In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Cetacean|
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012x) [Admin Guideline].
Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012y) [Admin Guideline].
Industry Guidelines on the Interaction between offshore seismic exploration and whales (Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW), 2007h) [Admin Guideline].
Indo-Pacific (inshore) bottlenose dolphin - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011d) [Admin Guideline].
Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005e) [Information Sheet].
|Scientific name||Tursiops aduncus |
|Species author||(Ehrenberg, 1832)|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Tursiops aduncus
Common name: Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin
Other names: Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin, Spotted Bottlenose Dolphin
The taxonomy of the genus Tursiops is currently controversial. Several species of bottlenose dolphins were described in the past due to their wide distribution and variation in morphological characters. Two species are presently recognised within the genus; the Indian Ocean or Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin, T. aduncus (Ehrenberg 1832) and the Common Bottlenose Dolphin, T. truncatus, which is considered a widespread species (Rice 1998). Analyses of external morphology and osteology of sympatric (co-occurring) 'aduncus-like' and 'truncatus-like' forms in Chinese waters supported the species-level distinction of T. aduncus and T. truncatus (Wang et al. 2000a,b). This was further supported by two independent mitochondrial DNA studies (LeDuc et al. 1999; Wang et al. 1999). Genetic data also suggests a closer relationship of T. aduncus to Stenella frontalis, S. clymene, S. coerueloalba and Delphinus spp. than to T. truncatus (LeDuc et al. 1999), indicating that a revision of the subfamily Delphininae may be warranted (Ross 2006). More recently, a third species of bottlenose dolphin from South Africa has been proposed as the original T. aduncus based on a mitochondrial DNA control region phylogeny (Natoli et al. 2004).
In Australia a potentially undescribed bottlenose dolphin taxon, more related to T. truncatus than to T. aduncus, appears to inhabit the inshore waters of Victoria (Charlton et al. 2006). A 2008 study, based on the phylogenetic species concept, provides further evidence of a new species of bottlenose dolphin in Southern Australia which is different from the T. aduncas dolphins of South Africa (Möller et al. 2008).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins resemble Common Bottlenose Dolphins (T. truncatus) in their general colour pattern. They have a dark grey dorsal cape, with a paler grey dorsal overlay extending onto the flanks, and an off-white ventral area. In eastern Australia they can be differentiated from the Common Bottlenose Dolphin by the absence of a blaze on the dorsal cape (Hale et al. 2000) and by the presence of ventral spotting in sexually mature individuals (Ross & Cockcroft 1990). In south-eastern Australia however, sexually mature individuals identified as T. aduncus based on their mitochondrial DNA profiles do not show ventral spotting (Möller & Beheregaray 2001). In the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans, Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins have a shorter body and skull length than Common Bottlenose Dolphins, with both males and females reaching about 2.29 m in eastern Australia (Hale et al. 2000).
Australian Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins live in fission-fusion societies, where groups form into larger units and split into smaller ones, with stable, long-term associations between same-sex individuals (Connor et al. 2000; Möller et al. 2001; Möller et al. 2006). Mean group sizes range from between five (Möller et al. 2002) and 16 individuals (Corkeron 1997).
Bottlenose dolphins are distributed continuously around the Australian mainland, but the taxonomic status of many populations is unknown. Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins have been confirmed to occur in estuarine and coastal waters of eastern, western and northern Australia (Hale et al. 2000; Möller & Beheregaray 2001; Ross & Cockcroft 1990). It has also been suggested that the species occurs in southern Australia (Kemper 2004), but genetic data suggest that in-shore/near-shore animals in this region may belong to another, yet undescribed, species (Charlton et al. 2006; Möller et al. 2008).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins are known to occur in four main regions around Australia: eastern Indian Ocean, Tasman Sea, Coral Sea, and Arafura/Timor Seas.
The species distribution does not appear to be severely fragmented. However, small populations inhabiting inshore waters of south-eastern Australia may be semi-isolated from neighbouring populations due to high site fidelity and philopatry (staying in their area of birth) (Möller et al. 2002; Möller & Beheregaray 2004).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins are currently held at Sea World, Surfers Paradise, Queensland (32 animals, including both inshore/nearshore and offshore forms, 17 of those born in captivity), and Pet Porpoise Pool, Coffs Harbour, NSW (International Species Information System 2009) (four animals of the inshore/nearshore form, two of those born in captivity).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins are found in tropical and sub-tropical coastal and shallow offshore waters of the Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific Region and the western Pacific Ocean (Möller & Beheregaray 2001; Rice 1998; Ross & Cockcroft 1990; Wang et al. 1999). They range from eastern Africa northward to the Red Sea, eastward to the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal as far north as southern Japan (Reeves et al. 2003), and southward to Australia along both east and west coasts (Hale et al. 2000).
Threats to the global population of Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins are similar to those reported for Common Bottlenose Dolphins, and include direct and indirect catches by fisheries, intentional killing, live capture, pollution, competition with fisheries and tourism. Bottlenose dolphins are still taken in Japan for human consumption, bait and as perceived competition with the commercial fishery (Wells & Scott 2002). Incidental catches, especially in gillnet and purseseine fisheries, are a problem in many countries, including Australia, but the level of mortality from this threat is unknown. Bottlenose dolphins are also caught in shark nets in South Africa and Australia (Wells & Scott 2002). Live-captures for aquariums also continue in some countries (Wang et al. 1999). Reduction of fish stocks by fishing may also affect Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin populations, and excessive and unregulated tourism also seems to be a problem in many countries (Reyes 1991), including Australia.
The total population size of Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins is not known. However, it is likely that this species is common in inshore and nearshore waters of eastern, western and northern Australia (Ross 2006). Local population estimates suggest that 102 individuals occur in Jervis Bay, 140 in Port Stephens (Möller et al. 2002), about 350 in Moreton Bay (Corkeron 1990), 900 in coastal waters off North Stradbroke Island (Chilvers & Corkeron 2003), and about 18002400 in Shark Bay, Western Australia (Preen et al. 1997).
In south-eastern Australia, inshore Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins show a high degree of site fidelity to some local areas and appear to belong to relatively small communities or populations (Möller & Beheregaray 2001; Möller et al. 2002). It has been hypothesized that high site fidelity of bottlenose dolphins in sheltered environments may lead to genetic differentiation between adjacent dolphin communities (Curry & Smith 1998), but this still needs to be confirmed for Australian residents.
There are no precise estimates of generation length for Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins. However, males in South Africa reach sexual maturity at about 1115 years, while females reach sexual maturity between about nine and 11 years (Cockcroft & Ross 1989).
A population of bottlenose dolphins comprised of both T. aduncus and T. truncatus mtDNA haplotypes have been reported for Shark Bay, Western Australia (Krützen pers. comm., cited in Ross 2006), suggesting historical hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting of the mtDNA control region of these two species. Bottlenose dolphins in this area resemble T. aduncus in their morphology (elongated rostrum and presence of ventral spotting in sexually mature individuals).
All cetaceans are protected within The Australian Whale Sanctuary under the EPBC Act. The Sanctuary includes all Commonwealth waters from the three nautical mile state waters limit out to the boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (i.e. out to 200 nm and further in some places). This species is also subject to International Whaling Commission regulations and protected within the Indian Ocean Sanctuary and Southern Ocean Sanctuary (Ross 2006).
In Australia, the Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin is restricted to inshore areas such as bays and estuaries, nearshore waters, open coast environments, and shallow offshore waters including coastal areas around oceanic islands (Hale et al. 2000; Kogi et al. 2004; Möller & Beheregaray 2001; Wang et al. 1999).
Mixed groups of Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins and Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins have been observed in east Africa and eastern Australia. Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins are also known to associate with whales, such as Humpback Whales (Corkeron 1990).
Female Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins from South Africa reach sexual maturity between nine and 11 years of age, and males between 1115 years of age (Cockcroft & Ross 1989). South African Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins may live for more than 40 years (Cockcroft & Ross 1989).
Calving peaks occur in spring and summer or spring and autumn (Mann et al. 2000; Möller & Harcourt 1998; Ross 2006). Gestation lasts about 12 months (Ross 2006) so that the peak mating period coincides with peak calving time in each location. The inter-birth interval (period between pregnancies) is about three to six years. Mortality rates of calves are high for the first three years of life (Mann et al. 2000).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins from eastern Australia, South Africa and eastern Africa feed on a variety of fish and cephalopods, but in specific areas a few species may dominate the diet (Amir et al. 2005; Cockcroft & Ross 1990; Corkeron et al. 1990). Major prey species include African scad (Trachurus delagoae), Striped Threadfin (Polydactylus plebeius), P. olivaceum, Pagellus bellotti, Pacific Mackerel (Scomber japonicus), Slender Conger (Uroconger lepturus), Kaup's Arrowtooth Eel (Synaphobranchus kaupii), Plain Cardinalfish (Apogon apogonides), Yellowtail Emperor (Lethrinus crocineus), Blacktail Snapper (Lutjanus fulvus), Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), Broadclub Cuttlefish (S. latimanus), Bigfin Reef Squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana), and Squid (Loligo spp.)
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins mainly feed individually (Chilvers & Corkeron 2001; Möller & Harcourt 1998, Möller et al. 2002). However, they have been observed taking advantage of human activities such as feeding behind trawlers (Corkeron et al. 1990).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins from South Africa appear to exhibit seasonal migration, which is likely to be associated with sardine movements (Peddemors 2006, pers. comm.). Populations of Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins in the Arafua/Timor Sea are listed on Appendix II of Convention of Migratory Species (CMS) (Culik 2003f).
Movement patterns in Australia and south Africa are variable, and include year-round residency in small areas, long-range movements and migration (Chilvers & Corkeron 2001; Connor et al. 2000; Corkeron 1990; Möller et al. 2002; Peddemors 2006, pers. comm.).
In eastern Australia Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins can be differentiated from the Common Bottlenose Dolphin by the absence of a dorsal cape blaze (Hale et al. 2000) and by the presence of ventral spotting in sexually mature individuals of some populations (Ross & Cockcroft 1990; Möller & Beheregaray 2001). The species may also be confused with other dolphin species, such as humpback dolphins (Sousa spp.) (Jefferson et al. 1993).
Due to the inshore and nearshore distribution of Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins, methods for abundance estimation may include mark-resighting techniques (in small areas), and line-transects, either vessel-based or aerial-based. Surveys should coincide with seasons of favorable weather conditions, such as prevailing light winds.
The main threats likely to affect Australian populations of Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins include indirect catches in trawl; gillnet (including in shark nets to protect bathers); purseseine and trap fisheries entanglements (Shaughnessy et al. 2003); tourism (Bedjer et al. 2006); habitat destruction and degradation (Ross 2006); and overfishing.
Between 1974 and 1986 an estimated 8400 Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins were caught as bycatch in the Taiwanese gillnet fishery in the Arafura and Timor Seas (Harwood & Hembree 1987).
In Shark Bay, Western Australia, a recent study has suggested that the increase from one to two dolphin-watch tour operators near Monkey Mia has led to a decline in relative abundance of dolphins in the area (Bedjer et al. 2006). Furthermore, Scarpaci and colleagues (2000) showed that whistle production was significantly greater in the presence of commercial dolphin swim boats in Port Phillip Bay, regardless of the dolphins' behavioural state prior to the arrival of the vessels, suggesting that the dolphins were showing reaction to the presence of tourists (Ross 2006). A population viability analysis undertaken by Hale (2002) for the Port Phillip Bay population of some 80 dolphins suggested that if two new female recruits were lost from the breeding population per year, the population would be stable for a decade or so, but would face a 50% chance of extinction after 25 years, and nearly 100% after 40 years (Ross 2006).
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphins have a low reproductive rate, with an interbirth interval of three to six years, and high calf mortality (Connor et al. 2000, Mann et al. 2000), making population recovery a slow process.
Bycatch action plans for several fisheries have been introduced in 2001 to reduce the bycatch of dolphins and other marine animals. These actions are managed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (Ross 2006).
Mitigation measures, such as the use of pingers to warn animals away from nets, escape panels in purse seine nets, and handling methods for animals brought aboard vessels have been proposed by Leadbitter and colleagues (1998). Pingers are currently used to warn cetaceans away from shark nets installed to protect bathers in Australia.
In addition, Bannister and colleagues (1996) and Ross (2006) recommend the following conservation objectives be initiated to better understand the threats to the Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin:
- Determine the distribution and monitor abundance in Australian waters to assess possible impact of threats, particularly effect of direct and indirect fishing activities.
- Obtain information on diet to determine trophic level and assess possible impact of fishing industry on food resources.
- Determine taxonomic relationships within and outside the Indo-Pacific region, to assess likely impacts on individual populations.
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin has been identified as a conservation value in the North (DSEWPaC 2012x), North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions. See Schedule 2 of the North Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012x) and the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin in the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) and North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) marine regions and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - cetaceans" for the North (DSEWPaC 2012x), North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) and Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) marine regions provide additional information.
The following documents may inform protection and management:
- The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans (Bannister et al. 1996).
- Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2005e).
- Review of the Conservation Status of Australia's Smaller Whales and Dolphins (Ross 2006).
- Draft East Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region (DEW 2007a).
- Industry Guidelines on the Interaction between offshore seismic exploration and whales (DEW 2007h).
- The North Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North Marine Region (DEWHA 2008).
- The South-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the South-West Marine Region (DEWHA 2008a).
- North-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North-West Marine Region (DEWHA 2008b).
- Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (DEWHA 2009t).
No threats data available.
Amir, O.A., P. Berggren, S.G.M. Ndaro & N.S. Jiddawi (2005). Feeding ecology of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) incidentally caught in the gillnet fisheries off Zanzibar, Tanzania. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 63:429-437.
Bannister, J.L., C.M. Kemper & R.M. Warneke (1996). The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans. [Online]. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/cetaceans-action-plan/pubs/whaleplan.pdf.
Bedjer, L., A. Samuels, H. Whitehead, N. Gales, J. Mann, R. Conner, M. Heithaus, J. Watson-Capps, C. Flaherty, & M. Krützen (2006). Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology. 20 (6).
Charlton, K., A.C. Taylor, & S.W. McKechnie (2006). A note on divergent mtDNA lineages of bottlenose dolphins from coastal waters of southern Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 8(2):173-179. Charlton, Taylor & McKechnie.
Chilvers, B.L. & P.J. Corkeron (2001). Trawling and bottlenose dolphins' social structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 268:1901-1905.
Chilvers, B.L. & P.J. Corkeron (2003). Abundance of indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, off Point Lookout, Queensland, Australia. Marine Mammal Science. 19:85-95.
Cockcroft, V.G. & G.J.B. Ross (1989). Observations on the early development of a captive bottlenose dolphin calf. In: Leatherwood, S. & R.R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Page(s) 461-478. San Diego: Academic Press.
Cockcroft, V.G. & G.J.B. Ross (1990). Age, Growth and Reproduction of Bottlenose Dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the east coast of southern Africa. Fishery Bulletin. 88:289-302.
Connor, R.C., R.S. Wells, J. Mann & A.J. Read (2000). The bottlenose dolphin: social relationships in a fission-fusion society. In: Mann, J., R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack & H. Whitehead, eds. Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Corkeron, P.J. (1990). Aspects of the Behavioural Ecology of Inshore Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus and Sousa chinensis in Moreton Bay, Australia. In: Leatherwood, S. & R.R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Page(s) 285-294. San Diego: Academic Press.
Corkeron, P.J. (1997). Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in south-east Queensland waters: social structure and conservation biology. In: Hindell, M & C. Kemper, eds. Marine mammal research in the southern hemisphere: status, ecology and medicine. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Corkeron, P.J., M.M. Bryden & K. Hedstrom (1990). Feeding by Bottlenose Dolphins in Association with Trawling Operations in Moreton Bay, Australia. In: Leatherwood, S., & R.R. Reeves, eds. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Page(s) 329-336. San Diego: Academic Press.
Culik, B. (2003f). Tursiops aduncus (Ehrenberg, 1833). Review on Small Cetaceans: Distribution, Behaviour, Migration and Threats. [Online]. Compiled for the Convention on Migratory species (CMS). Available from: http://www.cms.int/reports/small_cetaceans/data/t_aduncus/t_aduncus.htm. [Accessed: 11-Sep-2007].
Curry, B.E. & J. Smith (1998). Phylogeographic Structure of the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Stock Identification and Implications for Management. In: A.E. Dizon, S.J. Chivers & W.F. Perrin, eds. Molecular genetics of Marine Mammals. Special Publication Number 3. Page(s) 227-247. Lawrence, Kansas: The Society for Marine Mammalogy.
Department of the Environment and Heritage (2005e). Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/whale-watching-guidelines-2005.html.
Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) (2007a). Draft East Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region.
Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) (2007h). Industry Guidelines on the Interaction between offshore seismic exploration and whales. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/seismic.html.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008). The North Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/north/pubs/bioregional-profile.pdf.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008a). The South-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the South-West Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/south-west/pubs/sw-profile-full.pdf.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008b). North-West Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the North-West Marine Region. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/north-west/bioregional-profile.html.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009t). Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/marine-debris.html.
Hale, P.T., A.S. Barreto & G.J.B. Ross (2000). Comparative Morphology and Distribution of the aduncus and truncatus forms of Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Aquatic Mammals. 26.2:101-110.
Harwood, M.B. & D. Hembree (1987). Incidental catch of small cetaceans in the offshore gill-net fishery in Northern Australian Waters: 1981-1985. Report of the International Whaling Commission. 37:363-367.
International Species Information System (ISIS) (2009). Species holdings. [Online]. Available from: http://www.isis.org.
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood & M.A. Webber (1993). FAO species identification guide. Marine Mammals of the World. [Online]. Rome: United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agricultural Organization. Available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/t0725e/t0725e00.pdf. [Accessed: 15-Aug-2007].
Kemper, C.M. (2004). Osteological variation and taxonomic affinities of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops spp., from South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 52:29-48.
Kogi, K., H. Toru, A. Imamura, T. Iwatani & K.M. Dudzinski (2004). Demographic parameters of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) around Mikura Island, Japan. Marine Mammal Science. 20:510-526.
Leadbitter, D., I. Gordon & M. McKechnie (1998). Circle of dependence: Protected species handing manual. Sydney, Ocean Watch.
LeDuc, R.G., W.F. Perrin & A.E. Dizon (1999). Phylogenetic relationships among the delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Marine Mammal Science. 15:619-648.
Möller, L.M., K. Bolgmann, K. Charlton-Robb, & L. Beheregaray (2008). Multi-gene evidence for a new bottlenose dolphin species in southern Australia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 49:674-681. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bio.mq.edu.au/molecularecology/pdfs/publications/new_sp_mpe08.pdf.
Möller, L.M. & L.B. Beheregaray (2001). Coastal bottlenose dolphins from southeastern Australia are Tursiops aduncus according to sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Marine Mammal Science. 17:249-263.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2013). Tursiops aduncus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 8 Dec 2013 20:07:56 +1100.