Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (Chalcophaps indica natalis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005y) [Listing Advice].
 
Approved Conservation Advice for Chalcophaps indica natalis (Christmas Island emerald dove) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014ax) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/04/2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Scientific name Chalcophaps indica natalis [67030]
Family Columbidae:Columbiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Lister, 1889
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Chalcophaps indica natalis.

Common name: Emerald Dove (Christmas Island), Christmas Island Emerald Dove.

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is a conventionally accepted subspecies of the Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica (Higgins & Davies 1996; Schodde & Mason 1997).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is a small pigeon about 23 to 26 cm long. It has a wingspan of about 43 to 46 cm, and a mass of about 80 to 135 g. It is mostly purplish-brown or red-brown with iridescent dark-green wings, dark brown irides, an orange bill (with a darker base) and red or purple-red legs and feet. The male differs from the female in having a grey crown, white forehead, white stripe above each eye, narrow white line across each shoulder, and dark grey (rather than red-brown) lower back, rump and tail (Higgins & Davies 1996; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Reville 1993).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) occurs singly or in pairs, or occasionally in small flocks (Gibson-Hill 1947).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is confined to Christmas Island (Schodde & Mason 1997), where it is widespread and common in areas of rainforest (Carter 2000b; Doughty 2003; Gibson-Hill 1947; Hansbro 2000; James & Retallick 2007; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with high reliability, to be 137 km². The extent of occurrence is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be about 105 to 115 km² (James 2007, pers. comm.). This figure is based on the results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 (James & Retallick 2007) and is of the same order as an earlier estimate of 100 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy may have been reduced to some extent by past clearance of native rainforest for industrial and municipal purposes (Stokes 1988; Van Tets 1975), although the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) continues to inhabit disturbed and suboptimal habitats such as weed thickets and residential gardens, albeit in lower densities than have been observed in undisturbed rainforest (James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007).

In 2000 it was surmised that the area of occupancy was declining in response to the spread of the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant Anoplolepis gracilipes, which attacks (and possibly competes for food with) the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island), and which may indirectly alter the structure, composition and suitability of Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005y). However, the spread of the Yellow Crazy Ant was halted by a successful island-wide aerial baiting campaign conducted in September 2002 (TSSC 2005y), and the results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 show that the area of occupancy has remained stable since 2000 (James & Retallick 2007). It has been reported that some small supercolonies of the Yellow Crazy Ant have reformed, and some new colonies of the Yellow Crazy Ant have formed, since the completion of the aerial baiting campaign (TSSC 2005y). If these reports are correct there might be some potential for the area of occupancy to decline in future if management of the Yellow Crazy Ant is not maintained.

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is confined to a single location (Schodde & Mason 1997; TSSC 2005y).

There are no known captive populations of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island). In 2000 it was recommended that a captive breeding colony be established if the population of the Yellow Crazy Ant on Christmas Island could not be controlled (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the spread of the Yellow Crazy Ant was halted by an island-wide aerial baiting campaign in September 2002 (TSSC 2005y), and a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 indicate that the population of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is currently secure (James & Retallick 2007), thus eliminating the need for a captive breeding program.

The distribution of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is not severely fragmented (James & Retallick 2007).

There have been two major systematic field surveys for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island). The first was conducted in August 2002 at selected sites on the eastern part of the island (Corbett et al. 2003). The second was conducted in 2005 and 2006 and involved a series of surveys at 128 sites distributed across most of the island (James & Retallick 2007). The distribution of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is well known from the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 (James & Retallick 2007), but there are no reliable estimates of population size.

There are no reliable estimates of population size. The population size has most recently been estimated at 900–3500 birds. This estimate was derived from the results of a systematic survey conducted in August 2002 (Corbett et al. 2003) but is considered to be unreliable because it was based on small sample sizes and unrealistic assumptions about the movement of birds during the survey period (James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007). The population size had earlier been estimated at 5000 adult birds in 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000); 2000 adult birds based on opportunistic observations in the mid 1980s (Stokes 1988) and 1993 (Carter 1994); and 200–2000 adult birds based on opportunistic observations in 1965, 1972 and 1974 (van Tets 1975).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) occurs in a single intra-breeding population on Christmas Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005y).

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) population has declined in size since Europeans arrived on Christmas Island (Gibson-Hill 1947; Stokes 1988; TSSC 2005y). Stokes (1988) speculated that a moderate decline in numbers had occurred in response to habitat alteration, predation by introduced animals, and hunting by humans. No data are available to assess recent or current trends in population size.

In 2000 it was surmised that the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) population was declining in size in response to the spread of the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant, and it was predicted that the population size would continue to decline to less than 20% of its then size over the following three generations (15 years) unless the spread of the Yellow Crazy Ant could be controlled (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The spread of the Yellow Crazy Ant was halted by an island-wide aerial baiting campaign in September 2002 (TSSC 2005y) and the results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 indicate that no decline has occurred and the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) remains widespread and common on Christmas Island (James & Retallick 2007). It has been reported that some small supercolonies of the Yellow Crazy Ant have reformed, and some new colonies of the Yellow Crazy Ant have formed, since the completion of the aerial baiting campaign (TSSC 2005y). If these reports are correct there might be some potential for population size to decline in future if management of the Yellow Crazy Ant is not maintained.

No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) and any other subspecies of the Emerald Dove, or between the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) and any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs in the wild because the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is the only subspecies of the Emerald Dove, and the only member of the genus Chalcophaps, that occurs on Christmas Island (Gibson-Hill 1947; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) occurs within Christmas Island National Park (James 2007, pers. comm.), which accounts for more than 60% of the total land area of Christmas Island (Environment Australia 2002i). It is estimated that more than 60% of the Emerald Dove (Christimas Island) population occurs within the boundaries of the national park (James 2007, pers. comm.) based on the results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 (James & Retallick 2007).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) occurs in most forested habitats on Christmas Island. It is most common in tall closed evergreen rainforest and open semi-deciduous rainforest, especially on the terraces that surround the central plateau of the island, but is also regularly observed in deciduous scrub, disturbed vegetation such as thickets of weeds and secondary regrowth (including areas dominated by Muntingia calabura), and settled areas (on lawns, in gardens and around houses), and on forest tracks (Carter 2000b; Craig 1996; Environment Australia 2002i; Gibson-Hill 1947; Hasbro 2000; James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988; TSSC 2005y).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities that are listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It is sympatric with and occurs in similar habitats to the Christmas Island Pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi, which is listed as Critically Endangered under the EPBC Act 1999; Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis, Island Thrush (Christmas Island) Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus and Christmas Island Shrew Crocidura attenuata trichura, which are listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act 1999; and Christmas Island Blind Snake Typhlops exocoeti, Christmas Island Gecko Lepidodactylus listeri and Christmas Island Hawk-Owl Ninox natalis, which are listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act 1999 (James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007).

No information is available on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality.

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) breeds from October to February (Gibson-Hill 1947), and possibly into March (Reville 1993). It builds a loosely-constructed platform-like nest of twigs and leaves that is usually placed a couple of metres above the ground in the fork of a small shrub (Gibson-Hill 1947). Its clutches consist of two off-white eggs that are incubated for a period of more than 17 days (Gibson-Hill 1947; Reville 1993). The nestlings remain in the nest for 12 to 16 days after hatching (Gibson-Hill 1947). The breeding biology is otherwise unrecorded.

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) feeds on fallen berries and fruit (including the introduced Carica papaya) and seeds, and occasionally on grains of rice Oryza sativa (Gibson-Hill 1947; Johnstone & Storr 2004). It might also take some invertebrate food, based on the diet of subspecies C. i. chrysochlora on the Australian mainland (Frith 1982b).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) forages on the ground for fruit, berries and seeds (Gibson-Hill 1947; Johnstone & Storr 2004; TSSC 2005y; van Tets & van Tets 1967). Its habit of foraging on the ground exposes the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) to contact with terrestrial predators such as cats Felis catus, dogs Canis familiaris and Yellow Crazy Ants (James 2007, pers. comm.; Stokes 1988; TSSC 2005y), and possibly also to competition for food with Yellow Crazy Ants (TSSC 2005y). It also forages beside roadways and is sometimes killed by collisions with vehicles (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is resident on Christmas Island (Gibson-Hill 1947; van Tets & van Tets 1967). Its movements are otherwise unknown.

No information is available on the home ranges of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island). It is likely that males establish territories during the breeding season, as has been recorded in subspecies C. i. chrysochlora on Lord Howe Island (Hutton 1991), and there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that some individuals occupy the same territories for many years (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The recommended method to survey for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is to conduct area searches or transect surveys in suitable rainforest habitat (Birds Australia 2006a, pers. comm.).

The main threats to the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) in the past were habitat alteration, predation by cats and Black Rats Rattus rattus, and hunting by humans (Gibson-Hill 1947; Stokes 1988). The combined effects of these processes are speculated to have caused a moderate decline in the population size of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island). However, the only quantitative evidence that any of these processes have caused a decline in numbers of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) was obtained by a recent study which found that reporting rates for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) are lower in disturbed habitats than they are in undisturbed native rainforest (James & Retallick 2007). The incidence of hunting by humans has subsided (Stokes 1988) and evidently ceased (James 2007, pers. comm.). The prevalence of habitat alteration has also subsided (Stokes 1988), but suitable habitat continues to be lost through the clearance of secondary regrowth for mining operations and other purposes (such as urban sprawl and the recent construction of the Immigration Reception and Processing Centre) (James 2007, pers. comm.). The current impact of predation is unknown, but apparently low: the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) remains widespread and common in rainforest (Carter 2000b; Doughty 2003; Hansbro 2000; James & Retallick 2007; Reville 1993) even though cats and Black Rats are abundant in forests across the entire extent of Christmas Island (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The major threat to the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) at present is likely to be the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005y). The Yellow Crazy Ant has the potential to impact on the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) in a variety of ways. It is claimed to be capable of making direct attacks on the doves (although healthy birds are claimed to be able to remove ants before serious injury occurs) and of reducing breeding success in ant-infested areas (perhaps through the harassment of nesting adults and/or predation of juvenile birds and nestlings). It could also compete with the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) for food resources (Davis 2002; TSSC 2005y).

The Yellow Crazy Ant could also impact on the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) indirectly. One potential mechanism for this could be the elimination of the dominant Red Crab Gecarcoidea natalis from areas of native rainforest. This is because, in the absence of the Red Crab, the seeds that are normally eaten by the crab germinate and produce a dense layer of seedlings on the normally much more open rainforest floor. This change in the structure of the rainforest makes it more difficult for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) to seek food on the ground, and might possibly result in long-term changes in the structure and composition, and perhaps suitability, of the rainforest habitat (O'Dowd et al. 1999; TSSC 2005y). The elimination of the Red Crab might also allow introduced predators such as cats and Black Rats to increase in abundance and in such a situation it is possible that the incidence of predation upon the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) could increase (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005y).

Another potential mechanism for the Yellow Crazy Ant to impact on the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) indirectly could be through its mutually-beneficial relationship with scale insects. Populations of scale insects can increase substantially in the presence of the Yellow Crazy Ant, and large populations of scale insects can have detrimental effects on the rainforest canopy. The degradation of the canopy could potentially result in a change in the composition of the rainforest, and this in turn could potentially reduce the suitability of affected rainforest habitats for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (O'Dowd et al. 1999; TSSC 2005y).

The Yellow Crazy Ant was introduced to Christmas Island between 1915 and 1934. Its distribution on the island has expanded since its introduction and, prior to the implementation of an island-wide aerial baiting campaign in September 2002, it inhabited 24.4% of the native rainforest on Christmas Island (TSSC 2005y). A study into the impact of the Yellow Crazy Ant on the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) showed that the abundance of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) is reduced by 80–90% in areas of native rainforest invaded by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Davis 2002).

While in 2000 some predicted that the population of the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) would decline by more than 80% over the following three generations (15 years) because of the expansion of the Yellow Crazy Ant population (Garnett & Crowley 2000), this has not happened. The island-wide aerial baiting campaign, conducted in September 2002, resulted in a reduction of the Yellow Crazy Ant colonies by 98–100% and reduced the activity of the Ants significantly (TSSC 2005y). While successful at slowing the impact of the Yellow Crazy Ant on the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island), the aim of the baiting program was to control, rather than eradicate, the Yellow Crazy Ant population, and the reformation of some small supercolonies, and the formation of some new colonies, have been reported (TSSC 2005y).

The following recovery actions have been implemented:

  • Research has been conducted on the Yellow Crazy Ant on Christmas Island, and a management strategy for the ant has been developed. Measures introduced to control the ant on Christmas Island include a successful island-wide aerial baiting campaign that was implemented in September 2002 (Davis 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Slip 2002; TSSC 2005y). In addition, a threat abatement plan has recently been prepared to guide the management and control of introduced tramp ants (including the Yellow Crazy Ant) in Australia and its territories (AGDEH 2006p).

The following recovery actions have been recommended:

  • Continue to employ measures to control the spread and abundance of the Yellow Crazy Ant (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005y).

No major studies have been conducted on the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island).

No recovery, conservation or threat abatement plans have been prepared for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island). However, a brief recovery outline for the Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) appears in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000), an action plan has been prepared to guide the management and control of the Yellow Crazy Ant on Christmas Island (Slip 2002), and a threat abatement plan has been prepared to guide the management and control of introduced tramp ants (including the Yellow Crazy Ant) in Australia and its territories (Department of Environment and Heritage 2006p).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (Chalcophaps indica natalis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005y) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Anoplolepis gracilipes (Yellow Crazy Ant, Gramang Ant, Long-legged Ant, Maldive Ant) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (Chalcophaps indica natalis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005y) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (Chalcophaps indica natalis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005y) [Listing Advice].

Birds Australia (2006a). Personal communication. November 2006.

Carter, M. (1994). Birds of Australia's Christmas Island. Wingspan. 13:18-21.

Carter, M. (2000b). Christmas Island, Western Australia. Australian Birding Magazine. 6 (3,4):23-24.

Corbett, L., F. Crome & G. Richards (2003). Fauna survey of Mine Lease Applications and National Park reference areas, Christmas Island, August 2002. Appendix G. In: Phosphate Resources Limited. Christmas Island Phosphates Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Christmas Island Phosphate Mines (9 Sites) (EPBC 2001/487). Christmas Island: Phosphate Resources Limited.

Craig, M. (1996). Birding on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Western Australian Bird Notes. 78:14-16.

Davis, N. (2002). The Invasive Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: Impacts on the Frugivorous Bird Fauna. Hons. Thesis. Honours thesis, Monash University.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006p). Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/trampants.html.

Doughty, C. (2003). The birds of Christmas Island. Bird Observer. 824:14-15.

Environment Australia (2002i). Christmas Island National Park Management Plan. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia.

Frith, H.J. (1982b). Pigeons and Doves of Australia. Melbourne: Rigby.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1947). Notes on the birds of Christmas Island. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum. 18:87-165.

Hansbro, P. (2000). Observations from Christmas Island, 25 December 1999 to 1 January 2000. Australian Birding. 6(3,4):25, 28.

Higgins, P.J. & S.J.J.F. Davies, eds (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Three - Snipe to Pigeons. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Hutton, I. (1991). Birds of Lord Howe Island: Past and Present. Coffs Harbour, NSW: author published.

James, D.J. (2007). Personal communication. January 2007, Department of the Environment and Water Resources.

James, D.J. & K. Retallick (2007). Forest Birds of Christmas Island: A Baseline Survey of Abundance. Parks Australia North Christmas Island Biodiversity Monitoring Programme. Canberra, ACT: Department of Finance and Administration and the Department of the Environment and Water Resources.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (2004). Passerines (Blue-winged Pitta to Goldfinch): Annotated Checklist of Christmas Island Birds. In: Handbook of Western Australian Birds. 2:439-476. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

O'Dowd, D.J., P.T. Green, & P.S. Lake (1999). Status, impact and recommendations for research and management of exotic invasive ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions, Monash University.

Reville, B.J. (1993). A Visitor's Guide to the Birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. In: second edition. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1997). Aves (Columbidae to Coracidae). In: Houston, W.W.K. & A. Wells, eds. Zoological Catologue of Australia. 37.2. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Slip, D. (2002). Invasive Ants on Christmas Island Action Plan, February 2000-February 2003. Parks Australia North, Christmas Island.

Stokes, T. (1988). A review of the birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Occasional Paper.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2005ar). NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (Chalcophaps indica natalis). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/chalcophaps-indica-natalis.html#conservation.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2005y). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) (Chalcophaps indica natalis). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/chalcophaps-indica-natalis.html.

van Tets, G.F. (1975). A report on the conservation of resident birds on Christmas Island. Bulletin of the International Council for Bird Preservation. 12:238-242.

van Tets, G.F. & P.A. van Tets (1967). A report on the resident birds of Christmas Island. Emu. 66:309-317.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Chalcophaps indica natalis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 2 Aug 2014 14:38:00 +1000.