In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Conservation Dependent|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Rexea solandri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009c) [Listing Advice].
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4
(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
The Eastern Gemfish Rebuilding Strategy 2008 (Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), 2009e) [Information Sheet].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (75) (11/01/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009o) [Legislative Instrument].
|Scientific name||Rexea solandri (eastern Australian population) |
|Species author||Cuvier, 1832|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific Name: Rexea solandri (eastern Australian population)
Common Name: Eastern Gemfish
Other Names: Gemfish, Hake, King Couta, Kingfish, Silver Kingfish and Southern Kingfish, Silver Gemfish
The Eastern Gemfish refers to the eastern Australian stock of the conventionally accepted Gemfish (Rexea solandri). Western Australian stock occurs west of Bass Strait to Geraldton, Western Australia (TSSC 2009c). There are also two populations in New Zealand (TSSC 2009c).
The Eastern Gemfish is a distinct breeding population isolated from other stocks and has no chance of recolonisation (from other stocks) if it were to become extinct. However, studies suggest there is mixing in the order of tens of fish per year between Eastern Gemfish from western Tasmania and Gemfish from western Australia (Colgan & Paxton 1997). Migration between the New Zealand populations and eastern Australian populations is very low (TSSC 2009c).
The two Australian stocks do not differ in appearance, but genetic analysis suggests that the Eastern Gemfish is genetically different from the western Australian stock of the Gemfish (Colgan & Paxton 1997). Genetic research showed that New Zealand and eastern Australian populations are "similar" (TSSC 2009c).
Eastern Gemfish are long, slender and silvery fish with a form similar to mackerel (family Scombridae) or Barracouta (Thyrsites atun). The mouth of a Gemfish is long and wide with a protruding lower jaw and large fang-like teeth at the front. The species has a forked lateral line, with one branch running along the upper sides of the body, with the second branch diverging downward below the fifth dorsal fin spine, then running along the side of the body. Gemfish are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males: females may grow to 116 cm, males may grow to 106 cm. This species reaches a maximum weight of 15 kg, although they are typically substantially smaller than this (Morison et al. 2007; Tilzey 2000 cited in Pogonoski et al. 2002).
Gemfish are found throughout southern Australian temperate waters (Pogonoski et al. 2002). In Australia, gemfish are divided into two stocks: Eastern Gemfish, which are distributed from Cape Moreton, southern Queensland, along the east coast to Bass Strait and the waters off Tasmania; and western Australian stock, which are distributed from Ningaloo Reef and Geraldton through the Great Australian Bight (Colgan & Paxton 1997).
The Eastern Gemfish was a very significant proportion of trawl landings off south-east Australia during the 1970s and 1980s (AFMA 2009e). Now this species is taken as bycatch in commercial fisheries. The largest proportion of catch of the species is taken in the Commonwealth Trawl Sector (CTS) of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (SESSF), where it is caught primarily in deepwater trawl nets that target multiple continental shelf species. Additional incidental catch is taken by droplining, auto-longline and gillnet methods (TSSC 2009c).
There is limited bycatch of Eastern Gemfish by NSW state managed fisheries; bycatch primarily occurs in the NSW trawl fishery north of Barrenjoey Point and in the dropline fishery that operates along the length of the NSW coast (FSC 2008). There is also some take of Eastern Gemfish in NSW waters by recreational fishers (TSSC 2009c).
Estimates of the Eastern Gemfish catch in 20042007 are outlined below (TSSC 2009c):
|Year||Commonwealth landed bycatch (total allowable catch 100 t) (t)||Commonwealth discarded bycatch (t)||NSW commercial bycatch (t)||Estimated recreational catch (t)||TOTAL (t)|
|2004||77||83||15||< 10||< 185|
|2005||97||78||15||< 10||< 200|
|2006||87||46||< 15||< 10||< 158|
|2007||79||< 46||< 15||< 10||< 150|
The two Australian Gemfish stocks occur as two fragmented and genetically isolated subpopulations. The Eastern Gemfish has been shown to be genetically different from other Gemfish stocks, with virtually no gene flow or mixing between stocks (Colgan & Paxton 1997). It is unknown whether this genetic isolation is the result of anthropogenic activity or pre-human fragmentation.
In addition to the two Australian gemfish stocks, there are two further stocks of gemfish that occur in New Zealand waters. The first is distributed off the north-east coast of New Zealand, while the second occurs off the western and southern coasts of New Zealand's South Island (Colgan & Paxton 1997).
The Eastern Gemfish was surveyed in 1996 and since then have had annual quantitative assessments made of population trends by the Eastern Gemfish Assessment Group (Rowling & Makin 2001).
A 2007 stock estimate suggests that there are 676 000 individuals (Little et al. 2008) with a projected upward trajectory and increase in numbers (TSSC 2009c). In 1999, the Eastern Gemfish Assessment Group estimated the mature biomass of Eastern Gemfish to range between 700 t to 2600 t (Anonymous 1999 cited in Rowling & Makin 2001).
The Eastern Gemfish represents the eastern Australian population of Gemfish. A western stock also occurs in Australian waters, however there is significant genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations, with only limited mixing off western Tasmania (Colgan & Paxton 1997). Estimates of gene flow suggest that only one or two individuals per generation migrate between regions. Thus, for fisheries management purposes the eastern and western populations are considered separate breeding stocks (Colgan & Paxton 1997).
Historic population trends
The Eastern Gemfish appears to have undergone a significant reduction in numbers as the result of commercial fishing in south-eastern Australian waters and the Bureau of Rural Sciences states this species as overfished since 1992 (AFMA 2009e). Pre-exploitation estimates of the Eastern Gemfish suggest that the biomass of mature individuals amounted to between 10 000 t to 20 000 t (Allen & Rowling 1998).
Between the late 1960s and 2007 the depletion of spawning stock was estimated to be at its highest in 2001 and 2002 when spawning biomass was 513% of unexploited levels (or 700 to 2600 t) (Anonymous 1999 cited in Rowley & Makin 2001; Little et al. 2008). This estimate indicates that the Eastern Gemfish may have declined by over 95% since the 1960s (TSSC 2009c). It should be noted that another estimate found biomass to be at less than 1%4% of pre-exploitation levels (FSC 2006).
It is uncertain whether the downward trend is due to fishing or a 'regime shift' in reproduction. According to the Eastern Gemfish Stock Assessment Group (Pogonoski et al. 2002) recruitment levels have been low for the last ten years, with the exception of 1990, 1991 and possibly 1996 cohorts.
Remediation of downward trends
Following concern by fisheries management agencies for Eastern Gemfish stocks, increasing measures to protect the species have been implemented since the late 1980s. These measures appear to have had a positive effect, as the 2007 stock assessment estimated that the spawning biomass of Eastern Gemfish has risen by 1% annually since its lowest point in 200102. In 2007, the spawning biomass was estimated to be 1124% of pre-exploitation levels (Little et al. 2008). Recent trawl surveys suggest there had been good recruitment from the 2002 and 2004 cohorts (AFMA 2009e), though it is unknown if this recruitment trend will continue.
The Commonwealth Government Harvest Strategy Policy (DAFF 2007) allows that declines of up to 60% are acceptable for a commercially harvested species where depletion is a managed outcome, depending on the biology of the species.
Eastern Gemfish are mesopelagic and inhabit deeper continental shelf habitats and upper slope waters from 100 m to 700 m (down to 1254 m), but are generally found in waters about 250 to 500 m deep. This species is generally caught close to the sea floor, but the fish are likely to move into mid-water at times (Kailola et al. 1993; Pogonoski et al. 2002). Larvae occur in shallow to very shallow waters (Pogonoski et al. 2002).
Male and female Eastern Gemfish exhibit differing life histories. Females mature at four to six years, grow to a maximum length of 116 cm and may live to 17 years. Males mature earlier, at three to five years, grow to a maximum length of 106 cm and may live to 13 years (Morison et al. 2007). The oldest recorded Gemfish was 17 years in age (female), although most fish live for less than 12 years (TSSC 2009c).
The Eastern Gemfish has a moderately fast growth rate, reaching 50 cm in length and 1 kg in weight after three years. Generation length for the species, that is the average age of mature breeding parents of the current cohort, is nine years. Most fish in a mature population are between four and eight years of age, 6090 cm in length and 26 kg in weight (Rowling & Makin 2001).
Mature Eastern Gemfish make annual migrations up the eastern Australian coast to their spawning grounds off the NSW mid north coast, arriving between June and August. During the 'Gemfish run' the spawning population forms into a narrow band of fish, moving up the coast over the continental shelf (Pogonoski et al. 2002). The very restricted timing and location of spawning makes the Eastern Gemfish vulnerable to environmental variabilities, a threat which is exacerbated given the reduced population (Pogonoski et al. 2002).
Mature female Gemfish are capable of producing between 0.5 and 6 million eggs in a single spawning season. However, little is known about the spawning success or larval survival: declining recruitment rates suggest both may be extremely low (Rowling & Makin 2001). Eastern Gemfish larvae have been caught in coastal waters off Sydney from July to September, and in coastal and offshore waters off northern and central NSW from August to September (Rowling & Makin 2001). Reproductive asynchrony prevents the eastern and western Gemfish stocks from interbreeding, as the timing of spawning in the western stock appears to be some three or four months out of phase with the eastern stock (Colgan & Paxton 1997).
The Eastern Gemfish is a carnivorous species, mainly feeding on fish such as Macrouridae (whiptails) and Deepwater Cardinalfish (Apogonops anomalus), as well as Royal Red Prawns (Haliporoides sibogae) and squid (Ommastrephidae) (Kailola et al. 1993). Feeding occurs near the ocean floor (TSSC 2009c).
The Eastern Gemfish undertakes pre-spawning migrations along the upper continental slope off NSW at depths of about 400 m. This migration begins around early June in east Bass Strait and finishes off the NSW central and north coast in August, at which time spawning occurs. In contrast, the western stock do not appear to form spawning aggregations (Morison et al. 2007; Pogonoski et al. 2002).
No external measurements are distinctive enough to allow differentiation of Eastern Gemfish from western Australian stock (Colgan & Paxton 1997).
Surveys conducted by the Eastern Gemfish Assessment Group between 1996 and 2000 were made during the June-August spawning runs off Eden, Bermagui, Sydney and Wollongong, NSW, concurrent with the Eastern Gemfish commercial harvest (Rowling & Makin 2001).
A stock assessment for the Eastern Gemfish was undertaken by CSIRO in 2007 (Little et al. 2008). This assessment found that the biomass of the spawning population in 200708 was likely to be 14% of the unexploited spawning biomass of this species. The Eastern Gemfish is considered to be historically overfished, although it is uncertain whether overfishing is still continuing (Morison et al. 2007).
Eastern Gemfish are fished primarily in the CTS and by NSW dropliners. The Eastern Gemfish fishery commenced in the early 1970s, increased rapidly and peaked at around 6000 t/year in 19781980 (Rowling & Makin 2001). Catches remained above 2000 t/year throughout the 1980s. Concerns about the level of recruitment led to a zero target limit between 1993 and 1996 for trawl fisheries. The fishery was re-opened in 1997 after suggestions that the cohorts spawned in 1990 and 1991 were strong, and by 1997 had entered the mature population (Rowling & Makin 2001). However, despite a total allowable catch of 1000 t for the 1997 season, the landed catch amounted to 300 t. Eastern Gemfish trawl catches in the CTS totalled 214 t in 1998 and about 200 t in 1999 (Punt et al. 2000 cited in Pogonoski et al. 2002). Dropline catches totalled 179 t between 1997 and 1999 (Fletcher & McVea 2000 cited in Pogonoski et al. 2002).
The main threat to Eastern Gemfish has been identified as historic and ongoing fishing pressure. Eastern Gemfish became an important component of the winter fishery in the CTS during the late 1970s, with a peak catch of 6000 t taken in 1980 (Pogonoski et al. 2002). Fishing effort actively targeted the pre-spawning migration, when large aggregations of the species were predictable. Catches fluctuated during the early 1980s, but the stock experienced recruitment collapse in the late 1980s. The cause of this collapse is unknown, as at the time it occurred the spawning biomass was around 40% of unexploited levels, which was considered to be relatively high.
Eastern Gemfish are particularly vulnerable to fishing pressure during their annual spawning migration between June and August as the majority of the mature population is mobilised in a very narrow band over the continental shelf (Pogonoski et al. 2002). The predictability of this mass migration makes the Eastern Gemfish particularly vulnerable to targeted fishing (TSSC 2009c).
NSW fishing pressure
Some limited take of Eastern Gemfish occurs in NSW waters, which includes the Eastern Gemfish spawning ground offshore of Crowdy Head on the NSW central coast. Commercial fishers managed by NSW are restricted to a 50 kg limit of Eastern Gemfish per trip in NSW waters, while NSW vessels operating in Commonwealth waters south of Barrenjoey Point in Sydney are not permitted to land any Eastern Gemfish. Recreational vessels in NSW waters are restricted to 10 whole Eastern Gemfish on board per day, with no take permitted south of Barrenjoey Point (FSC 2008). The NSW Fisheries Scientific Committee considered the conservation status of Eastern Gemfish in 2008 and concluded that it was not eligible for listing as an endangered species (FSC 2006; 2008).
A potential key threat to Eastern Gemfish is ongoing recruitment depression, or breeding failure. Eastern Gemfish stocks have exhibited poor recruitment since the 1980s, with low numbers of young fish joining the mature population. However, previous spawning seasons (in the 1970s), which were considered highly successful, may have been uncharacteristically successful (AFMA 2009e).
It is suggested that the recruitment depression exhibited by the Eastern Gemfish may be a "regime shift" and although this trend may be fishing related it may also be environmentally driven. This threat to the capacity of Eastern Gemfish to recover from historic overfishing is poorly understood and is likely to be ongoing. The life cycle of the species, at which the disruptive processes are operating, is not understood enough to assign a reason for poor recruitment. It is unknown whether the recruitment decline is due to unsuccessful reproduction or poor juvenile survival. A number of possible causes for low recruitment have been suggested, including (TSSC 2009c):
- environmental factors such as changing currents and winds due to climate change
- depression of larval production due to a threshold biomass being passed
- reproductive regime shift
- disruption of the spawning behaviours by fishing activity.
The Eastern Gemfish rebuilding strategy
Although the Eastern Gemfish has undergone steep declines in numbers, the species is an important commercial fishery species. As a key commercial species caught within a Commonwealth fishery, the management of Eastern Gemfish falls under the Commonwealth Government Harvest Strategy Policy (DAFF 2007), an overarching policy for sustainable commercial fisheries management that is based on a series of biological reference trigger points. While Eastern Gemfish is no longer targeted within the SESSF, the Harvest Strategy Policy (DAFF 2007) considers that it is a key commercial species because it has previously been specifically targeted and was then considered a significant component of the fishery.
The Eastern Gemfish Rebuilding Strategy (AFMA 2009e) aims to manage the species by limiting bycatch and reducing the level of discarded immature fish. Management actions include:
- rebuild stock to 40% of pre-exploitation levels
- continue to remove Statutory Fishing Rights
- reduce trawl hours by 61%
- implement a 100 t total allowable catch (seen as the minimum unavoidable take)
- increase mesh size
- limit take to 50 kg per trip
- Endeavour Dogfish (Centrophorus moluccensis) fishery closures around Sydney to protect the Eastern Gemfish during the pre-spawning winter run
- research discards in the Royal Red Prawn fishery
- negotiation with NSW to protect spawning grounds
- monitor discards.
Future management of the species under the rebuilding strategy aims to reduce juvenile fish mortality, protect pre-spawning aggregations of mature fish, reduce incidental catch, reduce discards and ensure that records are accurate (AFMA 2009e).
In response to surveys and quantitative assessments undertaken by the Eastern Gemfish Assessment Group a total allowable catch quota of Eastern Gemfish has been set and monitored annually since 1988 (Morison et al. 2007). An original total allowable catch of 3000 t was implemented in the SESSF in response to very poor recruitment cohorts (spawned between 1985 and 1989) (AFMA 2009e). This target was reduced to zero in 1993 as it was recognised that the species was below the 40% reference level sought by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA 2009e).
Surveys indicated a relatively strong cohort (spawned in 1990) recruiting to the mature population which led a total allowable catch limit of 1000 t being implemented in 1997. However, 1997 landings only amounted to 300 t and in subsequent seasons the Eastern Gemfish was a 'non-target' species with a 300 t 'non target' total allowable catch in 1998 that was progressively reduced to 100 t in 2002 (AFMA 2009e; Morison et al., 2007). Subsequently, the total allowable catch has remained at 100 t (AFMA 2009e) and catches have remained within this limit (Pogonoski et al. 2002).
Discarding of immature fish
Discards of juvenile Eastern Gemfish amount to 115 t in 2003, 83 t in 2004 and 78 t in 2005 (AFMA 2009e). This practice is not consistent with the recovery of the species. It has been found that mesh (90 mm double braid) used in the 1980s retained 50% of one year olds and 90% of two year old Eastern Gemfish (AFMA 2009e). A 110 mm double braid retains only 3% of one year olds and 10% of two year olds, however, this is at the the high loss of other key commercial species.
Other management ideas
Recruitment continues to be very low. Pogonoski and colleagues (2002) recommend a precautionary approach to management of the Eastern Gemfish to help build up the spawning biomass of the eastern stock. They suggest the seasonal closures of fishing grounds in the CTS and NSW Dropline fisheries to protect pre-spawning and spawning aggregations would be the most effective management option to protect mature Eastern Gemfish. Additionally, measures to avoid the capture of juvenile Eastern Gemfish are necessary to increase the number of fish entering the population (Pogonoski et al. 2002). This may be achieved by increasing the mesh size of nets used.
Conditions upon listing under the EPBC Act
Upon listing under the EPBC Act, the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2009c) recommended conditions be applied to the listing in the Conservation Dependent category:
- The performance of the Eastern Gemfish Rebuilding Strategy (AFMA 2009e) will be reported annually.
- New information on the status of Eastern Gemfish stock be provided to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts immediately upon its availability.
- The Commonwealth will enter into negotiations with NSW to protect the spawning grounds of Eastern Gemfish.
- The listing of Eastern Gemfish as Conservation Dependent will be subject to review in five years.
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The eastern gemfish has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. The "species group report card - bony fishes" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.
Major studies of this species include Colgan and Paxton (1997), Little and colleagues (2008) Rowling (1987, 1990) and Rowling and Makin (2001).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Rexea solandri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009c) [Listing Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Rexea solandri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009c) [Listing Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Rexea solandri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009c) [Listing Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers|
Allen, K.R. & K.R. Rowling (1998). An update of cohort analysis for gemfish (revised 25.8.98). Background paper. In: 12th Meeting of the eastern gemfish Assessment Group, Canberra, 1st - 2nd October 1998. Canberra: Australian Fisheries Management Authority.
Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) (2009e). The Eastern Gemfish Rebuilding Strategy 2008. [Online]. Canberra: AFMA. Available from: http://www.afma.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/eastern_gemfish_rebuild.pdf.
Colgan, D.J. & J.R. Paxton (1997). Biochemical genetics and recognition of a western stock of the common gemfish, Rexea solandri (Scombroidea: Gempylidae), in Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research. 48:103-118.
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) (2007). Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy Policy and Guidelines, September 2007. [Online]. Canberra: DAFF. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/fisheries/domestic/harvest_strategy_policy.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.
Fisheries Scientific Committee (FSC) (2006). Proposed Recommendation Rexea solandri - Gemfish. Ref. No. PR30. [Online]. NSW: Fisheries Scientific Committee, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre. Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/208222/PR-30-Gemfish.pdf.
Fisheries Scientific Committee (FSC) (2008). Final Determination Rexea solandri - Gemfish. Ref. No. FD30. [Online]. NSW: Fisheries Scientific Committee, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre. Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/213827/FD30-gemfish.pdf.
Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee & C. Grieve (1993). Australian Fisheries Resources. Canberra: Department of Primary Industries and the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Bureau of Rural Sciences.
Little, L.R., R. Rowling & A.E. Punt (2008). Eastern Gemfish (Rexea solandri) stock assessment based on 2007 survey data. Hobart: CSIRO.
Morison, A., R. Tilzey & K. McLoughlin (2007). Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish-Hook Sectors. Larcombe, J., and K. McLoughlin, eds. Fishery Status Reports 2006: Status of Fish Stocks Managed by the Australian Government. Page(s) 111-160. [Online]. Canberra, Bureau of Rural Sciences. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/brs/fisheries-marine/publications.
Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton (2002). Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/marine-fish-action/pubs/marine-fish.pdf.
Rowling, K.R. (1987). The need for catch controls in the Gemfish fishery. Fisheries Research Institute Internal Report No. 26, June 1987. Cronulla, NSW: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries Research Institute.
Rowling, K.R. (1990). Changes in the stock composition and abundance of spawning gemfish Rexea solandri (Cuvier), Gempylidae, in south-eastern Australian waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 41:145-163.
Rowling, K.R. & D.L. Makin (2001). Monitoring of the fishery for Gemfish Rexea solandri, 1996 to 2000. AFMA Research Project No. 99/337. Cronulla, NSW: Fisheries Research Institute.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009c). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Rexea solandri. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/76339-listing-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Rexea solandri (eastern Australian population) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 22 Aug 2014 00:14:24 +1000.