Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008z) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species: Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (Tas PWS), 2008) [Internet].
Scientific name Perameles gunnii gunnii [66651]
Family Peramelidae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Gray,1838
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/esl/ebb.html

Scientific name: Perameles gunnii gunnii

Common name: Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)


The justification for considering the mainland form to be possibly subspecifically distinct (Seebeck 2001) is based in part on morphological comparisons of island and mainland forms (George et al. 1990) and on a comment in Robinson and colleagues (1993) that MtDNA data, as then unpublished indicated, separation of 270 000–620 000 years ago. These assertions do not appear in the published analysis of that work (Robinson 1995) and such a separation time is far older than the separation of Tasmania from the mainland usually considered to be late Pleistocene, 8000 years ago (George et al. 1990).

The Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) is a yellowish-brown marsupial with 3–4 distinctive pale bars on its hindquarters. It grows up to 35 cm long and can weigh up to 1450 g. This bandicoot has large pointed ears, and a tail which grows to 9.5 cm long (Cronin 1991; Strahan 1998; TSSC 2008z).

The Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) was previously widely distributed in northern, central and south-eastern Tasmania (Rounsevell et al. 1991) within the North West, North and South (Tasmania) Natural Resource Management Regions (TSSC 2008z). However, it has now declined in the central part of this range in the Midlands region (Hocking 1990; Mallick et al. 1998a; Robinson et al. 1991).

The subspecies is most abundant in the south-eastern quarter of the state with lower numbers in the north-eastern and north-western coastal regions and least abundant in the Midland and eastern coastal areas (Hocking 1990; Mallick et al. 1997a; TSSC 2008z). It is absent from the south-western regions except for a single specimen from Strahan. It is also absent from the islands in Bass Strait, but was introduced to Maria Island in 1969–1970 and was still thriving there in the late 1980s (Hocking 1990) (their current status on Maria Island is unknown).

No population census data for the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) are published, however, population density estimates for the subspecies are available from a limited number of studies. In the 1960s study of a north-western population, densities averaged 0.85 per ha (range 0.45–1.46 per ha) (Heinsohn 1966). Numbers on two 20 ha grids in the Huon Valley ranged from about 10 to about 45 over a four year period indicating fairly similar densities (i.e. 0.35– 2.35 per ha) (Mallick et al. 1998a, 2000).

The Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) occurs in open habitats including woodlands and open forests with a grassy understorey, and native and exotic grasslands (Hocking 1990). The subspecies requires understorey plants to provide shelter, nest sites and food (Tas PWS 2008). Analysis of habitat characteristics based on distribution records has identified a mosaic of agricultural, mainly pastoral land and remnant bushland as primary habitat for existing populations. Deep soils and high rainfall appear to be important factors (Driessen et al. 1996; Mallick et al. 1997b, 1998b).

The distribution of this subspecies overlaps with the Eucalyptus ovata-Callitris olbonga Forest ecological community, listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act (TSSC 2008z)

The Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) constructs nests on the ground, generally under some form of vegetation cover. Abandoned rabbit burrows are also used (Heinsohn 1966).

Breeding is seasonal, but the season is long, with births occurring from June to February. Neither births nor lactating females have been observed from February to May (Heinsohn 1966). Some data give the impression of aseasonal breeding, with a decline in autumn, but are based on quarterly rather than monthly sampling (Mallick et al. 2000).

Litter sizes in north-western Tasmania range from 1–4 (average = 2.32, n = 54) (Heinsohn 1966) and in south-eastern Tasmania average 2.53 (n = 174) (Mallick et al. 2000). Young are weaned at 51–58 days and sexual maturity is attained at 4–5 months for females and 6 months for males. Mean longevity is lower for males, at 7.91 months, than for females at 10.54 months (Mallick et al. 2000).

The main food items of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania), in north-western Tasmania, are earthworms, insect larvae and adult weevils with lesser items including slugs, earwigs, beetles, fly larvae, Amphibia and berries (Heinsohn 1966).

A study in south-eastern Tasmania found the subspecies to be omnivorous, eating grasses, mosses, roots, seeds, earthworms, insect larvae and adults and larvae of beetles. Some taxa varied seasonally, probably in relation to abundance (Reimer & Hindell 1996).

The Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) detects food by both sound and odour (Quin 1992).

Mallick and colleagues (2000) surveyed the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) in the Huon Valley and found that post weaning dispersal was similar to that found in mainland studies, ranging from 16.5–25.5%.

Heinsohn (1966) found home ranges of females averaged 3.24 ha and male home ranges average 26.25 ha. Overlap was considerable (Heinsohn 1966). Mallick and colleagues (2000) found that home range avagerage for males was 4.53 ha (range 1.5–11.9 ha) and average 2.34 ha (range 0.8–5.5 ha) for females. Male/male home range overlap is much lower (4.4%) than male/female (19.3%) or female/female overlap (15.8%). Mallick and colleagues (2000) point out that Heinsohn's figures (male home range of 25.6 ha) may be more realistic because other studies, including Dufty (1994b), used relatively small study areas.

The main identified threats to the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) include clearing of habitat, in particular loss of ground cover, and predation by feral Cats (Felis catus) and Dogs (Canis familiaris) (Driessen et al. 1996; Hocking, 1990; Tas PWS 2008). Cats are also the primary host of Toxoplasma gondii, a highly contagious parasite which can cause death in Bandicoots (Obendorf & Munday 1990; Obendorf et al. 1996). Security is considered poor, given that few reserves are known to contain the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania) (Hocking 1990) and most of the available habitat is on productive agricultural or other private land (Driessen et al. 1996). Overgrazing and urban development also represent pressure on the Eastern Barred Bandicoot's habitat and the presence of European Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Tasmania also represents a new predation threat (TSSC 2008z).

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (TSSC 2008z) recommends the following research priorities, regional priority actions and local priority actions to support the recovery of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania):

  • Assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
  • Identify populations of high conservation priority.
  • Manage threats to areas of vegetation which may provide habitat for the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania).
  • Encourage landowners to retain or replant native vegetation, avoid overgrazing and not slash or burn areas where bandicoots occur.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, such as covenants or inclusion in reserve tenure.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of feral Cats and Dogs in the local region.
  • Encourage responsible Cat ownership, including night curfews for Cats.
  • Develop and implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect against outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii parasite.
  • Raise awareness of the subspecies within the local community, including land and pet owners.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations/occurrences.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Protect populations through the development of conservation agreements and/or covenants.
  • Manage threats at known sites in reserve areas and on private property to control and exclude feral Cats, Dogs and Foxes.
  • Continue baiting to control population numbers of feral animals.

Government Funded Grants
Hobart City Council Faunacare Group received $19 525 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005–06 for implementation of prescriptions from the Eastern Barred Bandicoot Recovery Plan through monitoring, habitat management and public education.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (TSSC 2008z) and Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant & Jackson 1999b) provide a biological overview and management recommendations for the subspecies. In addition, the Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European red fox (DEWHA 2008adf) and the Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (DEWHA 2008adg) are also available.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008z) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008z) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Perameles gunnii gunnii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ql) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008z) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Perameles gunnii gunnii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ql) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Perameles gunnii gunnii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ql) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Infection by parasites Perameles gunnii gunnii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ql) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008z) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals (Bryant, S. & J. Jackson, 1999b) [Book].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008z) [Conservation Advice].

Bryant, S. & J. Jackson (1999b). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Hobart, Tasmania: Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service.

Cronin, L. (1991). Key Guide to Australian Mammals. Balgowlah, NSW: Reed Books.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Driessen, M.M., S.A. Mallick & G.J. Hocking (1996). Habitat of the eastern barred bandicoot, Perameles gunnii, in Tasmania: an analysis of road-kills. Wildlife Research. 23: 721-727.

Dufty, A.C. (1994b). Habitat and spatial requirements of the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) at Hamilton, Victoria. Wildlife Research. 21: 459-472.

George, G.G., J. Dixon, G. Challis & R.C. Lacy (1990). The taxonomy and palaeontology of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot: their bearing on management of the Victorian population. In: Clark, T.W. & J.H. Seebeck, eds. Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Page(s) 33-46. Chicago, Illinois: Zoological Society.

Heinsohn, G.E. (1966). Ecology and reproduction of the Tasmanian bandicoots, Perameles gunnii and Isoodon obesulus. University of California Publications in Zoology. 80.

Hocking, G.J. (1990). Status of bandicoots in Tasmania. In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 61-66. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Mallick, S.A., G.J. Hocking & M.M. Driessen (1997b). Habitat requirements of the eastern barred bandicoot, Perameles gunnii, on agricultural land in Tasmania. Wildlife Research. 24: 237-243.

Mallick, S.A., G.J. Hocking & M.M. Driessen (1998b). Road-kills of the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) in Tasmania: an index of abundance. Wildlife Research. 25:139-145.

Mallick, S.A., M. Haseler, G.J. Hocking & M.M. Driessen (1998a). Past and present distribution of the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) in the Midlands, Tasmania. Pacific Conservation Biology. 3: 397-402.

Mallick, S.A., M.M. Driessen & G.J. Hocking (1997a). Diggings as a population index for the eastern barred bandicoot. Journal of Wildlife Management. 61: 1378-1383.

Mallick, S.A., M.M. Driessen & G.J. Hocking (2000). Demography and home range of the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) in south-eastern Tasmania. Wildlife Research. 27: 103-115.

Obendorf, D.L. & B.L. Munday (1990). Toxoplasmosis in wild Eastern Barred Bandicoots, Perameles gunnii. In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 193-197. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Obendorf, D.L., P. Statham & M. Driessen (1996). Detection of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera from free-ranging Eastern Barred Bandicoots (Perameles gunnii). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 32:623-626.

Quin, D.G. (1992). Observations on prey detection by the bandicoots, Isoodon obesulus and Perameles gunnii (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). Australian Mammalogy. 15:131-133.

Reimer, A.B. & M.A. Hindell (1996). Variation in body condition and diet of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) during the breeding season. Australian Mammalogy. 19:47-52.

Robinson, N.A. (1995). Implications from mitochondrial DNA for management to conserve the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Perameles gunnii). Conservation Biology. 9:114-125.

Robinson, N.A., N.D. Murray & W.B. Sherwin (1993). VNTR loci reveal differentiation between and structure within populations of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot Perameles gunnii. Molecular Ecology. 2:195-207.

Robinson, N.A., W.B. Sherwin & P.R. Brown (1991). A note on the status of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot, Perameles gunnii, in Tasmania. Wildlife Research. 18:451-457.

Rounsevell, D.E., R.J. Taylor, & G.J. Hocking (1991). Distribution records of native terrestrial mammals in Tasmania. Wildlife Research. 18:699-717.

Seebeck, J.H. (2001). Mammalian Species No. 654: Perameles gunnii. American Society of Mammologists. 64(5):1-8.

Strahan, R. (Ed.) (1998). The Mammals of Australia, Second Edition, rev. Sydney, NSW: Australian Museum and Reed New Holland.

Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (Tas PWS) (2008). Threatened Species: Eastern Barred Bandicoot. [Online]. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=965.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008z). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Perameles gunnii gunnii (Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Tasmania)). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66651-conservation-advice.pdf.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Perameles gunnii gunnii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 19:20:53 +1000.