Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008da) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012bk) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Southern brown bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus Threatened Species Day fact sheet (Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW), 2007c) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Recovery Plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) (New South Wales Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Isoodon obesulus nauticus [66667]
Family Peramelidae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific Name: Isoodon obesulus nauticus

Common Name:
Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)

The Southern Brown Bandicoot species, Isoodon obesulus, has five subspecies (NSW DEC 2006; Paull 2008), these subspecies are I. o. obesulus (NSW, Victoria and South Australia); I. o. nauticus (Nuyts Archipelago, South Australia); I. o. peninsulae (Cape York Peninsula, Queensland); I. o. affinus (Tasmania, Bruny Island, Maria Island and other Bass Strait Islands); and I. o. fusciventer (south-west Western Australia).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) is a solidly built, rabbit-sized, nocturnal marsupial with small rounded ears. It has soft underfur and coarse guard hairs. The back is brownish-grey, flecked with yellow-brown and the belly is pale (Cronin 1991). The short pointed tail is white with a dark base, and its elongated head has small eyes (Cronin 2000). The short forelimbs have strong, curved claws on long feet (Cronin 2000). The hind feet are long with a very large, strongly-clawed fourth toe, while the second and third toes are fused (Cronin 2000).

The skull of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) resembles that of a young female Isoodon obesulus (Jones 1924). Males weigh 450–1000 g and females weigh 400–750 g (Copley et al. 1990).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) is confined to East and West Franklin Island and St Francis Island in the Nuyts Archipelago, South Australia (Maxwell et al. 1996). The extent of species occurrence is 13 km2 (Maxwell et al. 1996). The subspecies is believed to have had a wider distribution in the past, as subfossil remains have been found on Flinders Island and Reevesby Island (Paull 1995).

Population estimates are around 550 individuals for West Franklin Island and 510 for East Franklin Island (Copley et al. 1990), and around 500 for St Francis Island (Maxwell et al. 1996). Long term trends are unknown, but population densities on West Franklin Island were considered stable during a one-year trapping study (Copley et al. 1990). However, the security of the species is considered to be moderate, as populations are small and likely to be vulnerable to catastrophic events and the potential introduction of feral predators (Kemper 1990).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) occurs within the Nuyts Archipelago Conservation Park and the Isles of Saint Francis Conservation Park.

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) is found in low open chenopod shrublands with numerous Short-tailed Shearwater (Ardenna tenuirostris) burrows and grassy limestone ridges with low open Nitre Bush (Nitraria schoberi) shrublands (Maxwell et al. 1996).

The presence of Short-tailed Shearwater burrows is strongly correlated with Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) presence, as the former is known to shelter in the former's burrows (Copley et al. 1990).

On Franklin Island, Copley and colleagues (1990) found that survivorship of individuals of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) post-birth was extremely low; approximately 20% of pouch young died before weaning, about 50% newly-independent juveniles appeared to be lost from the population, and few of the remaining 30% were later recorded as sexually mature animals.

Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) breeds throughout the year, with a peak in spring. There are an average of two young per breeding event and the sex ratio of pouch young is biased slightly toward females (Copley et al. 1990; DEW 2007c).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) is omnivorous. Its diet consists of insects, fungi, plant root nodules, bulbs, fruit, seeds and other plant material (DEW 2007c).

Home Ranges

In studies on Southern Brown Bandicoots (Isoodon obesulus) and Eastern Barred Bandicoots (Perameles gunnii) in Tasmania, Heinsohn (1966) observed that newly independent bandicoots rapidly established themselves in home ranges removed from their place of birth. This pattern of juvenile dispersal is critical to the species being able to exploit spatially and temporally ephemeral habitats, such as those subject to episodic fire (Cockburn 1990).

Ecological factors such as site productivity and habitat structure may also influence home range size (Moloney 1982). On West Franklin Island, male Southern Brown Bandicoots (Nuyts Archipelago) were found to have a home range of 2.1–2.2 ha, and females were found to have a range of 1.5–1.6 ha (Copley et al. 1990). There is evidence suggesting that differences in home range size vary according to gender and habitat use but the results are inconclusive (Ecotone Ecological Consultants 2003, Heinsohn 1966; Lobert 1990, Wilson 2004).

Territories and Interaction

It is unclear whether Southern Brown Bandicoots (Isoodon obesulus) establish territories. The results of Copley and colleagues (1990) and Lobert (1990), which demonstrate overlap in home ranges of animals, are at odds with the findings of Heinsohn (1966) and McKenzie (1967), who found that home ranges of bandicoots were non-overlapping. Moloney (1982) postulated that if the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) exhibits territoriality at all, it is in the form of passive avoidance. The pugnacious behaviour of the species (Claridge 1988; Jones 1924; Moloney 1982) and the overlap of home ranges observed in the studies of Copley and colleagues (1990) and Lobert (1990), are consistent with this mode of spacing (Lobert 1985).

In contrast to male-male interactions, female-female and male-female interactions are rarely antagonistic. Interaction between male and female animals appears to be restricted to that necessary for successful reproduction (Moloney 1982).

Survey information specific to the Southen Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) can be found in the Departmental Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Mammals (DSEWPaC 2011j). This guideline recommends that surveys for the subspecies should focus on detecting signs of foraging and tracks. Soil plots, searching for diggings and baited camera traps are thought to be the most effective techniques. Given that the subspecies' range does not overlap with any other bandicoot species, there is little need to conduct trapping or other methods to confirm species' identity. Diggings can be readily distinguished by their characteristic size and conical shape from those of all other fossorial species such as Rats (Rattus spp.), the Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), goannas (Varanus spp.), the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and hares (Lepus spp.) (Paul 1995).

The spread of the introduced Crystalline Iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) through the subspecies range is of concern (TSSC 2012bk). The Crystalline Iceplant inhibits the growth of native plants by accumulating salt in the soil and leaving behind large amounts of dry plant matter. There is concern that the plant may become dominant across the Nuyts Archipelago, to the exclusion of native perennial shrubs.

Birds of prey and snakes are the major major predators of the Nuyts Archipelago subspecies of Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) (Copley et al. 1990). Introduced predators such as the Fox (Vulpes vulpes), the Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the Cat (Felis catus) are not recorded from the Franklin and St Francis Islands, but would pose a major threat if introduced (Kemper 1990).

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) population on Franklin Island is not known to be in decline. However, the subspecies has probably declined in areas cleared for cropping on St Francis Island (Maxwell et al. 1996). Further habitat loss, cropping, grazing and weed invasion are potential threats to the subspecies.

The Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) has been protected by the creation of the Nuyts Archipelago Conservation Park and the Isles of Saint Francis Conservation Park. Public access is not available to Franklin Island. Populations of Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) occurring on Franklin Island and St Francis Island are actively managed to protect the species (DEH 2006).

Documents relevant to the management of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago) can be found at the start of the profile.

Another relevant document is The Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes (Maxwell et al. 1996).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008da) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008da) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008da) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008da) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Isoodon obesulus nauticus (Southern Brown Bandicoot (Nuyts Archipelago)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008da) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Status of bandicoots in South Australia. In: Seebeck, J H, Brown, P R, Wallis, R L & Kemper, C M, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 67-72. (Kemper, C., 1990) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Preliminary studies of the Nuyts Archipelago bandicoot Isoodon obesulus nauticus on the Franklin Islands, South Australia. In: J.H Seebeck, P.R Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 345-356. (Copley, P.B., V.T. Read, A.C. Robinson & C.H.S. Watts, 1990) [Book].
Isoodon obesulus nauticus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006mf) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Predation by reptiles Preliminary studies of the Nuyts Archipelago bandicoot Isoodon obesulus nauticus on the Franklin Islands, South Australia. In: J.H Seebeck, P.R Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 345-356. (Copley, P.B., V.T. Read, A.C. Robinson & C.H.S. Watts, 1990) [Book].
Isoodon obesulus nauticus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006mf) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Isoodon obesulus nauticus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006mf) [Internet].
Status of bandicoots in South Australia. In: Seebeck, J H, Brown, P R, Wallis, R L & Kemper, C M, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 67-72. (Kemper, C., 1990) [Book].

Claridge, A.W. (1988). Diet and ecology of the Southern Brown Bandicoot and Long-nosed Bandicoots in South-eastern New South Wales. Hons. Thesis. Canberra: Department of Forestry, The Australian National University.

Cockburn, A. (1990). Life history of the bandicoots: development rigidity and phenotypic plasticity. In: J.H. Seebeck, P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis and C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 285-292. Sydney: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Copley, P.B., V.T. Read, A.C. Robinson & C.H.S. Watts (1990). Preliminary studies of the Nuyts Archipelago bandicoot Isoodon obesulus nauticus on the Franklin Islands, South Australia. In: J.H Seebeck, P.R Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 345-356. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd.

Cronin, L. (1991). Key Guide to Australian Mammals. Balgowlah, NSW: Reed Books.

Cronin, L. (2000). Key Guide to Australian Mammals (2nd edition). Annandale, NSW: Envirobook.

Department for Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006). Island Parks of Western Eyre Peninsula Management Plan. Adelaide, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) (2007c). Southern brown bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus Threatened Species Day fact sheet. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tsd07-s-brown-bandicoot.html.

Ecotone Ecological Consultants (2003). Species Impact Statement, "Bibbenluke" Proposed 8 Lot Rural Residential Subdivision Lot 447 in DP48649 Bibbenluke Ave & Wyong Rd, Duffys Forest. Ecotone Ecological Consultants Pty Ltd, Waratah NSW 2298.

Heinsohn, G.E. (1966). Ecology and reproduction of the Tasmanian bandicoots, Perameles gunnii and Isoodon obesulus. University of California Publications in Zoology. 80.

Jones, W. (1924). The Mammals of South Australia. Parts 1-3. Adelaide, South Australia: Government Printer.

Kemper, C. (1990). Status of bandicoots in South Australia. In: Seebeck, J H, Brown, P R, Wallis, R L & Kemper, C M, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 67-72. Chipping Norton, NSW, Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd.

Lobert, B. (1985). The Ecology of the Southern Bandicoot in South-eastern Australian Heathland. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Botany and Zoology, Monash University.

Lobert, B. (1990). Home range and activity period of the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in a Victorian heathland. In: J.H. Seebeck, P.R. Brown R.L. Wallis, and C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 319-325. Sydney: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Maxwell, S., A.A. Burbidge & K. Morris (1996). The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. [Online]. Wildlife Australia, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/action-plan-australian-marsupials-and-monotremes.

McKenzie, N.L. (1967). Some Ecological Aspects of the Behaviour of the Short-nosed Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). Hons. Thesis. Honours thesis, Department of Zoology, Melbourne, Monash University.

Moloney, D.J. (1982). A Comparison of the Behaviour and Ecology of the Tasmanian Bandicoots, Perameles gunnii (Gray 1838) and Isoodon obesulus (Shaw and Nodder 1797). Hons. Thesis. Hobart: University of Tasmania.

New South Wales Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2006). Recovery Plan for the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). [Online]. Hurstville NSW: NSW DEC. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/SouthernBrownBandicootFinalRecoveryPlan.pdf.

Paull, D. (1995). The Distribution of the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus obesulus) in South Australia. Wildlife Research. 22:585-600.

Paull, D. (2008). Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). In: Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R., eds. The Mammals of Australia (Third edition). New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

Stoddart, D.M. and R.W. Braithwaite (1979). A strategy for utilization of regenerating heathland by the brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). Journal of Animal Ecology. 48:165-179.

Watts, C.H.S. (1974). The Nuyts Island Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus nauticus). South Australian Naturalist. 49:20-24.

Wilson, R. (2004). Habitat selection and demography of the endangered Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in northern Sydney. M.Sc. Thesis. Sydney: University of New South Wales.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Isoodon obesulus nauticus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 06:56:32 +1000.