In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ba) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bb) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (17/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (86) (17/11/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009f) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|Scientific name||Eremophila rostrata |
|Reference||Chinnock, R.J. (2007) Eremophila and allied genera: 558-559 [tax. nov.]|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Eremophila rostrata
Common name: Beaked Eremophila
The Beaked Eremophila is conventionally accepted and has been split into two subspecies which represent the two main subpopulation areas: Eremophila rostrata subsp. rostrata in the Cue area and E. r. subsp. trifida in the Perenjoi area (Chinnock 2007).
The Beaked Eremophila is an erect, rounded shrub that grows 1.5–3 m tall. The leaves are glabrous, dark green and glossy, terete and 1 mm in diameter. The flowers are pendulous and have small calyx lobes. The corolla is scarlet, light pink inside, without spots, and bulbous at the base. The upper lip of the corolla is 2-lobed, the lower lip 3-lobed. The stamens extend beyond the corolla throat. The fruits are strongly compressed laterally, convex and keeled above, and beak-like. Both fruit margins are winged (Patrick 2001). Flowering is June–October (June–July in the Cue area and September–October in the Perenjori area) (Western Australian Herbarium 2005).
The Beaked Eremophila is endemic to Western Australia and is known from four subpopulations that occur in two geographically separate areas. Two subpopulations occur north of Cue (approximately 360 km north-east of Geraldton) in the Rangelands Natural Resource Management (NRM) region, and two subpopulations occur south-east of Perenjori (approximately 200 km south-east of Geraldton) within the Northern Agricultural NRM region (WA CALM 2005). The species is fragmented as the two subpopulation areas are approximately 280 km apart (Patrick 2001) and land around the two areas has been mostly cleared for agriculture (Perenjori) or subject to mining (Cue) (Stack & English 2003).
The Beaked Eremophila's extent of occurrence is approximately 550 km² and the area of occupancy is 0.72 km². There is insufficient survey data to indicate past declines in extent of occurrence, as the original extent of this species is unknown (WA CALM 2005). Although extensive clearing has occurred, there are areas of suitable habitat (where the species is absent) between the two known subpopulation areas, however it is unlikely that the taxon's extent of occurence has changed much. It is unlikely that the area of occupancy will decline in the future as the subpopulations are not in decline and appropriate action has been taken to address threats (WA CALM 2005).
Known subpopulations of the Beaked Eremophila have been well surveyed by the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) and volunteer groups (Patrick 2001; WA DEC 2008). Subpopulation 1 and 3 occur near Perenjori and subpopulation 2a, 2b, 4a, 4b and 4 occur near Cue. Surveys of the subpopulations are summarised in the table below (WA DEC 2008):
|Subpopulation||Date surveyed||Adults||Seedlings||Condition||Survey type|
|2a||23/07/2007||19||-||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|28/07/2004||26||Healthy||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|12/09/2001||2||Healthy||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|05/08/2000||5||2||Disturbed||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|01/09/1999||3||-||Volunteer survey 2a and 2b|
|01/10/1990||2||Disturbed||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|2b||23/07/2007||See 2a||-||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|28/07/2004||See 2a||Healthy||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|12/09/2001||See 2a||Healthy||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|05/08/2000||See 2a||See 2a||Disturbed||Field survey of 2a and 2b|
|01/09/1999||See 2a||-||Volunteer survey 2a and 2b|
|06/08/1999||7||-||Agriculture Protection Board field survey|
The total population size for the Beaked Eremophila is estimated to be 90 mature plants across 4 subpopulations (WA DEC 2008). Subpopulations 2 and 4 (near Cue) are divided into smaller units due to different land tenure or short distances between plant patches (WA CALM 2005). There is limited data available to indicate that the species' subpopulation size was reduced between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. Known subpopulations are subject to potential threats, however, population trends are stable and mitigation measures have been implemented (WA CALM 2005).
None of the known subpopulations occur in conservation reserves although some occur in crown reserves, crown lands and road reserves. Attempts to include these areas in the reserve system should be considered (WA DEC 2008).
The Beaked Eremophila occurs in two geographically separate areas with quite different habitats. Near Cue, it grows on stony, buff coloured saline clays at the base of quartzite hills in an open shrubland (to 2.5 m) of Acacia spp. and Eremophila spp. over open low shrubs of Ptilotus polakii. Near Perenjori it grows in red brown clayey loam in open mallee woodland (to 6 m) of mallee Eucalyptus spp., Spinifex Wattle (Acacia coolgardiensis), Broom Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca uncinata) and Tall Mulla Mulla (Ptilotus exaltatus) (Stack & English 2003).
Details on life expectancy, natural mortality and attainment of sexual maturity of the Beaked Eremophila are unknown although it appears to be a relatively long-lived shrub with some individuals known to be at least 10 years old (Stack & English 2003). The flowering period for this species is June–October (Western Australian Herbarium 2005).
Any additional survey should focus on remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types and should occur during the flowering season (June–October) (Western Australian Herbarium 2005).
The Beaked Eremophila is related to Eremophila laanii and the Long-leaf Emu-bush (E. longifolia). It superficially resembles Twin-leaf Emu-bush (E. oppositifolia) which occurs at subpopulation 2, but the Beaked Eremophila has alternate leaves, smaller calyx lobes and consistently scarlet pink flowers (Twin-leaf Emu-bush usually has cream to pale pink flowers) (Stack & English 2003; WA CALM 2005).
The following table presents a threat summary of Beaked Eremophila subpopulations (WA CALM 2005):
|1||Land clearing and grazing||Potential sheep grazing, inappropriate fire and poor recruitment||Climate change|
|2a||Land clearing||Potential mining, vehicle disturbance and inappropriate fire||Climate change|
|2b||Land clearing||Potential road maintenance and inappropriate fire||Climate change|
|3||Land clearing||Potential road maintenance and inappropriate fire||Climate change|
|4a||Land clearing and mining||Potential mining and inappropriate fire||Climate change|
|4b||Land clearing and mining||Potential mining and inappropriate fire||Climate change|
|4c||Land clearing and mining||Potential mining, vehicle disturbance and inappropriate fire||Climate change|
The subpopulations north of Cue are in close proximity to mine site workings, including access tracks, bulldozer workings, and mine pits and heaps. Although the mine is not currently active, many areas are re-worked and it is possible that this site will be re-dug in the future (TSSC 2009ba).
Inappropriate or changed fire regimes may affect the long term viability of the Beaked Eremophila. It is not known what the fire response of the species is, however, Eremophila spp. are generally obligate regenerators and germinate following fire. Too frequent fires, before plants reach maturity, are likely to deplete the soil seed bank and lead to localised extinction. Conversely, as fire probably stimulates germination, too infrequent fires may cause plants to senesce without allowing germination (TSSC 2009ba; WA CALM 2005)
Climate change is of particular threat to rare species that occur in small fragmented subpopulations: these species may not be able to colonise new areas as climate conditions change (WA CALM 2004).
Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision
The approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats. Therefore, a recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.
A number of actions have been undertaken in the recovery of the Beaked Eremophila, including (Stack & English 2003):
- WA DEC has notified all land managers where the species occurs of their responsibilities under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia) and the Environmental Protection Act 1986 (Western Australia).
- Declared rare flora markers have been installed near subpopulation 2 and 3.
- Road and rail reserves near known subpopulations have been searched for additional subpopulations.
- Staff from WA DEC regularly monitor the health of subpopulations.
- Subpopulation 1 has been fenced to exclude further grazing.
- Seed is stored at the Western Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre and an initial germination rate of 65% was observed.
Interim recovery plan
Refer to the Interim Recovery Plan (Stack & English 2003) for thorough information on the species. The following priority actions have been identified:
- coordinate recovery actions
- seek to have subpopulation 2 fenced
- seek rehabilitation trials
- seek long-term protection of habitat
- conduct further surveys
- collect seed and cutting material
- stimulate germination of soil-stored seed
- monitor populations
- develop and implement a fire management strategy
- obtain biological and ecological information
- promote awareness
- review the need for a full recovery plan.
Commonwealth conservation advice
Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2009bb) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds, trampling, grazing and fire. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.
Management documents for the Beaked Eremophila include:
- Beaked Eremophila Interim Recovery Plan (Stack & English 2003)
- Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eremophila rostrata (TSSC 2009bb)
- Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District (Patrick 2001).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ba) [Listing Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ba) [Listing Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ba) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Road construction|
Chinnock, R.J. (2007). Eremophila and allied genera - A Monograph of the Myoporaceae. Kenthurst, Australia: Rosenberg Publishing.
Patrick, S.J. (2001). Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District. [Online]. Wildlife Management Program No 26. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Stack, G. & V. English (2003). Beaked Eremophila (Eremophila rostrate ms) Interim Recovery Plan No. 151 2003-2008. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009ba). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/65124-listing-advice.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bb). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eremophila rostrata (Beaked Eremophila). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/65124-conservation-advice.pdf.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.
Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2004). Towards a Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for Western Australia Discussion Paper. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.
Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eremophila rostrata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 23:41:34 +1000.