Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Acanthornis magna greeniana
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acanthornis magnus greenianus (Scrubtit (King Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002a) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans King Island Biodiversity Management Plan (Threatened Species Section (Tamanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment), 2012) [Recovery Plan] as Acanthornis magna greeniana.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (01/07/2002) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2002c) [Legislative Instrument] as Acanthornis magnus greenianus.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Acanthornis magna greeniana.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Scrubtit (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2009o) [Internet].
TAS:Acanthornis magna greeniana (Scrubtit (King Island)): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014ss) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Acanthornis magna greeniana
Scientific name Acanthornis magna greeniana [82329]
Family Pardalotidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Schodde & Mason, 1999
Reference  
Other names Acanthornis magnus greenianus [67070]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Acanthornis magnus greenianus.

Common name: Scrubtit (King Island).

Other names: King Island Scrubtit. At the species level, the Scrubtit has also been known as the Tasmanian Scrubtit, White-breasted Scrubtit, Fern Weaver, Mountain Wren, Scrubwren and Great Tit (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Scrubtit (King Island) is a recently described and conventionally accepted subspecies of the Scrubtit Acanthornis magnus (Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Scrubtit (King Island) is about 11 to 12 cm in length and has a mass of 8.5 to 11 g. The adults are brown above, and mostly yellowish-white below, with a white ring around each eye, yellowish irides, a grey 'mask', a greyish-black bill, two white spots on the shoulder of each wing, white margins on some feathers of the wings, a black band across the posterior end of the tail, and pinkish-brown to grey feet and legs. Juvenile birds can be distinguished from the adults, if viewed at close range, on the basis of the duller plumage, smaller and less prominent white spots on the wings, finer white margins on the feathers of the wings, and pale (rather than black) gape (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Scrubtit (King Island) has been recorded in pairs and family parties of three or four birds (Donaghey 2003, 2007; KINRMG 2006), and probably also occurs singly (Green 1995; McGill 1970). The nominate subspecies, A. m. magnus, has been recorded in mixed-species foraging groups (Newman 1975, 1976) with Tasmanian Scrubwrens Sericornis humilis and Tasmanian Thornbills Acanthiza ewingii (Thomas 1974), and given that both of these species also occur on King Island (Donaghey 2003; Green & McGarvie 1971; Thomas 1979), it is possible that they also form foraging associations with the Scrubtit (King Island) on King Island.

The Scrubtit (King Island) is confined to remnant habitats on King Island, in Bass Strait. In recent years it has been recorded at only two locations: the Nook Swamps, in Lavinia State Reserve, and Colliers Swamp (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Donaghey 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Green & McGarvie 1971; KINRMG 2006; McGarvie & Templeton 1974; Schodde & Mason 1999; Thomas 1979; TSN-WWF 2004).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with high reliability, to be 500 km². The extent of occurrence has declined since European settlement. The Scrubtit (King Island) formerly may have occurred across King Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, almost 70% of the native vegetation that occurred on King Island has been eliminated since settlement by clearing and burning, and this has severely reduced the extent of occurrence (Barnes et al. 2002; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.; KINRMG 2006). The Scrubtit (King Island) was recorded at Yellow Rock, the Nook Swamps, Pass River and Pegarah State Forest in the late 1960s and early 1970s (Donaghey 2007; Green & McGarvie 1971; McGarvie & Templeton 1974), but extensive searches in 2001 and 2003-2004 located it only in the Nook Swamps and at a previously unknown site at Colliers Swamp (Donaghey 2003, 2007; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.; TSN-WWF 2004).

The area of occupancy is estimated, with low reliability, to be 5 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy has declined since European settlement.

The Scrubtit (King Island) is currently known to occur at only two locations: the Nook Swamps, in Livinia State Reserve, and Colliers Swamp (Barrett et al. 2003; Donaghey 2003, 2007; KINRMG 2006). It is possible that a small population could persist in Pegarah State Forest, which is the largest remnant of native forest on King Island, and which is connected to Livinia State Reserve by corridors of suitable habitat (Donaghey 2007).

The Scrubtit (King Island) has been reasonably well surveyed: extensive searches were conducted at the Nook Swamps, Pass River and Pegarah State Forest in 2001 and 2003-2004, and less exhaustive searches were conducted at Yellow Rock, Colliers Swamp and Red Hut Point in 2003-2004 (Donaghey 2003, 2007). It is, however, difficult to estimate the size of the Scrubtit (King Island) population because the birds are rarely encountered, and it is difficult to perform thorough surveys of their swamp forest habitat (Donaghey 2007).

The population size of the Scrubtit (King Island) is estimated, with low reliability, to consist of 200 or less breeding birds (Donaghey 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; KINRMG 2006). The Scrubtit (King Island) is rare or scarce in the small areas of suitable habitat that remain on King Island (Abbott 1973; Donaghey 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Scrubtit (King Island) has been recorded at only two locations in recent years: the Nook Swamps, and Colliers Swamp (Donaghey 2007; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.; KINRMG 2006; TSN-WWF 2004). It may, therefore, occur in only two subpopulations. The population in the Nook Swamps is estimated to consist of at least 50 birds, and possibly as many as 100 birds (KINRMG 2006). Prior to the widespread clearance of native vegetation from King Island, the Scrubtit (King Island) probably occurred in a single intra-breeding population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The population size of the Scrubtit (King Island) is suspected to be decreasing (Garnett & Crowley 2000). No empirical data is available to support this assumption, but the Scrubtit (King Island) has disappeared from former sites at Yellow Rock and Pass River, and possibly from Pegarah State Forest, in recent decades (Donaghey 2003, 2007; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.; KINRMG 2006).

The small size of the Scrubtit (King Island) population (it is estimated to consist of 200 breeding birds [Garnett & Crowley 2000]) makes all surviving subpopulations crucial to the long-term survival of the subspecies.

The generation length of the Scrubtit (King Island) is estimated, with low reliability, to be four years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Scrubtit (King Island) and the nominate subspecies of the Scrubtit, A. m. magnus, or between the Scrubtit (King Island) and any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs because the nominate subspecies, A. m. magnus, does not occur on King Island (Schodde & Mason 1999), and the Scrubtit is the only recognised member of the genus Acanthornis (Sibley & Monroe 1990).

The Scrubtit (King Island) occurs in Lavinia State Reserve (Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.), and recently may have disappeared from Pegarah State Forest (Donaghey 2003, 2007; Garnett & Crowley 2000). In Lavinia State Reserve, the Scrubtit (King Island) is present in the Nook Swamps, the largest tract of remaining habitat for the subspecies (Donaghey 2003; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.).

The Scrubtit (King Island) inhabits remnant patches of mature Swamp Paperbark Melaleuca ericifolia forest that occur in flat, low-lying and poorly-drained swamps (Donaghey 2003; McGarvie & Templeton 1974). It is most common in patches of tall Swamp Paperbark forest that support a dense understorey of young Swamp Paperbark and ground-layer plants (Donaghey 2003). In recent decades it also inhabited some large remnants of wet Tasmanian Blue Gum Eucalyptus globulus forest in the south-east of King Island, where it occurred in gullies lined with tree-ferns (Donaghey 2003, 2007; Green & McGarvie 1971; McGarvie & Templeton 1974).

The swamp forest habitat of the Scrubtit (King Island) may provide refuge to the subspecies during wildfire. In 2000 a major bushfire burnt almost all of Lavinia State Reserve, including a small area of the Nook Swamps, but the Scrubtit (King Island) was able to survive the fire by sheltering in unburnt areas of swamp forest habitat in the Nook Swamps (Donaghey 2003; KINRMG 2006).

The breeding biology of the Scrubtit (King Island) is essentially unknown: the only records of breeding are sightings of adults with dependent young during surveys in February 2004 (Donaghey 2007; KINRMG 2006; TSN-WWF 2004). The breeding biology of Scrubtit (King Island) is, however, likely to be similar to that of the nominate subspecies, A. m. magnus, which is described below.

The nominate subspecies, A. m. magnus, has been recorded breeding from September to January, and once in March (Ashby 1917; Butler 1906; Fielding 1976; Higgins & Peter 2002; Thomas 1977; Wilson 1986). Its nest is globular, and has a side entrance, and is built from the hairs of tree-ferns and from various other materials including bark, rootlets, grass, moss and fern fronds (Campbell 1900; Higgins & Peter 2002; North 1901-1904; Sharland 1925, 1954). The nest is usually built in a fern, or in the branches of a shrub (Butler 1906; Campbell 1900; Higgins & Peter 2002; Sharland 1954).

Its clutches consist of three or four eggs that are white with reddish-brown or purplish-brown spots and blotches (Campbell 1900; Campbell 1935; Littler 1910a; North 1901-1904, Sharland 1925). The incubation and fledging periods have not been recorded. The role of the adults in incubation is unknown, but both parents feed the young (Butler 1907; Fielding 1976). No quantitative information is available on breeding success, but nest contents are preyed upon by quolls Dasyurus (Sharland 1954), and nests are parasitised by Fan-tailed Cuckoos Cacomantis flabelliformis and Shining Bronze-Cuckoos Chrysococcyx lucisdus (Brooker & Brooker 1989a; Higgins 1999). It is possible that the Scrubtit (King Island) could also be subject to predation by quolls and parasitism by cuckoos, because the Spotted-tailed Quoll D. maculatus, Eastern Quoll D. viverrinus, Fan-tailed Cuckoo, Shining Bronze-Cuckoo and Horsfield's Bronze-Cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis all occur on King Island (Donaghey 2003; Strahan 1995; Thomas 1979).

The diet of the Scrubtit (King Island) has not been recorded. However, it probably feeds on insects, spiders and snails, like the nominate subspecies A. m. magnus (Butler 1906; Lea & Gray 1935; North 1901-1904; Pickett 1996; Thomas 1974).

The Scrubtit (King Island) forages in ferns, shrubs and Swamp Paperbark (and probably other trees). It forages systematically: it alights on a trunk, near the ground, and makes its way up and around the trunk to the canopy, picking food items from beneath loose bark and among foliage (Donaghey 2007, pers. comm.; Garnett & Crowley 2000; McGarvie & Templeton 1974).

No published information is available on the movements of the King Island (Scrubtit). However, it is probably sedentary, like the nominate subspecies A. m. magnus (Green 1989; Higgins & Peter 2002; Thomas 1974).

The Scrubtit (King Island) could be confused with the Tasmanian Scrubwren Sericornis humilis, especially if seen fleetingly (Donaghey 2003; Higgins & Peter 2002). However, the two birds are easily separated, on the basis of several characters (including size, colour and pattern of markings and behaviour), given a reasonable view (Donaghey 2003; Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Scrubtit (King Island) can be somewhat difficult to detect. It is usually shy and inconspicuous, although it will call (especially if disturbed) and display from high perches, and approach to investigate squeaking sounds made by human observers (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Green & McGarvie 1971; Higgins & Peter 2002). It is said to be less secretive than the nominate subspecies A. m. magnus (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The habitat of the Scrubtit (King Island) has been greatly reduced by clearing and burning (Barnes et al. 2002; Donaghey 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.; KINRMG 2006). The small Scrubtit (King Island) population (which is estimated to consist of 200 or less breeding birds) is now severely fragmented and confined to a small number of habitat remnants, and as such is extremely vulnerable to wildfire or disease epidemics (Donaghey 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; KINRMG 2006). Furthermore, birds that have been collected in recent years have been infested with large numbers of ticks, and it is possible that these infestations may be having an adverse affect on the Scrubtit (King Island) population (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999). Clearing is unlikely to be a major threat at the present time because the Scrubtit (King Island) population that remains seems to be mainly confined to habitat in Livinia State Reserve (Donaghey 2003, 2007, pers. comm.; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.; KINRMG 2006; TSN-WWF 2004).

The Forest Raven Corvus tasmanicus is a current potential threat to the Scrubtit (King Island). The Forest Raven was first recorded on King Island in the late 1970s. Its population has rapidly expanded and it is now abundant on the island. The Forest Raven was found breeding in the Nook Swamps in 2000 (Donaghey 2003) and, as a known predator of eggs and nestlings of other birds (Higgins et al. 2006), it could, given its large numbers, possibly have an adverse affect on the breeding success of the Scrubtit (King Island) (Donaghey 2007, pers. comm.).

The Scrubtit (King Island) is extremely vulnerable to catastrophic events such as extensive wildfire or disease epidemics due to its very small population size (Donaghey 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; KINRMG 2006).

The following recovery actions have been implemented to protect the Scrubtit (King Island) population:

  • A project was conducted in 2003-2004 to aid the recovery of threatened forest birds on King Island. This project increased public awareness of the Scrubtit (King Island) and other threatened birds, promoted the conservation value of Scrubtit (King Island) habitat, and involved extensive searches for the subspecies (Burdon 2005; KINRMG 2006).
  • Fire management in the Nook Swamps has been identified as being critically important for the continued survival of the Scrubtit (King Island) (Donaghey 2003; Holdsworth 2002, pers. comm.). The development of a fire management plan for the Nook Swamps was recommended in a draft management plan for Lavinia State Reserve (Donaghey 2007, pers. comm.).

The following recovery actions have been recommended:

  • Ensure that the Nook Swamps are managed in a fashion that is beneficial to the Scrubtit (King Island).
  • Conduct surveys at current, former and potential sites to improve knowledge of population size, distribution and habitat preferences. In the event that a new population is discovered, action should be taken to secure and manage the land that the new population occurs on (Donaghey 2003).
  • Research, develop and implement an appropriate management strategy for the Scrubtit (King Island) and its remaining habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The King Island Natural Resource Management Group Inc (Tas) received $12 300 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003-04, part of which was for the provision of skills and techniques for the community to monitor population size and protect habitat critical to the survival of threatened species (including the Scrubtit (King Island)).

A major project was conducted in 2003-2004 to determine the distribution and status of the Scrubtit (King Island) (Burdon 2005; Donaghey 2007, pers. comm.; KINRMG 2006).

Brief recovery outlines for the Scrubtit (King Island) are featured in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and Donaghey (2003).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acanthornis magnus greenianus (Scrubtit (King Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002a) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acanthornis magnus greenianus (Scrubtit (King Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002a) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acanthornis magnus greenianus (Scrubtit (King Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002a) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acanthornis magnus greenianus (Scrubtit (King Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002a) [Listing Advice].

Abbott, I. (1973). Birds of Bass Strait. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 85:197-223.

Ashby, E. (1917). Field notes on Acanthornis magnus (Gould.) Scrub Tit or Great Tit. South Australian Ornithologist. 3:10-12.

Barnes, R.W, F. Duncan & C.S. Todd (2002). The Native Vegetation of King Island, Bass Strait. Nature Conservation Branch, Resource Management & Conservation, DPIWE, Hobart.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Brooker, M.G. & L.C. Brooker (1989a). Cuckoo hosts in Australia. Australian Zoological Reviews. 2:1-67.

Burdon, A., ed. (2005). Inspiring Community Conservation Lessons From Seven Case Studies. World Wide Fund for Nature (Australia), Sydney.

Butler, A.L. (1906). The Scrub-Tit (Acanthornis magna). Emu. 5:156-157.

Butler, A.L. (1907). Acanthornis magna. Emu. 7:92-93.

Campbell, A.J. (1900). Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield, Private.

Campbell, A.J. (1935). The genus Sericornis in Australia, with notes on four monotypic genera. Emu. 34:249-274.

Donaghey, R.H., ed. (2003). The Fauna of King Island. In: A Guide to Identification and Conservation Management. King Island Natural Resource Management Group, Currie, King Island.

Donaghey, R.H. (2007). Personal communication. January 2007.

Fielding, P. (1976). Birds of the far west coast of Tasmania. Tasmanian Naturalist. 44:12-16.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Green, R.H. (1989). Birds of Tasmania. Launceston, Tasmania: Potoroo Publishing.

Green, R.H. (1995). The Fauna of Tasmania: Birds. Launceston, Tasmania: Potoroo Publishing.

Green, R.H. & A.M. McGarvie (1971). The birds of King Island. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum. 40.

Higgins, P.J., ed. (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 4: Parrots to Dollarbird. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter, eds. (2002). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 6: Pardalotes to Shrike-thrushes. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & S.J. Cowling, eds. (2006a). Boatbill to Starlings. In: Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. 7. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Holdsworth, M. (2002). Personal communication. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania.

King Island Natural Resource Management Group (KINRMG) (2006). Recovery of threatened forest birds of King Island. Downloaded from www.kingisland.net.au on 21 November 2006.

Lea, A.H. & J.T. Gray (1935). The food of Australian birds. Emu. 35:145-178.

Littler, F.M. (1910a). A Handbook of the Birds of Tasmania and its Dependencies. Launceston: Published privately.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

McGarvie, A.M. & M.T. Templeton (1974). Additions to the birds of King Island. Emu. 74:91-96.

McGill, A.R. (1970). Australian Warblers. Bird Observers Club, Melbourne.

Newman, O.M.G., ed. (1975). Tasmanian Bird Report 4, 1974. Bird Observers Association of Tasmania, Hobart.

Newman, O.M.G., ed. (1976). Tasmanian Bird Report 5, 1975. Bird Observers Association of Tasmania, Hobart.

North, A.J. (1901-1904). Nests and Eggs of Birds Found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania Special Catalogue 1. Volume 1. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Pickett, M. (1996). A note on the diet of the Scrubtit Acanthornis magnus. Tasmanian Naturalist. 118:41.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Sharland, M.S.R. (1925). Tasmania's indigenous birds. Emu. 25:94-103.

Sharland, M.S.R. (1954). The Tasmanian Scrub-Tit. Emu. 54:81-88.

Sibley, C.G. & B.L. Monroe (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of the Birds of the World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Strahan, R., ed. (1995). The Mammals of Australia, Second Edition. Sydney: Reed Books.

Thomas, D.G. (1974). The Scrubtit Acanthornis magnus - status and ecology. Tasmanian Naturalist. 38:1-8.

Thomas, D.G., ed. (1977). Tasmanian Bird Report 6, 1976. Bird Observers Association of Tasmania, Hobart.

Thomas, D.G. (1979). Tasmanian Bird Atlas. In: Fauna of Tasmania Handbook 2. Hobart: Fauna of Tasmania Committee, University of Tasmania.

Threatened Species Network-World Wide Fund for Nature (TSN-WWF) (2004). Are We Losing Our Native Birds on King Island? How Can We Make Sure We Don't? Recovery of Threatened Forest Birds of King Island. King Island Natural Resource Management Group, Currie, King Island.

Wilson, I., ed. (1986). Tasmanian Bird Report 15, 1986. Bird Observers Association of Tasmania, Hobart.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acanthornis magna greeniana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 16:01:57 +1000.