In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Acacia carneorum|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia carneorum (Needle Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gk) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Acacia carnei.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Acacia carneorum.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Acacia carneorum |
|Reference||Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (18 Apr. 1916) 470.|
|Other names||Acacia carnei |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
A straggly, spreading prickly shrub or small tree to 5 m high and up to several metres in diameter (Auld 1993; Orchard & Wilson 2001). It is a gregarious species i.e. plants grow together in clusters or colonies (Orchard & Wilson 2001). The heartwood is a striking deep purple colour (Cunningham et al. 1992).
The species is found in the far south-east of Central Australia (Jessop 1981). It has a scattered distribution from south-west of Lake Frome and near Peterborough in eastern SA, to near Tibooburra, Menindee Lakes and Wanaaring in western NSW (Cunningham et al. 1992; Tame 1992; Orchard & Wilson 2001; Harden 2002).
Acacia carneorum generally occurs in clonal colonies of 20-60 plants (Whibley & Symon 1992). Auld (1993) mapped and studied 37 populations of the species and confirmed localities for 20 other populations. Of those studied, twenty-five populations occurred on grazing properties in SA and NSW, and twelve were in Kinchega NP, NSW (Auld 1993). A further three populations, consisting of 330, 200 and 20 clumps respectively, cover an area of 25 hectares on Weertaloona pastoral lease, SA (Davies 1995a).
Once common in the Broken Hill District (Morris 1966 in Ayers et al. 1996) where the type specimen was collected in 1906 (Orchard & Wilson 2001), the species has declined and is now described as rare (Auld 1993; Harden 2002). According to a 1976 publication, there were then substantial healthy stands of 40-60 mature plants around Bimbowrie, SA (Whibley 1979).
This species is known to occur in only one conservation reserve, Kinchega NP, NSW (Davies 1995a; Auld & Denham 2001) where it is represented by fewer than 1000 individuals (Briggs & Leigh 1996).
This species was originally described as Acacia carnei. Hall & Johnson (1993) suggested the change to A. carneorum and this has been adopted in the Flora of Australia (Orchard & Wilson 2001).
Flavenoid analysis indicates that the species is related biochemically to A. crombiei and A. peuce (Orchard & Wilson 2001).
This species occurs on sand ridges or sandy flats or in alluvium along watercourses (Cunningham et al. 1992; Orchard & Wilson 2001). Soils are shallow loamy brown calcareous earths, crusty neutral to alkaline red duplex (Whibley & Symon 1992) and yellowish-red sandy loams of pH 8.5 (Davies 1995a). Average annual rainfall is 150-250 mm (Whibley & Symon 1992; Auld 1993).
Acacia carneorum grows in clumps and is often the dominant vegetation form (Jessop 1981; Tame 1992; Auld 1993; Davies 1995a). It occurs in mulga communities, Callitris glaucophylla woodland, Eucalyptus socialis woodland, grassland and chenopod low shrubland (Cunningham et al. 1992; Davies 1995a; Orchard & Wilson 2001; Harden 2002). Commonly associated species include Casuarina cristata, C. pauper, Alectryon oleifolius, Atriplex vesicaria, Rhagodia spinescens and Maireana spp. (Auld 1993; Davies 1995a; Ayers et al. 1996).
Near Lake Frome, SA, the species occurs with occasional low trees of Acacia tetragonophylla and Hakea leucoptera and a sparse understorey, often dominated by Sida ammophila, Dactyloctenium radulans and/or Tephrosia sphaerospora (Davies 1995a).
In the Plumbago-Bimbowrie area, SA, it is found mainly on open flats beside shallow water courses (dry except after rain), either as a few scattered trees, or in almost pure stands of 20-30 shrubs or small trees. In the immediate vicinity were scattered plants of Heterodendrum oleifolium and a few Acacia oswaldii. Around Bimbowrie, stands are associated with Maireana pyramidata, Enchylaena tomentosa and Chenopodium spinescens (Whibley 1979).
At Pinery Hill, SA, a small stand occurred on low arid reddish sand ridges associated with Calltiris preissii, Heterodendrum oleaefolium, A. oswaldii and Myoporum platycarpum. From Pinery Hill south to Muttooroo between the track and the NSW border, plants were growing in small open stands on reddish sand ridges, or on open flats beside shallow creeks where they were mainly associated with Heterodendrum and Hakea leucoptera. The parasitic plant Lysiana exocarpi was observed growing on a few large bushes of A. carneorum (Whibley 1979).
Flower heads are bright golden globes (Jessop & Toelken 1986; Cunningham et al. 1992; Orchard & Wilson 2001). Flowering is sporadic and probably related to rainfall (Orchard & Wilson 2001). Even when it does occur, only a few branches of some trees bear flowers (Whibley 1976; Whibley 1979). Mature pods are produced rarely and then are usually few in number (Cunningham et al. 1992; Tame 1992; Auld 1993; Orchard & Wilson 2001).
The main mode of reproduction is by suckering (Cunningham et al. 1992; Tame 1992; Whibley 1992). Auld (1993) observed evidence of suckering at eight of his thirty-seven sites and successful seed production at another two. There was no effective regeneration at the other twenty-seven sites. Suckering occurs in autumn and spring each year. The seeds are not dormant when released so that seedling recruitment occurs in response to significant rainfall events. It is likely that birds assist seed dispersal (Auld 1993). Despite good rains, no juvenile establishment was noted by Davies (1995a).
Needle Wattle is a long-lived perennial (Davies 1995a). Carbon dating of five plants from Kinchega indiated ages of between 120 and 330 years old (Auld & Denham 2001). Due to its gregarious, suckering habit, the species is an excellent sand binder (Orchard & Wilson 2001).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia carneorum (Needle Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gk) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Acacia carneorum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ab) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)||The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle)||Acacia carneorum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ab) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia carneorum (Needle Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gk) [Conservation Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia carneorum (Needle Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008gk) [Conservation Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers||Acacia carneorum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ab) [Internet].|
Auld, T.D. (1993). The Impact of Grazing on Regeneration of the shrub Acacia carnei in Arid Australia. Biological Conservation. 65:165-176.
Auld, T.D. & A.J. Denham (2001). Flora conservation issues at Kinchega National Park, western NSW. Cunninghamia. 7:27-41. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney.
Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG) (2003a). Census of plants in Australia's major botanic gardens. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/bgsearch.
Ayers, D., S. Nash & K. Baggett (Eds) (1996). Threatened Species of Western New South Wales. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Cunningham, G.M., W.E. Mulham, P.L. Milthorpe & J.H. Leigh (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Davies, R.J.P. (1995a). Threatened Plant Species Management in the Arid Pastoral Zone of South Australia. Pastoral Management Branch, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
Hall, N. & L.A.S. Johnson (1993). The Names of Acacias of New South Wales. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.
Harden, G.J. (ed.) (2002). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two - rev. edn. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Jessop, J (1981). Flora of Central Australia. Sydney, A H & A W Reed Pty Ltd.
Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.
Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson (eds) (2001). Flora of Australia, Volume 11A, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 1.
Tame, T. (1992). Acacias of Southeast Australia. Kenthurst, Kangaroo Press.
Whibley, D.J.E. (1979). Notes on Acacia carnei in South Australia. South Australian Naturalist. 54(1):12-14.
Whibley, D.J.E. & D.E. Symon (1992). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbook Committee.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia carneorum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 16 Sep 2014 19:31:17 +1000.