In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Cetacean|
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012y) [Admin Guideline].
Seagrass - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011k) [Admin Guideline].
Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005e) [Information Sheet].
|Scientific name||Tursiops truncatus s. str. |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Tursiops truncates
Common name: Bottlenose Dolphin
The taxonomy of the genus Tursiops is controversial. Several species of bottlenose dolphins were described in the past due to their wide distribution and variation in morphological characters. T. truncatus, originally described for the North Atlantic Ocean, is today considered a widespread species comprised of both nearshore and offshore forms (e.g. Hoelzel et al. 1998; Rice 1998), while other species (T. gillii and T. nuuanu from the eastern Pacific Ocean; T. gephyreus from the western South Atlantic) are considered synonyms of T. truncatus (Rice 1998).
The only other species presently recognised in the genus is the Indian Ocean or Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin, T. aduncus (Ehrenberg 1832). Analyses of external morphology and skeletal characters of co-occurring 'aduncus' and 'truncatus' forms in Chinese waters confirmed that T. aduncus is a distinct species from T. truncatus (Wang et al. 2000a, b). This result was further supported by two independent mitochondrial DNA studies (control region and cytochrome b gene) (LeDuc et al. 1999; Wang et al. 1999). This genetic data suggests a closer relationship of T. aduncus to Stenella frontalis, S. clymene, S. coerueloalba and Delphinus spp. than to T. truncatus (LeDuc et al. 1999), indicating that a taxonomic revision of the sub-family Delphininae may be required.
More recently, based on further mitochondrial DNA data, a possible third species of bottlenose dolphin from South Africa has been recognised. It has been proposed that this South African form should represent the original T. aduncus (Natoli et al. 2004).
Most recently, it has been proposed that the Bottlenose Dolphins inhabiting the inshore waters of southern Australia may represent a new undescribed taxon more related to T. truncatus than to T. aduncus (Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin) (Charlton et al. 2006).
Bottlenose Dolphins have a medium-sized, robust body with a short rostrum and well marked melon. They have a moderately tall and falcate (sickle-shaped) dorsal fin. The coloration is generally dark grey in the dorsal cape with a paler grey dorsal overlay extending onto the flanks, and an off-white ventral area. In eastern Australia a blaze in the dorsal cape has been recorded. The blaze is indented at the level of the dorsal fin by a posterior pointed blaze which extends from the light grey lateral side (Hale et al. 2000).
There is geographic variation in adult length and weight. There are records from under 200 cm to about 380 cm in length, and 220 kg to about 500 kg in weight (e.g. Ross & Cockcroft 1990; Mead & Potter 1990). Males are larger than females.
In the Atlantic Ocean inshore Bottlenose Dolphins are generally smaller and lighter in colour than the offshore forms, while in the eastern Pacific Ocean offshore animals are smaller and darker than the inshore forms (Wells & Scott 1999). In eastern Australia male Bottlenose Dolphins reach about 282 cm in length, while females grow to about 279 cm (Hale et al. 2000).
Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins live in fission-fusion societies, where groups fuse into larger units and split into smaller ones, with stable, long-term associations between same-sex individuals (Connor et al. 2000; Wells et al. 1987). The size of Bottlenose Dolphin groups is highly variable. Mean group sizes range from about five individuals (Irvine et al. 1981) up to about 140 animals (Saayman & Tayler 1973). In offshore waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean aggregations estimated to contain as many as 10 000 individual dolphins have also been observed (Scott & Chivers 1990). Very little information is available on the social structure of offshore Bottlenose Dolphins.
The distribution of the Bottlenose Dolphin in Australian waters is not well known, but there are records for Queensland, NSW, Tasmania, South Australia and south-western Western Australia (Ross 2006). In the Australian region, they are usually found offshore in waters deeper than 30 m (Hale et al. 2000; Ross 2006) but also appear be found in some coastal waters (Hale et al. 2000, Kemper 2004).
Since the distribution of the Bottlenose Dolphin in not well known for the Australian region (Ross 2006), neither its extent of occurrence or area of occupancy can be calculated.
From the sighting and stranding records the Bottlenose Dolphin appears to occur in at least two main locations in Australia: south Pacific Ocean and southern Indian Ocean.
Bottlenose Dolphins are the most common cetacean held in captivity. In 2000, 30 facilities held 392 Bottlenose Dolphins in the US alone, and they were also found in captivity in at least 16 other countries (Wells & Scott 2002). In Australia Bottlenose Dolphins are currently held at Sea World, Surfers Paradise, Queensland (32 animals, including both inshore/nearshore and offshore forms, 17 of those born in captivity), and Pet Porpoise Pool, Coffs Harbour, NSW (four animals of the inshore/nearshore form, two of these born in captivity).
Bottlenose Dolphins are found in all temperate and tropical waters around the world, in both coastal (inshore and nearshore) and offshore waters. They are usually found in latitudes lower than 45° in both hemispheres, but in the North Atlantic they can reach about 65° N (Rice 1998; Wells & Scott 1999).
In the Atlantic Ocean they are found as far north as Nova Scotia, Norway and the Faroe Islands, and as far south as Tierra del Fuego and South Africa. In the Pacific Ocean they are found as far north as Puget Sound and Russia and as far south as Chile, south-eastern Australia and the south island of New Zealand. In the Indian Ocean they are found usually in offshore waters as far south as South Africa, southern Australia and south-western Western Australia (Rice 1998; Ross 2006; Wells & Scott 1999).
There are no estimates of global population size and trends. Abundance estimates are available for only a few regions, including:
- eastern tropical Pacific - approximately 243 000 individuals
- off the northeast coast of the United States - about 10 00013 000 animals (Kenney 1990)
- Western North Pacific - about 169 000 (Miyashita 1993).
Globally, threats to the species include direct and indirect catches, intentional killing, live capture, pollution, overfishing, habitat degradation and tourism.
Bottlenose Dolphins are taken in a drive fishery in the Faroe Islands (Reyes 1991), and for human consumption in Peru and Sri Lanka using gillnets, purse seines, and harpoons (Wells & Scott 1999; Wells & Scott 2002). In Japan they are fished for human consumption, bait and due to a perceived competition with the commercial fishery industry (Wells & Scott 2002).
Incidental catches, especially in gillnet and purse-seine fisheries, are a problem in many countries around the world, including Australia, but the level of this mortality is unknown. In addition, Bottlenose Dolphins are also caught in shark nets that protect bathers in South Africa and Australia (Wells & Scott 2002). Fisheries for live-captures also continue in some countries, but numbers have decreased over the years (Wells & Scott 1999).
Several contaminants have been reported at high levels in Bottlenose Dolphins, including DDT, PCBs and heavy metals (Reyes 1991; Watanabe et al. 2000). Declines in the Adriatic Sea have been blamed on habitat degradation (Bearzi et al. 2004). Reduction of fish stocks by fishing may also affect Bottlenose Dolphin populations, and excessive and unregulated tourism also seems to be a problem in many countries (Reyes 1991).
There are no global or Australian estimates of population size for Bottlenose Dolphins and therefore the percentage of the global population in Australia is unknown. There is also no information on movements of Bottlenose Dolphins in and out of the Australian jurisdiction or studies on stock structure of the species in Australia and neighbouring areas, and thus it is unknown whether the Australian population is distinct.
The distribution of Bottlenose Dolphins in Australia is not well known due to its offshore occurrence and the current taxonomic uncertainties regarding the status of several coastal populations. In eastern Australia some populations have been confirmed as belonging to the Indo-Pacific species, T. aduncus (Hale et al. 2000; Möller & Beheregaray 2001).
The species total population size is not known but it is likely to be common in offshore waters of south-eastern and southern Australia (V. Peddemors & R. Harcourt 2006, pers. comm.).
Changes in abundance and distribution have been observed in some areas around the world. For example, in the western North Atlantic these changes are consistent with that of a migratory stock (Kenney 1990). Large reductions in the number of Bottlenose Dolphins have also been recorded elsewhere. However, it is difficult to estimate whether this corresponds to extreme fluctuations because of the general lack of population size estimates and stock delineations.
A population of Bottlenose Dolphins comprised of both T. truncatus and T. aduncus mtDNA haplotypes (genetic types) have been reported for Shark Bay, Western Australia (M. Krützen, pers. comm.; cited in Ross 2006). This suggests historical hybridisation or incomplete lineage sorting of the mtDNA control region of these two species. Bottlenose Dolphins in this area resemble T. aduncus in their morphology (elongated rostrum and presence of ventral spotting in sexually mature individuals).
Hybrids with other species are also known from both captivity and in the wild (Jefferson et al. 1993a; Rice 1998; Wells & Scott 1999).
All cetaceans are protected within the Australian Whale Sanctuary under the EPBC Act. The Sanctuary includes all Commonwealth waters from the three nautical mile State waters limit out to the boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone (out to 200 nm and further in some places). The Bottlenose Dolphin is also subject to International Whaling Commission (IWC) regulations and protected within the Indian Ocean Sanctuary and Southern Ocean Sanctuary (Ross 2006).
Although Bottlenose Dolphins are primarily known from coastal waters around the world, in the Indian Ocean, and in Australia in general, they tend to inhabit offshore waters (Hale et al. 2000; Ross 2006; Wells & Scott 1999).
Bottlenose Dolphins are found in tropical and temperate waters (Rice 1998). They inhabit inshore areas such as bays, lagoons, fjords and estuaries, and nearshore (open coast) and offshore environments, including the coast of oceanic islands (Reynolds et al. 2000; Wells & Scott 1999). They are associated with many types of substrate and habitats, including mud, sand, seagrasses, mangroves and reefs (Barros & Wells 1998; Hanson & Defran 1993). Bottlenose Dolphins are known to associate with several cetacean species such as Pilot Whales, White-sided, Spotted, Rough-toothed and Risso's Dolphins, and Humpback and Right whales (Reynolds et al. 2000).
Female Bottlenose Dolphins become sexually mature at five to 13 years of age and males at eight to 12 years of age (Wells & Scott 1999, 2002). Females appear to live longer than males, reaching more than 50 years of age compared to about 40–:45 years for males (Wells & Scott 1999). There is high calf mortality and an exponentially increasing risk of senescent mortality (Stolen & Barlow 2003).
In several non-Australian populations calving is known to peak in spring and summer or spring and autumn (Wells & Scott 2002). Gestation is about 12 months and therefore mating peaks at the same time of the year. The mating system is believed to be promiscuous (Wells et al. 1987). After becoming sexually mature, females may give birth to calves every three to six years (Wells & Scott 1999; 2002).
Inshore Bottlenose Dolphins feed mainly on a variety of fish and invertebrates from both the littoral and sub-littoral zones, while offshore animals feed primarily on mesopelagic fish and oceanic squids (Reyes 1991).
They usually feed individually, but cooperative feeding is also observed. They are known to take advantage of human activities for herding fish and feeding (Wells & Scott 2002). They have been observed to herd schools of mullets towards fishermen with nets, to feed behind trawlers and around purse seine nets, and to collect discarded fish or steal fish from nets (Wells & Scott 1999).
Bottlenose Dolphins inhabiting high latitudes may exhibit seasonal migration. For example, along the Atlantic coast of the United States, north of Cape Hatteras, seasonal changes in abundance and distribution are consistent with that of a migratory stock (Kenney 1990). These movements appear to be related to changes in water temperature and prey availability (Barco et al. 1999; Torres et al. 2005).
Bottlenose Dolphins have a medium-sized and robust body with a short rostrum, well marked melon, and a moderately tall and falcate dorsal fin. The coloration is generally dark grey in the dorsal cape with a paler grey dorsal overlay extending onto the flanks, and an off-white ventral area. In eastern Australia a blaze in the dorsal cape is present (Hale et al. 2000).
The species can be easily confused with the Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (T. aduncus) (Hale et al. 2000; Möller & Beheregaray 2001; Ross & Cockcroft 1990) and also with other dolphin species, including Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Sotalia species and with Humpback Dolphins (Sousa spp.) (Jefferson et al. 1993a). At distance they can also be confused with Risso's (Grampus griseus) and Rough-toothed Dolphins (Steno bredanensis) (Jefferson et al. 1993a).
Due to the mainly offshore distribution of Bottlenose Dolphins in Australia, the recommended methods for abundance surveys include vessel-based and aerial line-transects. Preferably the time of the year for conducting surveys in an area should coincide with the season with most favorable weather conditions, such as prevailing light winds (V. Peddemors 2006, pers. comm.).
The main threats likely to affect Australian Bottlenose Dolphin populations include indirect catches in trawl, gillnet, purse-seine and trap fisheries, entanglements in debris (Shaughnessy et al. 2003), intentional killing (Kemper & Gibbs 2001) and overfishing.
Bottlenose Dolphins have a low reproductive rate, with an interbirth interval of about three to six years, and high calf mortality (Connor et al. 2000; Wells & Scott, 1999).
To reduce the by-catch of dolphins and other marine animals, by-catch action plans for several fisheries managed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority were initiated in 2001 (Ross 2006). Mitigation measures, such as the use of pingers to warn cetaceans away from nets, escape panels in purse seine nets, and handling methods for animals brought aboard vessels have been proposed by Leadbitter and colleagues (1998).
Recommendations for minimising entanglements in marine aquaculture facilities, such as tuna feedlots, have also been proposed and include the initiation of an observer programme, the collection of baseline information on the populations affected, a review on the use of anti-predator nets, and the use of acoustic harassment devices, among others (Kemper & Gibbs 2001; Kemper et al. 2004).
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The bottlenose dolphin has been identified as a conservation value in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region. The "species group report card - cetaceans" for the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region provides additional information.
The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans (Bannister et al. 1996) and the Review of the Conservation Status of Australia's Smaller Whales and Dolphins (Ross 2006) provide brief biological overviews and management recommendations for this species. In addition, Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching DEH (2005c) have been published.
No threats data available.
Bannister, J.L., C.M. Kemper & R.M. Warneke (1996). The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans. [Online]. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/cetaceans-action-plan/pubs/whaleplan.pdf.
Barco, S.G., W.M. Swingle, W.A. McLellan, R.N. Harris & D.A. Pabst (1999). Local abundance and distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the nearshore waters of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Marine Mammal Science. 15:394-408.
Barros, N.B. & R.S. Wells (1998). Prey and feeding patterns of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Journal of Mammalogy. 79:1045-1059.
Bearzi, G., D. Holcer, et al (2004). "The role of historical dolphin takes and habitat degradation in shaping the present status of northern Adriatic cetaceans.". Aquatic Conservation. 14(4):363-379.
Charlton, K., A.C. Taylor, & S.W. McKechnie (2006). A note on divergent mtDNA lineages of bottlenose dolphins from coastal waters of southern Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 8(2):173-179. Charlton, Taylor & McKechnie.
Connor, R.C., R.S. Wells, J. Mann & A.J. Read (2000). The bottlenose dolphin: social relationships in a fission-fusion society. In: Mann, J., R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack & H. Whitehead, eds. Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Department of the Environment and Heritage (2005e). Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/whale-watching-guidelines-2005.html.
Hale, P.T., A.S. Barreto & G.J.B. Ross (2000). Comparative Morphology and Distribution of the aduncus and truncatus forms of Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Aquatic Mammals. 26.2:101-110.
Hanson, M.T. & R.H. Defran (1993). The behaviour and feeding ecology of the Pacific coast bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Aquatic Mammals. 19:127-142.
Hoelzel, A.R., C.W. Potter & P.B. Best (1998). Genetic differentiation between parapatric 'nearshore' and 'offshore' populations of the bottlenose dolphin. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 265:1177-1183.
Irvine, A.B., M.D. Scott, R.S. Wells & J.H. Kaufmann (1981). Movements and activities of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, near Sarasota, Florida. Fishery Bulletin. 79:671-678.
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber (1993a). Marine Mammals of the World. FAO Species Identification Guide. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Rome. Page(s) 320.
Kemper, C.M. (2004). Osteological variation and taxonomic affinities of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops spp., from South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 52:29-48.
Kemper, C.M. & S.E. Gibbs (2001). Dolphin interactions with tuna feedlots at Port Lincoln, South Australia and recommendations for minimising entanglements. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 3:283-292.
Kemper, C.M., D. Pemperton, M. Cawthorn, S. Heinrich, J. Mann, B. Wursig, P. Shaughnessy & R. Gales (2004). Aquaculture and marine mammals: Co-existence or conflict?. In: Gales, N.J., M.A. Hindell, & R. Kirkwood, eds. Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Kenney, R.D. (1990). Bottlenose dolphins off the northeastern United States. Leatherwood, S., & R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, San Diego.
Leadbitter, D., I. Gordon & M. McKechnie (1998). Circle of dependence: Protected species handing manual. Sydney, Ocean Watch.
LeDuc, R.G., W.F. Perrin & A.E. Dizon (1999). Phylogenetic relationships among the delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Marine Mammal Science. 15:619-648.
Möller, L.M. & L.B. Beheregaray (2001). Coastal bottlenose dolphins from southeastern Australia are Tursiops aduncus according to sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Marine Mammal Science. 17:249-263.
Mead, J.G. & C.W. Potter (1990). Natural history of bottlenose dolphins along the central Atlantic coast of the United States. In: Leatherwood, S., & R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, San Diego.
Miyashita, T. (1993). Abundance of dolphin stocks in the western North Pacific taken by the Japanese drive fishery. Report of the International Whaling Commission. 43:417-437.
Peddemors, V.M. (2006). Personal Communications. Sydney: Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University.
Peddemors, V.M. & R. Harcourt (2006). Personal Communication. Sydney: Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University.
Reyes, J.C. (1991). The conservation of small cetaceans: a review. Report prepared for the Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn.
Reynolds, J.E.I.I.I., R.S. Wells & S.D. Eide (2000). The Bottlenose Dolphin: Biology and Conservation. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Rice, D.W. (1998). Marine mammals of the world. Systematics and distribution. Special publication number 4. Kansas: Society for Marine Mammalogy.
Ross, G.J.B. (2006). Review of the Conservation Status of Australia's Smaller Whales and Dolphins. Page(s) 124. [Online]. Report to the Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/pubs/conservation-smaller-whales-dolphins.pdf.
Ross, G.J.B. & V.G. Cockcroft (1990). Comments on Australian Bottlenose Dolphins and Taxonomic Status of Tursiops aduncus (Ehrenberg, 1832). In: Leatherwood, S. & R.R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Page(s) 101-128. San Diego: Academic Press.
Saayman, G.S. & C.K. Tayler (1973). Social organisation of inshore dolphins (Tursiops aduncus and Sousa) in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Mammalogy. 54:993-996.
Scott, M.D. & S.J. Chivers (1990). Distribution and herd structure of bottlenose dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean. Leatherwood, S., & R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, San Diego.
Shaughnessy, P., R. Kirkwood, M. Cawthorn, C. Kemper & D. Pemberton (2003). Pinnipeds, cetaceans and fisheries in Australia: A review of operational interactions. In: Gales, N., M. Hindell, & R. Kirkwood, eds. Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Stolen, M.K. & J. Barlow (2003). A model life table for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon system, Florida, U.S.A. Marine Mammal Science. 19:630-649.
Torres, L.G., W.A. McLellan, E. Meagher & D.A. Pabst (2005). Seasonal distribution and relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, along the US mid-Atlantic coast. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 7:153-161.
Wang, J.Y., L.-S. Chou & B.N. White (1999). Mitochondrial DNA analysis of sympatric morphotypes of bottlenose dolphins (genus: Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Molecular Ecology. 8:1603-1612.
Wang, J.Y., L.-S. Chou & B.N. White (2000a). Differences in the external morphology of two sympatric species of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Journal of Mammalogy. 81:1157-1165.
Wang, J.Y., L.-S. Chou & B.N. White (2000b). Osteological differences between two sympatric forms of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Journal of Zoology London. 252:147-162.
Wells, R.S. & M.D. Scott (1999). Bottlenose dolphin - Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) In: Handbook of Marine Mammals (Eds., Ridgway S.H., & S.R. Harrison) Vol. 6: The second book of dolphins and porpoises. In: Handbook of Marine Mammals : The second book of dolphins and porpoises. 6.
Wells, R.S. & M.D. Scott (2002). Bottlenose dolphins. In: Perrin W.F., B. Würsig, & J.G.M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. San Diego: Academic Press.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Tursiops truncatus s. str. in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 12 Mar 2014 11:25:10 +1100.