In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered as Eidothea hardeniana|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469) (Nightcap Oak) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2002k) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery Plan for Eidothea hardeniana (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004g) [Recovery Plan] as Eidothea hardeniana.
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (04/07/2002) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2002b) [Legislative Instrument] as Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469).
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Eidothea hardeniana.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eidothea hardeniana |
|Species author||P.H.Weston & Kooyman|
|Reference||Telopea 9(4): 826, figs 1-4 (2002).|
|Other names||Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469) |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
See Illustration URL under Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range;
Scientific name: Eidothea hardeniana
Common name: Nightcap Oak
Nightcap Oak was described in 2000 (Faught 2000). Only two species of Eidothea are known. The genus was first described in 1995 from specimens collected in far North Queensland (Faught 2000).
Fossil fruits very similar to those of living Eidothea are known from rocks that are 1520 million years old in the Victorian goldfields near Ballarat. This suggests that the Nightcap Oak is a highly significant evolutionary relict of a time when rainforests covered vast areas of Australia (Weston & Kooyman 2002b).
The Nightcap Oak is a rainforest tree to 40 m high, with creamy-white flowers and round dull golden-yellow fruits to 4 cm in diameter (Weston & Kooyman 2002a, 2002b). The bark is grey and slightly flaky, with fine horizontal crinkling. The tough leaves are paler on the underside. Adult leaves are dark green, smooth along the edges, and have distinctive pale veins. Leaves on juvenile plants are orange to red and strongly toothed with red veins and stalks. The creamy flowers are in compact heads (NSW DECC 2005ak).
Nightcap Oak is restricted to a single population on the southern side of the Nightcap Range, north of Lismore in north-east NSW (Weston & Kooyman 2002a, 2002b). The species is known from an area of several hectares (NSW DEC 2004g).
Extensive targeted surveys of potential habitat were undertaken in 2001 (NSW DEC 2004g). These surveys indicate that the Nightcap Oak is restricted to a limited area (NSW DEC 2004g).
A large number of systematic surveys have also been undertaken on public land in north-east NSW. None of these surveys detected the Nightcap Oak. This also reinforces the view that the species has a limited distribution (NSW DEC 2004g).
Nightcap Oak is known from one population of about 100 adults (diameter of greater than 10 cm) and about 84 juveniles/seedlings (NSW DEC 2004g).
Nightcap Oak is known to occur in Nightcap National Park and in the adjacent Whian Whian State Forest (Weston & Kooyman 2002a, 2002b). Many of the trees are within the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia World Heritage Area (Botanic Gardens Trust 2004a).
Nightcap Oak occurs in upland warm temperate rainforest, usually near creeks (NSW DECC 2005ak) at elevations of 300 m above sea level (NSW DEC 2004g). Soils in the area include yellow podzolic soils which form part of the southern rim of the erosion caldera of the Mt Warning Shield Volcano. Geology of the area is Nimbin rhyolite (a lower fertility acid volcanic rock) over basalt flows from the Mt Warning volcano. Rainfall of the area averages more than 2500 mm rain per year, a much higher rainfall than the nearby towns of Murwillumbah and Lismore (NSW DEC 2004g).
Nightcap Oak grows in cool upland and riparian simple notophyll vine forest (warm temperate rainforest). Associated dominant tree species include Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum), Dorrigo Plum (Endiandra introrsa), Canarium australasicum, Crabapple (Schizomeria ovata), Pink Cherry (Austrobuxus swainii) and Olivers Sassafras (Cinnamomum oliverii) (Weston & Kooyman 2002a, 2002b). Occasional emergents include Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus), Stringybark Pine (Callitris macleayana) or Mountain Water Gum (Tristaniopsis collina) (Weston & Kooyman 2002b).
Nightcap Oak pollinators are not known, but preliminary studies suggest they may include hover flies and beetles (Weston & Kooyman 2002b). The presence of a number of young plants in the population shows that natural recruitment is occurring (TSSC 2002k).
Nightcap Oak flowering occurs from mid October through to mid November. The species is andromonoecious which means it bears two different kinds of flowers on the same plant; male flowers (having stamens but no pistils) and bisexual flowers (Weston & Kooyman 2002b).
Fruits take more than one year to develop, reaching full size in about mid December, then change colour from green to dull yellow over the following two to three months and drop to the ground from mid February to early March (Weston & Kooyman 2002a, 2002b). Fruits are gathered by small mammals (Bush Rats (Rattus fuscipes)), which collect them and gnaw through the fruit wall to eat the seed (Weston & Kooyman 2002b).
Timber harvesting activities
The Nightcap Oak is likely to be threatened by timber harvesting activities which includes road construction or logging activities adjacent to its habitat (NSW DEC 2004g). Proposed logging compartments are in immediate proximity to the species, and logging may also lead to an adversely altered microclimate (TSSC 2002k).
Lack of knowledge
As the Nightcap Oak has only recently become known to science, there is little information available about the species' biology and ecology. Basic information such as habitat requirements is needed in order to adequately manage the species (NSW DEC 2004g).
Small population size
The low number of mature individuals in a single location renders the species vulnerable to stochastic disturbance events such as fire and inbreeding depression (NSW DEC 2004g; TSSC 2002k).
There is no information on the response of the Nightcap Oak to fire. As the species occurs in rainforest, it is presumed that fire is not needed for germination and reproduction. As fire would change the habitat conditions of the site, it is likely that fire would adversely impact upon the Nightcap Oak (NSW DEC 2004g).
Tourism and site visitation
Commercial and recreational activities such as bushwalking, mountain biking and other outdoor activities are becoming increasingly popular in the Nightcap Range area. These activities may have an impact on the Nightcap Oak from direct impacts such as trampling and potential indirect impacts such as the introduction of pathogens or weed propagules (NSW DEC 2004g).
A potentially limiting factor is the breeding system of the Nightcap Oak. Self-incompatibility requiring obligate cross-pollination between plants is common in other members of the Proteaceae including some species of Persoonia, Telopea and Banksia and this could present special problems for a reduced population of trees like the Nightcap Oak (NSW DEC 2004g).
If the Nightcap Oak is pollinated by beetles, katydids and hover flies, natural rates of pollen flow between individual trees will be limited as these insects do not show the long-range foraging patterns associated with organisms such as large-bodied bees, sphinx moths, honeyeaters or flying foxes (NSW DEC 2004g).
A number of recovery actions have been identified for the Nightcap Oak, including (NSW DECC 2005ak):
- Collect seed for NSW Seedbank.
- Maintain living ex situ collections in appropriate locations.
- Ensure the fire management strategy (NSW DECC 2005al) includes operational guidelines for the species.
- Develop survey and environmental assessment guidelines.
- Develop a site access strategy which will detail conditions of access to Nightcap Oak sites and maintenance of confidentiality of locations.
- Exclude tourism from Nightcap Oak habitat, outside existing roads or tracks to reduce impact of physical damage or introduction of disease, pests or weeds to habitat or individual plants.
- Maintain 'weed-free' status of the Nightcap Oak habitat.
- Develop and implement a population monitoring program to further understanding of reproductive biology, population dynamics, seedling recruitment, seedling survivorship, flowering and fruiting, habitate attributes and other biophysical factors.
- Ensure no logging occurs near known populations.
- Notify the NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water of any new occurrences of Nightcap Oak.
The following management plans may assist in the managment of the Nightcap Oak:
- Recovery Plan for Eidothea hardeniana (NSW DEC 2004g)
- Parks and Reserves of the Tweed Caldera Draft Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2004a)
- Nightcap National Park - fire management strategy (NSW DECC 2005al)
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469) (Nightcap Oak) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2002k) [Listing Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469) (Nightcap Oak) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2002k) [Listing Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469) (Nightcap Oak) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2002k) [Listing Advice].|
Botanic Gardens Trust (2004a). Nightcap Oak - New rainforest tree. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust. Available from: http://www.rbgsyd.gov.au/conservation_research/systematics_research/nightcap_oak.
Faught, M. (2000). A New Rainforest Tree Species for New South Wales. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bigvolcano.com.au/stories/kooyman/.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005ak). NSW threatened species - Nightcap Oak - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10260.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005al). Nightcap National Park - fire management strategy. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/firemanagement/NightcapNpFms.htm.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004g). Recovery Plan for Eidothea hardeniana. [Online]. Hurstville, NSW: NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/e-hardeniana/index.html.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2004a). Parks & Reserves of the Tweed Caldera, Plan of Management. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/parkmanagement/MountWarningNPMgmtplan.htm. [Accessed: 19-Jun-2008].
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2002k). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eidothea sp. Nightcap Range (P.H.Weston 2469) (Nightcap Oak). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/eidothea.html.
Weston, P.H. & R.M. Kooyman (2002a). Systematics of Eidothea (Proteaceae), with the description of a new species, E. hardeniana, from the Nightcap Range, north-eastern New South Wales. Telopea. 9(4):821-832. [Online]. Available from: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/Telopea/pdf/Tel9(4)821Wes.pdf.
Weston, P.H. & R.M. Kooyman (2002b). Botany and Ecology of the 'Nightcap Oak', Eidothea hardeniana. Australian Plants. 21 (172):339-342. [Online]. Available from: http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/APOL32/dec03-4.html.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eidothea hardeniana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 04:55:26 +1000.