Centre   Proposed     Plains Grassy Woodland Costello (2006b)

Carter (2005) undertook a comprehensive survey for the Matted Flax-lily in Victoria. Paget (1998) also undertook a detailed survey of the main rail corridor between Morwell and Bairnsdale Stations for remnant grassy woodland understorey, which is Matted Flax-lily habitat.

Due to the clump forming nature of the Matted Flax-lily, abundance is difficult to determine. Single plants can form clumps of up to 20 x 20 m with many isolated individual shoots, although clumps are usually much smaller (Carter 2010d).

There are no population estimates for Tasmania. Near Brighton, Hobart, a population of 24 000 was recorded in association with EPBC Referrals 2009/4757 and 2009/4762 (North Barker Ecosystem Services 2009).

In Victoria, Carter (2010d) estimated approximately 2500 plants occurred in total at the 120 known sites. The 50 populations where the species are known to produce seed are very small. Typically they contain five or fewer individuals (Carr & Horsfall 1995).

Important populations

In Victoria, Carter (2010d) devised a method to identify 'important populations' neccesary for the long term survival and recovery of the species. According to this method, 21 of the 120 Victorian sites are 'important'. These populations are (Carter 2010d):

  • Populations in conservation reserves: Caledonia Flora and Fauna Reserve, St Andrews; Yan Yean Reservoir, Yan Yean; Gresswell Forest Reserve, Macleod; Cobra Killuc Wildlife Reserve, Mortlake (western Victoria); Browns Nature Conservation Reserve, Greensborough; Gresswell Hill, Bundoora.
  • Rail reserves: Riddells Creek, Mt Macedon Shire; Traralgon Railway Reserve, Latrobe City Council; Harcourt, Mount Alexander Shire.
  • Other tenure: Cherry St Grassland, Macleod; Harry Pottage Reserve, Macleod; Mill Park Lakes, South Morang; Simpson Army Barracks (formerly Watsonia Army Barracks); public land west of the Whittlesea Public Gardens; Springthorpe Buffer, Mont Park; Lake Omeo, Benambra.
  • Council land: Candlebark Park, Templestowe.
  • Private land: Plenty Valley Town Centre.
  • Translocated sites: Somerton Grassland Reserve; Craigieburn Grassland Reserve; Fawkner Grassland Reserve.

In Tasmania, the Matted Flax-lilly occurs in Township Lagoon Nature Reserve (Tas. DPIW 2008). In Victoria, it occurs in Caledonia Flora and Fauna Reserve, Yan Yean Reservoir, Gresswell Forest Reserve, Cobra Killuc Wildlife Reserve, Browns Nature Conservation Reserve and Gresswell Hill (Carter 2010d).

Tasmania

In Tasmania, the Matted Flax-lily occurs in native grasslands and grassy woodlands (Curtis & Morris 1994).

Victoria

In Victoria, the Matted Flax-lily occurs most commonly in lowland grasslands, grassy woodlands, valley grassy forest and creeklines of herb-rich woodland. Typically, the species occurs on well drained to seasonally wet fertile sandy loams to heavy cracking clays derived from Silurian or Tertiary sediments, or from volcanic geology (Carr & Horsfall 1995; Gray & Knight 2001). 

Sites are dominated by a grassy understorey with Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra) and Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) as a common understorey tree. Other grass species present include Wallaby Grass (Austrodanthonia racemosa var. racemosa), Common Wheat Grass (Elymus scaber var. scaber), Weeping Grass (Microlaena stipoides var. stipoides), Common Tussock-grass (Poa labillardierei) and Grey Tussock-grass (Poa sieberiana) (Carr & Horsfall 1995; Carter 2010d).

A tree canopy may not be present on basalt escarpments (e.g. Coburg, Merri Creek) (Carr & Horsfall 1995). In grassy woodland, where the Matted Flax-lily occurs, tree species include Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora subsp. pauciflora), Swamp Gum (E. ovata), River Red Gum (E. camaldulensis), Long-leaved Box (E. goniocalyx), Red Box (E. polyanthemos subsp. vestita), Red Stringy Bark (E. macrorhyncha subsp. macrorhyncha) and Yellow Box (E. melliodora) (Carter 2010d). 

Most sites contain a high cover of introduced species such as Large Quaking Grass (Briza maxima), Yorkshire Fog Grass (Holcus lanatus), Cat's Ear (Hypochoeris radicata), Plantain (Plantago lanceolata), Onion Grass (Romulea rosea), Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), Little Quaking Grass (Briza minor), Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica), Paspalum (Paspalum spp.) and Bentgrass (Agrostis spp.) (Carter 2010d).

The Matted Flax-lily flowers from October to April (Carter 2010d). Flowers are buzz-pollinated by native bees (winter dormant Blue-banded Bee Amegilla cingulata) and fruits are readily formed but recruitment is believed to be extremely low due to habitat disturbance and weed competition. The species is capable of vegetative reproduction through the production of rhizomes. The species can also be propagated by division. No seedlings have been observed (Carter 20010d).

Distinctive Matted Flax-lily features include shorter leaves, later flowering and larger flowers than similar species. Surveys should be conducted between November and February when pollinators are present and active to assist in determining the viability of the population. Summer water-stress can cause defoliation (Carr & Horsfall 1995), which makes identification difficult. In Paget's (1998) 'remnant grassy woodland survey', potential sites were identified by vehicle and once found were followed up by further investigations on foot.

Matted Flax-lilies are an extensively rhizomatous species, that is, they form large mats, within which individual plants can be difficult to distinguish. Therefore, when surveying this species it is important to distinguish isolated shoots from individual plants (e.g. Carter 2010d). In larger patches, North Barker Ecosystem Services (2009) assumed that a single plant occupied 3 m2. They acknowledged that some clumps can be much larger (e.g. 25 m2), but this is offset by individual plants occupying much less than 3 m2 (North Barker Ecosystem Services 2009).

Weed invasion

Weed invasion is a common threat at most sites, although the species of weed varies between sites. Excess biomass accumulation can smother plants and reduce the available area for rhizome shooting and prevent seedling recruitment (Carter 2010d). Weed species that occur with the Matted Flax-lily include: English Ivy (Hedera helix), Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum), Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana), woody weeds, Pinus spp., Chilean Needle-grass (Nassella neesiana), Yorkshire Fog (Holcus lanatus), St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus s.l.) and Watsonia spp. (Carter 2010d).

Habitat destruction

Much of the Matted Flax-lily habitat has been cleared for urban development (Carter 2010d). Many populations occur in remnant vegetation along roadsides and railways where slashing, use of herbicides and vehicle damage may damage or destroy plants. Fertiliser application and general grazing may also be detrimental (Tas. DPIW 2008).

Biomass reduction and fire regimes

The effect of fire on the Matted Flax-lily is unknown, although without post-fire weed control fire may be detrimental. In some instances, fire may be beneficial (Tas. DPIW 2008). At some grassland sites, competition from native grasses such as Kangaroo Grass may be occurring, through biomass accumulation after long periods without fire (Carter 2012d).

Pollinator replacement

Matted Flax-lilies depend on native bees such as the Blue Banded Bee for buzz-pollination. However, the introduced Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) competes with native bees for pollen and nectar sources, without stimulating pollination of native plants such as Dianella spp. (Duncan et al. 2005; Paton 1997).

Management practices required to conserve the species include (Carter 2010d):

  • fencing and signposting to protect sites and prevent inadvertent damage
  • weed control
  • burning or light seasonal grazing to reduce plant competition and maintain an open sward where required
  • consultation with public land managers and private landholders where the species occurs or is likely to occur
  • covenants or other conservation agreements for protection of significant private land sites, through negotiation with landowners
  • encouraging and facilitating community participation in recovery actions
  • surveys and publicity to locate new populations, especially on roadsides and private land
  • ex situ conservation measures, including seed storage
  • research into the ecology and management of the species and its habitat, especially with regards to disturbance regimes, pollination and germination in situ.

Management practices detrimental to the conservation of the Matted Flax-lily include (Carter 2010d):

  • heavy, prolonged grazing of sites
  • ploughing or other soil disturbance
  • urban development and other changing land use e.g. from grazing to cropping.

Fire may be beneficial to the species and it is known to persist regardless of mowing and slashing in some areas (Tas. DPIW 2008).

Melbourne strategic assessment

The Melbourne strategic assessment includes provision for the protection of Matted Flax-lily habitat from development. Clearing within bioregions will not be allowed until 80% of areas deemed to be consistently contributing to the species' persistence are protected (Vic. DSE 2010b). Clearing may be allowed prior to reaching the 80% threshold when clearing areas that contain significant infrastructure or dense perennial weed cover (Vic. DSE 2010b).

Natural Heritage Trust funding

The Field Naturalists Club of Victoria - Botany Group received $3950 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2006–07 for the management of Plains Grassland (South Gippsland) Community habitat to enable threatened plant species to flourish (including Matted Flax-lily), and implement a recovery action for this species through ecological burn, weed control and monitoring.

The Gippsland Plains Rail Trail Committee of Management received $11 900 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2004–05 for the protection and enhancement of Matted Flax-lily habitat within the rail reserve, including weed control, habitat restoration and public awareness.

Management documents relevant to the Matted Flax-lily are at the start of the profile. Other relevant documsnts include Carter (2010d), Mueck and Yugovic (2002) and Paget (1998). Additionally, investigations into the affects of habitat fragmentation on a related species, Blueberry Lily (Dianella revoluta), may provide insights into the reproductive biology of this species (e.g. Cunningham 2000; Duncan et al. 2004).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phalaris aquatica (Phalaris) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypochaeris radicata (Flatweed, Cat's-ear) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Anthoxanthum odoratum (Sweet Vernal Grass, Sweet-scented Vernal-grass, Sweet Vernal) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort, Ribgrass, Lamb's Tongue) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort, Common St John's Wort, Perforate St John's Wort, St John's Grass, St John's Blood, Klamath Weed, Witch's Herb, Devil's Flight, Tipton Weed, Gammock, Goatsbeard, Goatweed, Herb John, Penny John, Rosin Rose, Touch and Heal) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Nassella neesiana (Chilean Needle grass) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Romulea rosea var. communis (Common Onion-grass) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Briza spp. National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Themeda triandra (Kangaroo Grass) National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hu) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena (Carter, O., 2010d) [Recovery Plan].

Brett Lane & Associates (2009a). Moorabool Wind Project:Targeted Flora Survey Report No. 8147 (4.2). WestWind Energy Pty Ltd.

Bush, J., B. Miles & B. Bainbridge (2003). Merri Creek: Managing an urban waterway for people and nature. Ecological Management and Restoration. 4(3):170-179.

Carr, G.W. & P.F. Horsfall (1995). Studies in Phormiaceae (Liliaceae) 1: New Species and Combinations in Dianella Lam. ex Juss. Muelleria. 8(3):365-378.

Carter, O. (2005). Draft Recovery Plan for Dianella amoena (Matted Flax-lily) 2006-2010. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.

Carter, O. (2010d). National Recovery Plan for the Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena. [Online]. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne Victoria. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/dianella-amoena.html.

Costello, C. (2006b). Plenty Valley Town Centre Matted Flax-lily Translocation Plan - Project No. 5306. Biosis Research Pty Ltd.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Cunningham, S.A. (2000). Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology of four plant species in Mallee Woodland. Conservation Biology. 14(3):758-768.

Curtis, W M & D.I. Morris (1994). The Student's Flora of Tasmania Angiospermae: Alismataceae to Burmanniaceae. Hobart, Tasmania: St David's Park Publishing.

Duncan, D.H., A.B. Nicotra & S.A. Cunningham (2004). High self-pollen transfer and low fruit set in buzz-pollinated Dianella revoluta (Phormiaceae). Australian Journal of Botany. 52:185-193.

Ecology Partners (2009c). Targeted Significant Flora and Fauna Surveys at 220 Harvest Home Road and 219 Epping Road, Wollert, Victoria. [Online]. AV Jennings Pty Limited. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/epbc/epbc_ap.pl?name=current_referral_detail&proposal_id=4888.

Gray M. & J. Knight (eds) (2001). Flora of Melbourne: A Guide to the Indigenous Plants of the Greater Melbourne Area. Melbourne: Hyland House Publishing.

Mueck, S. & J. Yugovic (2002). Relocation program for Matted Flax-lily, Lancaster Gate, Bundoora, Victoria. Report for Urban and Regional Land Corporation. Biosis Research Pty Ltd.

North Barker Ecosystem Services (2009). Midland Highway, Brighton Bypass and Transport Hub, Bidgewater Roundabout to The Lodge, Vegetation Survey and Fauna Habitat Assessment. For Pitt & Sherry Consulting Engineers.

Paget, A.N. (1998). Anthropogenic grassland and grassy woodland remnant survey, assessment and management guidelines: Morwell to Bairnsdale rail corridor, Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Traralgon, Victoria (unpublished).

Paton, D.C. (1997). Honey Bees Apis mellifera and the disruption of plant-pollinator systems in Australia. The Victorian Naturalist. 114 (1):23-29.

Schnittler, N. (2006). Discussion paper- Translocation of Matted Flax-lily Dianella amoena. Biosis Research Ltd.

South Morang Rail Extension Project (SMREP) (2010). Translocation Plan for Matted Flax-lily.

Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water (Tas. DPIW) (2008). Threatened Flora of Tasmania: Dianella amoena. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LJEM-74ZUT6/$FILE/Dianella%20amoena.pdf.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2014a). Dianella amoena (grassland flaxlily): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecieslink.tas.gov.au/dianella-amoena.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2005a). Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria - 2005. [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenpa.nsf/93a98744f6ec41bd4a256c8e00013aa9/cfd982b7b4c0bc93ca256fa2007affbc/$FILE/Advisory%20List%20of%20Rare%20or%20Threatened%20Plants%20in%20Victoria%20-%202005.pdf.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2005b). Matted Flax-lily - Dianella amoena. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/103415/Dianella_amoena_red_mar_2006.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dianella amoena in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 19 Apr 2014 07:33:28 +1000.