Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Leionema lachnaeoides
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan] as Leionema lachnaeoides.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Leionema lachnaeoides.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee: Final Summary Report December 2002 (Hogbin, P., 2002) [Report].
NSW:Leionema lachnaeoides - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005go) [Internet].
NSW:Leionema lachnaeoides Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2002n) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Leionema lachnaeoides (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2002o) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list) as Leionema lachnaeoides
Scientific name Leionema lachnaeoides [64924]
Family Rutaceae:Sapindales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (A.Cunn.) Paul G.Wilson
Infraspecies author  
Reference Wilson, Paul G. (1998) New species and nomenclatural changes in Phebalium and related genera (Rutaceae). Nuytsia 12(2): 275 [comb. nov.]
Other names Phebalium lachnaeoides [13802]
Eriostemon phylicifolius var. lachnaeoides [39565]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Leionema lachnaeoides

This species was formerly known as Phebalium lachnaeoides (NSW NPWS 2001j; Wilson 1998b).

Leionema lachnaeoides is a tall shrub growing up to 2 m high.

Leaves: The leaves are short (0.5–2.0 cm long), narrow (1 mm in diameter), placed alternately along the stem, linear or cylindrical in shape, and usually tapered at the ends. The leaf margin is strongly recurved so that the lower surface is only just visible.

Flowers: The species produces a mass of small yellow flowers between winter and late spring (Cohn 1993c; NSW NPWS 2000g, 2001j; Wilson 1970). Flowers occur singly towards the end of branches and are radially symmetric in shape. They are bisexual (both male and female reproductive parts on the one plant) and have five yellow petals, each approximately 5 mm long. The flowers contain 10 free stamens (male reproductive part).

Fruit: Fruits are schizocarps, that is, dry fruits that split into individual units called cocci (somewhat like segments of an orange).

Seeds: The seeds are released on maturity of the fruit (Weston & Portners 1991).

Leionema lachnaeoides occurs only in the Megalong and Jamison Valleys, near Katoomba and Blackheath, in the Upper Blue Mountains of NSW (NSW NPWS 2001j; Wilson 1970, 1998b). It was considered extinct for many years (Cohn 1993c), until rediscovered in 1989 (NSW NPWS 2001j).

All known sites occur within a geographic range of 12 km and are located on the southern side of the escarpment on cliff tops (NSW NPWS 2001j). There is no historical information about the distribution of the species so it is not known whether it has undergone a decline (NSW NPWS 2001j). One population is conserved in Blue Mountains National Park (Briggs & Leigh 1996; NSW NPWS 2001j).

Site details as in NSW NPWS (2001j):

PopulationLocationLand TenureNumber of plantsArea (m²)Year last burnt
1Nellies Glen WCouncil Reserve473401957
2Radiata Plateau, E of gullyPrivate1086001944
3Radiata Plateau, W of gullyPrivate741631957
4Shipley Plateau, Double Echo PointCrown Rec. Reserve: Managed by Council50 (plus 8 seedlings in 1993)4001978
5Narrow Neck PlateauNSW NPWS172001957
6Shipley Plateau, S of Mt ToshCrown Rec. Reserve: Council Managed9c. 20unknown
7Bonnie Doon WCouncil reserve7c. 15unknown
8Bonnie Doon ECouncil Reserve16180unknown
9Shipley Plateau, S of Mt ToshCrown Rec. Reserve: Council Managed76320unknown
10Shipley Plateau, S of Mt ToshCrown Rec. Reserve: Council Managed6 - unknown

For detailed information on land-use zoning of the sites themselves and areas up-slope of the sites, see the recovery plan (NSW NPWS 2000j).

Leionema lachnaeoides is known from 10 populations totalling 418 individuals (NSW NPWS 2001j).

One population is conserved in Blue Mountains National Park (Briggs & Leigh 1996; NSW NPWS 2001j).

Leionema lachnaeoides is found on rocky south-east to south-west facing, exposed cliff tops and terraces, at 960–1000 m altitude (Harden 1991; NSW NPWS 2001j; Wilson 1998b). The sites experience low summer and winter temperatures and frequent heavy mists. The nearby town of Leura has an average annual rainfall of 1400 mm (NSW NPWS 2001j). The geology is sandstone of the Triassic Narrabeen Group. The soils are sandy and generally covered by several centimetres of leaf litter consisting of Allocasuarina nana needles and lichen. The cliff top habitats are relatively protected from fire because of the high levels of exposed rock (NSW NPWS 2001j).

Leionema lachnaeoides occurs in 'montane heath' communities. Species common to many of the sites include Eucalyptus stricta (Blue Mountains Mallee), Allocasuarina nana (Dwarf She-oak), Dillwynia retorta (eggs and bacon), Epacris microphylla (Coral Heath) and Caustis flexuosa (Curly Wig) (NSW NPWS 2001j; also see Cohn 1993c).

The flowers of Leionema lachnaeoides are initially pinkish, turning pale yellow (Harden 1991) and are borne in late winter to late spring (NSW NPWS 2001j). The flowers are likely to be insect pollinated (NSW NPWS 2001j). New growth occurs each year from the tip of the flowering shoot (Cohn 1993c). The species is likely to be wholly reliant on seed for recruitment and dispersal (NSW NPWS 2001j). Seed dispersal is most probably aided by ants (Mildenhall 2002).

Surveys in 2000 by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service show that all populations contain only mature individuals, with the exception of population 4 (NSW NPWS 2001j), indicating a lack of recruitment. While seed production is generally high, initial investigations revealed that seed numbers in the soil were low (Tuckey 2000 unpublished, in NSW NPSW 2001j). Seed viability and the mechanisms that break seed dormancy are unknown, although fire may be a contributor (Mildenhall 2002; NSW NPWS 2001j). Seed dormancy may also break gradually over time, as indicated by the few seedlings at the site of population 4 (NSW NPWS 2001j).

The lifespan of Leionema lachnaeoides is thought to be greater than 10 years (NPWS 2001j).

The main threats to Leionema lachnaeoides are:

  • Up-slope disturbance: Disturbance related to development up-slope of populations of the species may potentially impact on its habitat through alteration of drainage patterns, sedimentation, erosion, increased nutrient levels, introduction of weeds and changes to fire regimes.

  • Weed invasion: Most of the sites are not affected by weed invasion, although potential upslope development will increase the likelihood of weed invasion. Sites 2 and 3 are situated below a large plantation of Pinus radiata, and there is some evidence of P. radiata seedlings dispersing into the surrounding vegetation (Cohn 1993c).

  • Fire management and fire: The encroachment of urban development into remaining bushland areas is likely to increase the frequency of fire. Although cliff margins may be protected to some extent by their rocky nature, the increased burning up-slope may impact on L. lachnaeoides. Until further information becomes available, it is assumed that the species is killed by fire and that recruitment following fire will depend upon the seed bank stored in the soil (NSW NPWS 2001j). It is intended to manage the habitat of known populations with a variable 15–20 year fire interval (NSW NPWS 2000g).

  • Site access: As this species is known from cliff-tops it may be vulnerable to impacts from recreational or commercial rock climbers and from other visitors. There is a small walking track that leads to Site 5 making this population most prone to access-related disturbance. Access to a lookout at Site 4 has now been prevented, leading to increased protection of the site (NSW NPWS 2001j).

Plant collectors are also of concern (Cohn 1993c).

New South Wales National Parkes and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS 2001j) have developed the Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan, July 2001.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine, Wilding Pine) Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Recovery Plan].

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Cohn, J. (1993c). Conservation Research Statement and Recovery Plans for Phebalium lachnaoides. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Mildenhall, L. (2002). Seed ecology and population structure of the endangered plant species. Hons. Thesis. University of Wollongong.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2000g). Phebalium lachnaeoides Recovery Plan. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/news/recovery_plans/pheb.pdf.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001j). Leionema lachnaeoides Recovery Plan. [Online]. NSW NPWS. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/l-lachnaeoides/index.html.

Weston, P.H. & M.F. Portners (1991). Phebalium. In: Harden, G.J, ed. Flora of New South Wales. 2:255-263. NSW University Press Sydney.

Wilson, P.G. (1970). A Taxonomic Revision of the genera Crowea, Eriostemon and Phebalium (Rutaceae). Nuytsia. 1:1-155.

Wilson, P.G. (1998b). New species and nomenclatural changes in Phebalium and related genera (Rutaceae). Nuytsia. 12(2):267-288.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Leionema lachnaeoides in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 23 Sep 2014 15:59:54 +1000.