Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Parvulastra vivipara
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009au) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, a recovery plan will have limited benefit for the species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time (17/06/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under Section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (80) (17/06/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009j) [Legislative Instrument] as Patiriella vivipara.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (138) (17/09/2012) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2012e) [Legislative Instrument] as Parvulastra vivipara.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Parvulastra vivipara (Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014wb) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Parvulastra vivipara
Scientific name Parvulastra vivipara [85451]
Family Asterinidae:Valvatida:Asteroidea:Echinodermata:Animalia
Species author (Dartnall, 1969)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Dartnall, A.J. 1969. A viviparous species of Patiriella (Asteroidea: Asterinidae) from Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 93(3): 294-296 fig. 1 pl. 29 [294, pl. 29(a-f)].
Other names Patiriella vivipara [66767]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1094

Scientific name: Patiriella vivipara

Common name: Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar

Other names: Live-bearing Seastar, Cushion Star

The species is conventionally accepted (Dartnall 1969).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar is a tiny, uniformly orange-yellow seastar, up to 15 mm across. The species usually has five short arms and is a rounded, pentagon shape. Morphological variation is common and three, four or six arms are occasionally present (Prestedge 1998).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar is endemic to south-east Tasmania. It is known from 13 isolated subpopulations within the South Tasmanian Natural Resource Management Region (TSSC 2009av).

The extent of occurrence for the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar has been estimated to be approximately 2600 km2, in the sheltered waters of south-east Tasmania from D'Entrecasteaux Channel to Norfolk Bay. However, much of the area is considered unsuitable for the species due to inappropriate substrate and depth of water (deeper than 1.2 m) (M. Wapstra 2007, pers. comm.).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be 1000–2000 m2. This figure is based on relatively accurate estimates of the extent of most extant subpopulations totaling approximately 1024 m2. However, published accounts of the extent of the largest subpopulation (Pitt Water), the most recently discovered subpopulation (Southport Lagoon) and historical accounts of subpopulations considered extinct, are not available. Given the extent of all other subpopulations, it is highly unlikely that the inclusion of these subpopulations would result in more than a doubling of the estimated area of occupancy. This is due to the restriction of the species to specific substrates within the very narrow littoral zone (M. Wapstra 2007, pers. comm.)

The species is known reliably from 13 locations (Prestedge 2001a), however, the subpopulations at two, or possibly three, of these locations are believed to be extinct (Prestedge 2001a; Rowland 2001).

It is believed that the colony at Woodbridge was introduced there in late 1995. They originally came from Pitt Water and had been on display at the Marine Discovery Centre at Woodbridge. This colony was released from their small aquarium onto the shore at Woodbridge, due to concerns for adequate care over the Christmas period. This proved to be an unplanned, but successful relocation. No Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars had been recorded from this site prior to the relocation (Prestedge 2001a).

The species' distribution is severely fragmented as all known subpopulations are small and isolated. The sites are separated by distances that exceed the presumed dispersal capacity of the species (Prestedge 2001a).

  • In Dartnall's (1969) original survey, the species was recorded from three localities (Pitt Water, Roches Beach and Eaglehawk Neck).
  • Hoggins (1976 cited in Rowland 2001) estimated the size of subpopulations at Midway Point, Tinderbox and Eaglehawk Neck.
  • Prestedge (1998) also monitored subpopulations of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar on the shore at Pitt Water between 1976 and 1982, and Eaglehawk Neck, Roches Beach and Fortescue Bay in February 1998.
  • During the 1990s additional new colonies were recorded mainly as a result of unsystematic private surveys (Prestedge 2001a).
  • Rowland (2001) undertook an assessment of the abundance of Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars at a number of locations in south-east Tasmania, excluding the Pitt Water subpopulations.
  • Polanowski (2002) undertook surveys and population counts at several of the known sites, and located a new subpopulation at Mays Point, Lauderdale.
  • In 2006 a survey of the species at Southport Lagoon (for the purpose of developing a management plan for the area) was conducted over five days from October to December. Seven colonies, varying from a few individuals to several hundred seastars, were recorded (Tas. DPIW) 2006a).

The discovery of a subpopulation during the 2006 survey at Southport Lagoon (Tas. DPIW 2006a), extended the known distribution for the species, and is the most southerly record known. The results from this survey indicate that there may be other subpopulations of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar not yet discovered in similar habitat in the surrounding area, but these are unlikely to significantly extend the distribution of the species (Tas. DPIW 2006a).

The estimated population size (excluding the Pitt Water subpopulation) is approximately 27 000 individuals (Rowland 2001). No comprehensive surveys have been undertaken to estimate the subpopulation size at Pitt Water. However, an approximate estimate of 326 000 Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars in the Pitt Water subpopulation, has been made on the basis of existing data and the total length of inhabited shoreline. This estimate is based on limited data, and more detailed surveys would be required to confirm its accuracy (Polanowski 2002).

The species is known from 13 isolated subpopulations which vary in abundance from less than 20 to several thousands (Tas. PWS 2003). These are considered subpopulations due to the extent of their geographical separation and the limited dispersal potential of the species (Prestedge 1998).

Materia (1994) suggests that the Oyster Cove subpopulation became extinct because of eutrophication of their habitat due to surrounding aquaculture practices, however, there are indications that the species never existed there (Rowland 2001).

The following table presents population information for the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar in Tasmania:

Subpopulation number Location Tenure Year first recorded Extent of subpopulation (m2) Number of mature individuals
1 Pitt Water Pitt Water Nature Reserve 1966 Unknown Several thousand, but large declines since initial surveys of 1970s and 1980s
2 Lewisham
(Pitt Water)
Unknown 1952 Treated by some as part of the Pitt Water subpopulation 4?
3 Bambra Reef, Roches Beach
(Frederick Henry Bay)
Unknown 1963 450 m2 1983=400
1998=100
2001=17 505
4 Mays Point
(South Arm)
Public Reserve 2002 15 m2 2002=13
5 Primrose Sands (Susan Bay)
(Frederick Henry Bay)
Public Reserve 2001 25 m2 2002=1885
6 Pipeclay Lagoon
(South Arm)
Unknown 1998 180 m2 2000=1180
7 Tessellated Pavement
(Tasman Peninsula)
Tessellated Pavement State Reserve 1968 150 m2 1998=1500
2000=6858
8 Fossil Island, Eaglehawk Neck
(Tasman Peninsula)
Tasman National Park 1953 Unknown Extinct?
9 Fortescue Bay
(Tasman Peninsula)
Tasman National Park 1990 20 m2 1995=50
2000=20
2002=109
10 Peppermint Bay, Woodbridge
(D'Entrecasteaux Channel)
Unknown 1995 150 m2 2001=510
Introduced
11 Grundys Point, Lunawanna, Bruny Island
(D'Entrecasteaux Channel)
Public Reserve 1988 34 m2 2000=904
12 Oyster Cove
(D'Entrecasteaux Channel)
Unknown 1952 Unknown Extinct
13 Howden, Powder Jetty
(D'Entrecasteaux Channel)
Unknown Unknown Unknown Possibly never existed
14 Tinderbox
(D'Entrecasteaux Channel)
Unknown Unknown Unknown Possibly never existed
15 Southport Lagoon Southport Lagoon Conservation Area 2006 Unknown Several hundred

Data sources and notes for the table:

1. Prestedge 1998
2. Prestedge 1998; Rowland 2001
3. Polanowski 2002; Prestedge 1998; Rowland 2001
4. Polanowski 2002
5. Polanowski 2002
6. Rowland 2001
7. Prestedge 1998; Rowland 2001
8. Prestedge 2001a
9. Polanowski 2002; Prestedge 1998, Rowland 2001
10. Prestedge 2001a; Rowland 2001
11. Rowland 2001
12. Prestedge 2001a
13. Materia 1994; Rowland 2001
14. Rowland 2001
15. Tas. DPIW 2006a

Declines in some of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar subpopulations have been observed, but have not been quantified. Surveys of parts of the species' distribution, from 1966 to 2006, have shown that the species has experienced a reduction in numbers at some locations, however some of these reductions were followed by an increase in numbers (TSSC 2009av). The largest known subpopulation, which occurs at Pitt Water, underwent a major decline in numbers between 1975 and 1998. Several large subpopulations almost disappeared from the south-western shore of the upper Pitt Water area, and the remaining subpopulations decreased (Prestedge 1998). However, an increase in the number of subpopulations and in population numbers since 1990 has been recorded and it is thought that the species may undergo natural population fluctuations (Prestedge 2001a). The species was located at two additional sites in 2002 (Polanowski 2002) and 2006 suggesting undiscovered subpopulations may exist (Tas. DPIW 2006a).

There is insufficient information available to determine if this species undergoes extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers. However, there has been an increase in the number of colonies and in population numbers since 1990 and the species is thought to experience a boom-bust cycle (Prestedge 2001a).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar is believed to live for 8–10 years (Prestedge 1998).

Subpopulations of Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars are found in the following reserves:

  • Pitt Water Nature Reserve, which also falls within the Pitt Water-Orielton Lagoon RAMSAR Wetland (one subpopulation) (Prestedge 1998)

  • Tessellated Pavement State Reserve (one subpopulation) (Prestedge 1998; Rowland 2001)

  • Tasman National Park (two subpopulations) (Polanoswski 2002; Prestedge 1998; Rowland 2001)

  • Southport Lagoon Conservation Area (one subpopulation) (Tas. DPIW 2006a)

  • Public Reserves (three subpopulations) (Polanowski 2002; Rowland 2001).

None of these reserves are actively managed for the species, although the Southport Lagoon Conservation Area subpopulation is within an area covered by a management plan (Tas. DPIW 2006b) that has made recommendations for the species, and the Pitt Water Nature Reserve subpopulation has been actively managed and monitored as part of the redevelopment of the Sorell Causeway (Aquenal 2001).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar lives in rocky areas in the upper intertidal zone, usually under rocks or in crevices. They appear to have a water depth limit, being found from just below the high water mark to a depth of approximately 1.2 m at high water (Prestedge 2001a). The species prefers gently sloping, sheltered shores, characterised by rocks often no more than 20–30 cm high. The species was originally believed to have a strong affinity with sandstone, however it has been found to inhabit a variety of substrates including dolerite, sedimentary rock, basalt, concrete and house bricks (Prestedge 2001a).


The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar does not overlap with any EPBC Act-listed threatened ecological communities (TSSC 2009au).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar reaches sexual maturity (and a diameter of 5 mm) at around 12 months. It is thought that the species may live 8–10 years (Prestedge 2001a).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar is capable of breeding throughout the year, with the peak reproductive season occurring from October to January. However, high numbers of juveniles have also been observed in June suggesting that there may also be a mid-year release period (Polanowski 2002; Prestedge 1998). It is a hermaphroditic species and undergoes self-fertilisation (Prestedge 1998).

Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars exhibit viviparity (live birth) and cannibalism in the brood sac (intragonadal cannibalism). Up to five young develop in the gonadal sac and when they reach 1–2 mm in size they rupture from the sac and emerge on the surface of the adult (Bryant & Jackson 1999b). The juveniles are considerably larger than the ova and depend on extraembryonic nutrition to support their growth. Once the mouth opens, the juveniles prey on their intragonadal siblings. Cannibalism accounts for substantial post-metamorphic growth (Byrne 1996).

The newborn seastars are tiny miniatures of the adult. This lack of a free-swimming larval stage restricts its inability to disperse into new habitats and renders the species vulnerable to several threatening processes (Bryant & Jackson 1999b).

Differences in the reproductive output between the Midway Point and Tessellated Pavement subpopulations of the species have been observed (Byrne 1996). These subpopulations occupy contrasting sheltered (Midway Point) and exposed (Tessellated Pavement) shores with greater productivity occurring in the Midway Point subpopulation. This indicates that the Midway Point location is particularly important for conservation of the species (Byrne 1996).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar feeds, unselectively, on the film of algae and microbes coating the surface of submerged rocks (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; Polanowski 2002).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar feeds at night and on dull, overcast days (Prestedge 1998). It is an extra-oral (outside of the mouth) feeder and can evert (push out) its voluminous cardiac stomach to a diameter larger than that of its body. Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars often have their stomach fully everted and in contact with the substratum, indicating that digestion is likely to take place outside the body (Polanowski 2002).

Insufficient information is available to determine daily seasonal patterns of movement for this species. It is unknown whether the species has a home range or territory.

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar is distinctive in the field due to its orange-yellow colour, making it easily detected even against a background of similar coloured substrate. It can be distinguished from similar species of Patiriella spp. by its orange-yellow underside (Bryant & Jackson 1999b).

The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar can be surveyed at low tide, by walking the littoral zone and searching for the species by visual assessment of the substrate. Lifting rocks by hand (where possible) to search for the species may also be undertaken (Prestedge 1998; Tas. DPIW 2006a). Surveying at night, or on overcast days, is recommended because the seastars are more visible as they emerge from hiding and move onto the top of rocks to feed (Polanowski 2002).

The main identified threats to the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar are interspecific competition, displacement and potential predation from introduced seastars (TSSC 2009au).

Interspecific competition from introduced seastars
Owing to the small, restricted subpopulations of the species, it is considered highly vulnerable to interspecific competition and displacement from introduced species such as the New Zealand Seastar (Patiriella regularis) and the Northern Pacific Seastar (Asterias amurensis) (Bryant & Jackson 1999b).

Predation by introduced seastars
The Northern Pacific Seastar is known to prey upon the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar under controlled conditions (Prestedge 1999) and while this species has not yet been found in any colony of Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar (M. Wapstra 2007, pers. comm.), it may be expanding its range into the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar's habitat (E. Turner 2008, pers. comm.).

Habitat modification and destruction
The recorded range of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar is in close proximity to areas inhabited by humans and, consequently, the species is impacted by habitat degradation and modification. Anthropogenic impacts include removal of rocks and suitable substrates from the intertidal zone, urban encroachment, poor land use practices and pollution-induced disturbances (i.e. eutrophication, sedimentation, increasing water temperature, declining salinity, ground water seepage from urban, industrial and agricultural land uses) (Bryant & Jackson 1999b).

The species may be adversely impacted by reduced water quality due to sewerage treatment plant discharge, seepage from areas serviced by septic tanks and from storm water runoff (Prestedge 1998).

Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision
A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary for this species as a recovery plan will have limited benefit for the species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time.

Past recovery efforts
In 2001, part of the Pitt Water subpopulation of Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars came under threat from the necessary replacement of the bridge spanning the Sorell causeway. The Tasmanian Department of Infrastructure Energy and Resources undertook a relocation exercise during April–May 2001. The Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastars were removed from the causeway and placed at a number of relocation sites chosen during a relocation survey. A total of 21 368 seastars were relocated and a number of monitoring sites were established for future ongoing monitoring of seastar subpopulations (Aquenal 2001).

Current recovery efforts
The Conservation Advice for the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar (TSSC 2009au) recommends the following priority research, recovery and threat abatement actions to support the recovery of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar:

  • Ensure infrastructure or development activities in areas where the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar occurs do not adversely impact on known subpopulations.

  • Control access to suitably constrained public access to known sites.

  • Protect subpopulations of the listed species through the development of conservation agreements and/or convenants.

  • Secure the integrity of the habitat from damage or disturbance.

  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of the Northern Pacific Seastar and New Zealand Seastar in the local region.
  • Raise awareness of the Tasmanian Live-Bearing Seastar within local communities.

  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional subpopulations.

  • Monitor and evaluate existing subpopulations.

  • Prestedge (1998, 2001a) published articles on a study into the biology and distribution of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar.

  • Prestedge (1999a, 1999b) published articles on two separate experiments investigating the impact of the European Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) and the Northern Pacific Seastar on the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar.
  • Prestedge (2001b) published an article on the salinity tolerance of the species.

  • Rowland (2001) undertook population surveys and produced an education and monitoring program for the species.

  • Polanowski (2002) submitted an honours thesis on the feeding behaviour, distribution and population genetics of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar.

  • Byrne and Cerra (1996) conducted a study on the evolution and development of the species (and one other closely related species).

The following documents may inform protection and management of the Tasmanian Live-bearing Seastar:

  • Education and Monitoring Program for the Endangered Seastar Patiriella vivipara. (Rowland 2001).
  • Threatened Species survey of Patiriella vivipara and Gazameda gunnii in Southport Lagoon for the Southport Lagoon Conservation Area, George III Monument Historic Site & Ida Bay State Reserve Management Plan 2006 (Tas. DPIW 2006a).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009au) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009au) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Changes to water quality and quantity due to urban/agricultural runoff and stormwater Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Pollution due to sewage run-off Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Waste treatment plant discharge Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009au) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009au) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009av) [Listing Advice].

Aquenal (2001). Tasman Highway Sorell Causeway Bridge and Approaches Design and Construction Seastar Relocation Plan. Report on Relocation June 2001. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Infrastructure Energy and Resources.

Bryant, S. & J. Jackson (1999b). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Hobart, Tasmania: Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service.

Byrne, M. (1996). Viviparity and intragonadal cannibalism in the diminutive asterinid sea stars Patiriella vivipara and P. parvivipara. Marine Biology. 125 (3):551-567.

Byrne, M. & A. Cerra (1996). Evolution of intragonadal development in the diminutive asterinid sea stars Patiriella vivipara and P. parvivipara with an overview of development in the Asterinidae. Biological Bulletin. 191:17-26.

Dartnall, A.J. (1969). A viviparous species of Patiriella (Asteroidea : Asterinidae) from Tasmania. In: Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW.

Materia, C.J. (1994). A Study of Native Asteroids in South Eastern Tasmania. Wildlife Report 94/9. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, and the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Polanowski, A. (2002). The Feeding Behaviour, Distribution and Population Genetics of the Endangered Seastar. Hons. Thesis.

Prestedge, G.K. (1998). The distribution and biology of Patiriella vivipara (Echinodermata: Asteroidea: Asterinidae) a Seastar endemic to southeast Tasmania. Records of the Australian Museum. 50:161-170.

Prestedge, G.K. (1999a). Will the introduced European Green Crab impact upon Patiriella vivipara, the rare endemic Seastar?. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 121:26-28.

Prestedge, G.K. (1999b). Will the introduced Northern Pacific Seastar impact upon Patiriella vivipara, the rare endemic Seastar?. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 121:29-32.

Prestedge, G.K. (2001a). Updated information and previously unpublished observations on Patiriella vivipara, a Seastar endemic to southeast Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 123:24-35.

Prestedge, G.K. (2001b). Salinity tolerance of Patiriella vivipara, a Seastar endemic to southeast Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 123:36-46.

Rowland, M. (2001). Education and monitoring program for the endangered Tasmanian seastar - Patiriella vivipara : project report & action plan for the Woodbridge Environment Group. Woodbridge, Tasmania: Marine and Coastal Research Tasmania.

Tasmania Department of Primary Industries & Water (Tas. DPIW) (2006a). Threatened Species survey of Patiriella vivipara and Gazameda gunnii in Southport Lagoon for the Southport Lagoon Conservation Area, George III Monument Historic Site & Ida Bay State Reserve Management Plan 2006. Hobart, Tasmania: Marine Environment Section, Marine Farming Branch (Tas. DPIW).

Tasmania Department of Primary Industries & Water (Tas. DPIW) (2006b). Southport Lagoon Conservation Area, George III Monument Historic Site & Ida Bay State Reserve Management Plan 2006. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Primary Industries and Water. Available from: http://www.rpdc.tas.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/70965/Southport_DMP.pdf.

Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service (Tas. PWS) (2003). Seastars Endemic to Tasmania. Threatened Species Fact Sheet. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=6917.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009au). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Patiriella vivipara. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66767-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009av). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Patiriella vivipara. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66767-listing-advice.pdf.

Wapstra, M. (2007). Personal communications. Hobart, Tasmania: Environmental Consulting Options Tasmania.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Parvulastra vivipara in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 02:17:44 +1000.