Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Referral guidelines for three species of Western Australian black cockatoos (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012p) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Calyptorhynchus baudinii [769]
Family Cacatuidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Lear,1832
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Calyptorhynchus baudinii.

Common names: Long-billed or Baudin's Black-Cockatoo.

Other common names: White-tailed Black-Cockatoo; Baudin's, Black or White-tailed Cockatoo (Higgins 1999).

The taxonomy of this species is conventionally accepted (Christidis & Boles 1994; Sibley & Monroe 1990). Baudin's Black-Cockatoo and the closely-related Carnaby's Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) were formerly combined and treated as a single species, the White-tailed Black-Cockatoo, which was assigned the scientific name C. baudinii (Higgins 1999; Saunders 1979).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is a large cockatoo that measures 50–57 cm in length, with a wingspan of approximately 110 cm, and a mass of 560–770 g. It is mostly dull black in colour, with pale whitish margins on the feathers, large, rounded patches (white to yellowish-white in the female and dusky-white to brownish-white in the male) on the ear coverts, and rectangular white panels in the tail. It has a large bill (with a very elongated upper mandible) that is coloured black in the male and whitish-grey with a black tip in the female; a dark brown iris that is surrounded by a reddish-pink eye-ring in the male and a grey eye-ring in the female; a short, rounded, erectile crest; and grey feet (Higgins 1999; Johnstone & Storr 1998). Juvenile birds are like the adults in appearance, but the bill of the juvenile male is like that of the adult female. The bill of the juvenile male begins to darken after the second year (Johnstone & Storr 1998).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is gregarious. It is usually seen in groups of three (comprising the adult pair and a single dependent young) or in small parties, but will occasionally gather in large flocks of up to 300 birds during the non-breeding season, usually at sites where food is abundant (Higgins 1999; Storr 1991). During the breeding season, adults nest in solitary pairs (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is found only in the extreme south-west of Western Australia. The range of the species, which is generally bounded by the 750 mm isohyet, extends from Albany northward to Gidgegannup and Mundaring (east of Perth), and inland to the Stirling Ranges and near Boyup Brook (Davies 1966; Saunders 1974, 1979; Saunders et al. 1985; Storr 1991). Breeding has been recorded in the far south of the range, in an area extending from Nornalup northward to near Bridgetown, or sometimes further north to Lowden and Harvey (Higgins 1999; Saunders 1979; Storr 1991).

The occurrence of the species varies throughout its range, from scarce to moderately common. It is most numerous in the deep south-west of Western Australia (Storr 1991).

The extent of occurrence is estimated at 40 000 km² based on published maps. This estimate is considered to be of high reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No specific information is available on past changes in the extent of occurrence. However, the extent of occurrence is likely to have declined due to the clearance of habitat (mainly at the perimeter of the forest block in south-eastern Western Australia) that took place between the time of settlement and the middle of the 20th century (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

No information is available to estimate or indicate future changes in the extent of occurrence.

The area of occupancy is estimated at 2000 km². This estimate is based on the number of 1 km² grid squares the species is thought to occur in at the time when its population is most constrained. The estimate is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is likely to be stable at present based on documented data (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the species is said to have declined during the past 50 years or so (Johnstone 1997; Storr 1991), and it is estimated that the area of occupancy has decreased by at least 25%, i.e. the cockatoo is said to have disappeared from 25% of its range, and is assumed to have declined in density throughout at least another 25% of its range (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No information is available to estimate or indicate future changes in the area of occupancy.

No information is available on the number of locations in which Baudin's Black-Cockatoo occurs. This is because the mobility and widespread distribution of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo makes it difficult to determine the number of discrete locations in which the species occurs (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

Small captive populations are held at Melbourne Zoo and Healesville Sanctuary in Victoria, and at Perth Zoological Gardens in Western Australia (ISIS 2005). The species is said to breed reluctantly in captivity (Garnett 1993).

The southern and northern limits of the species, from Albany to Mundaring, are for the most part connected by extensive tracts of forest (Saunders 1979). This, together with the dispersion of recent records, suggests that overall, the distribution of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is not particularly fragmented. However, there is said to be considerable fragmentation of the habitat at the southern limits of the distribution, where the continuity of the population is probably dependent upon a relatively narrow strip of coastal forest (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

There have been no specific surveys to determine the size or distribution of the population.

The total population of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is estimated to be 10 000 to 15 000 birds (Higgins 1999).

Garnett & Crowley (2000) estimate the size of the population at 12 000 breeding birds. However, they considered this estimate to be of low reliability.

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo occurs as a single, contiguous population (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The mobility of the birds, and the continuity of the forest habitat, suggest that discrete subpopulations are unlikely to exist (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

The population is suspected to be decreasing (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Although the species is said to have declined during the past 50 years or so (Johnstone 1997; Storr 1991), there are no quantitive data available. The population was estimated at between 5000 and 25 000 birds in 1977 (Garnett 1993), but this estimate is not sufficiently accurate to make any meaningful comparisons with more recent figures (see above). Prior to the listing of the species as threatened fauna in Western Australia in 1996 (Mawson & Johnstone 1997), it was claimed that the annual reproductive rate of 0.6 young per pair was too low (Storr 1991). It is possible that the presumed longevity of the species may be masking insufficient rates of recruitment (Garnett 1993).

The interval between generations is said to be seven years (Storr 1991). Generation length has also been estimated at 15 years, but this estimate is considered to be of low reliability due to a lack of reliable data on the life history of the species (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Since 1998, the Atlas of Australian Birds has recorded Baudin's Black-Cockatoo in 28 reserves. Of the 141 records of the species in reserves: 30 (21.3%) were from Torndirrup National Park; 26 (18.4%) from Walpole-Nornalup National Park; 12 (8.5%) from D'Entrecasteaux National Park; 10 (7.1%) from Leeuwin Naturalist National Park; seven (5.0%) from each of Lake Muir Nature Reserve, Mount Frankland National Park and Porongurup National Park; six (4.3%) from Serpentine National Park; five (3.5%) from Scott National Park; four (2.8%) from Smith Brook Nature Reserve; three (2.1%) from each of John Forrest National Park, Lane Poole Reserve and Waychinicup National Park; two (1.4%) from each of Shannon National Park, Stirling Range National Park and Warren National Park; and one (0.7%) from each of 12 various other reserves (Atlas of Australian Birds, unpublished data).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo occurs in high-rainfall areas, usually at sites that are heavily forested and dominated by Marri (Corymbia calophylla) and Eucalyptus species, especially Karri (E. diversicolor) and Jarrah (E. marginata). However, it also occurs in woodlands of Wandoo (E. wandoo), Blackbutt (E. patens), Flooded Gum (E. rudis), Yate (E. cornuta) and in orchards, and is occasionally recorded in farmland and grasslands (Johnstone & Kirkby 2008; Long 1985; Masters & Milhinch 1974; Saunders 1974, 1979; Storr 1991).

Baudin's Black-cockatoo breeds in the Jarrah, Marri and Karri forests of the deep south-west in areas averaging more than 750 mm of rainfall annually.It is believed that the range of the species during the non-breeding season is determined by the distribution of Marri, and that nesting is confined to areas in which Karri occurs (Saunders 1979).

No specific information is available on the use of refuge habitats, but the species is said to invade orchards to feed on cultivated fruits (e.g. apples, pears) when seeds of Marri, its preferred food, are scarce (Chapman & Massam 2005; Saunders 1974).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo sometimes associates with the listed threatened Carnaby's Black-Cockatoo around sources of food (Higgins 1999; Saunders 1974).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo probably occurs in some listed threatened ecological communities on the eastern side of the Swan Coastal Plain (including those dominated by Marri). However, the occurrence of the cockatoo in these areas is so infrequent that the communities are unlikely to be of any real significance to the survival of the species (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

In the wild, Baudin's Black-Cockatoo may live for 25–50 years (Chapman & Massam 2005). No details are available on ages of sexual maturity or natural mortality.
Baudin's Black-Cockatoo breeds in late winter and spring, from August to November or December (Gould 1972; Johnstone 1997; Saunders 1974; Saunders et al. 1985). Nests, which comprise a layer of wood-chips, are built in large hollows in tall eucalypts, especially Karri, Marri and Wandoo (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Higgins 1999; Saunders 1974, 1979). As with other black cockatoos, Baudin's Black-Cockatoo nests in large vertical hollows of very long lived trees. Trees with hollows suitable for Baudin's Black-Cockatoo are likely to be 500 mm or greater diameter at breast height (DBH). As trees approaching this size are close to developing suitable hollows, trees below 500 mm DBH are considered to have the potential to develop hollows and are therefore also important resources for Baudin's Black-Cockatoos.

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo displays strong pair bonding, with birds staying together year-round except when the female is incubating eggs and brooding chicks (Johnstone & Kirkby 2008).

The female lays one or two white eggs (Campbell 1974; Gould 1972; Johnstone & Storr 1998). Based on observations of one captive pair, eggs are incubated for 28 days, and chicks remain in the nest for up to 16 weeks (Bohner 1984). The annual productivity of the species is said to be 0.6 young per pair (Storr 1991), which is likely to be below the annual mortality rate of these long-lived birds (Brouwer et al. 2000; Johnstone & Kirkby 2008; Johnstone & Storr 1998).

Because Baudin's Black-Cockatoo nests in hollows, removal of mature trees reduces the availability of nest-sites (Saunders et al. 1985). The reduced availability of nest-sites presumably results in competition between breeding pairs, and the exclusion of some potential breeding pairs from nest-sites (Garnett 1993; Saunders et al. 1985).

Preferred roosts are in areas with a dense canopy close to permanent sources of water, that provide the birds with protection from weather conditions (Jonstone & Kirkby 2008).

The diet of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo consists mainly of the seeds of eucalypts (e.g. Marri, Jarrah), supplemented with insect larvae and the seeds of other plants such as Banksia, Dryandra, Erodium, Hakea, Malus sylvestris (apple) and Pyrus communis (pear), and occasionally with nectar from Marri or other plants (Higgins 1999; Robinson 1960; Saunders 1974, 1979; Storr 1991).

Most food is obtained from Marri, e.g. seeds of Marri were found in 89% of birds (n=58) collected in forest at Mundaring (Saunders 1974); and of 34 foraging groups observed throughout the range of the species, 31 (91%) were seen feeding in Marri (Saunders 1979).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo mostly forages in Marri trees, where it searches among the foliage and feeds on the seeds, flowers, nectar and buds (Keast 1977; Robinson 1960; Saunders 1974, 1979). It occasionally forages on the ground, searching among and feeding on Erodium, taking seed from fallen fruits or gumnuts, and extracting insect larvae from beneath the bark of fallen trees (Saunders 1979).

When feeding in Marri, Baudin's Black-Cockatoo removes seeds from their capsules by inserting its upper mandible into the capsule and then hooking and pulling the seed out (Cooper 2000; Saunders 1974). Seeds are taken from apples and pears by splitting open the fruit (Higgins 1999). Bark and dead wood are stripped from trees (e.g. Jarrah, Marri) in search of insect larvae (Higgins 1999; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Saunders 1974).

The tendency of the Baudin's Black-Cockatoo to feed on orchard fruit exposes the species to shooting by orchardists. Their predation upon apples in particular makes them a target for orchardists (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.).

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is described as resident at many sites throughout its range (Saunders 1974). However, records indicate that at least some birds undertake post-breeding dispersal, e.g. some visit sites on the Swan Coastal Plain and in the adjacent Darling Range between May and September (Saunders 1974, 1979; Storr & Johnstone 1988; Storr 1991). Post-breeding, smaller family groups of birds join up and can form large foraging flocks (Johnstone & Kirkby 2008).

The species is said to be confined to the far south-west of Western Australia during the breeding season, and to forage widely during the non-breeding season, dispersing northward as far as Mundaring and Gidgegannup (Saunders 1974, 1979). Breeding adults that undertake movements probably return to the same nesting areas each year (Saunders 1979).

Dispersion: Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is gregarious, and is usually seen in trios or small parties. It occasionally gathers in flocks during the non-breeding season.

Detectability: Baudin's Black-Cockatoo can be detected by sight or call, and its presence can also be detected by foraging signs (Cooper 2000; Magrath et al. 2004; Saunders 1974). It is described as conspicuous, but its nests are inconspicuous and, as such, birds can be difficult to locate during the breeding season. Active nests are located most easily at dusk, when the male returns to the nest with food for the incubating or brooding female (Magrath et al. 2004). Foraging signs may also be a useful indicator of its presence (Cooper 2000).

Distinctiveness: Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is easily confused with the very similar Carnaby's (Short-billed) Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris. The two species are best distinguished by the following characters (from Higgins 1999):

  • Bill shape: In profile, the tip of the upper mandible in Baudin's Black-Cockatoo is much longer, finer and more tapered, and it clearly extends below the tip of the lower mandible when the bill is closed (in Carnaby's Black-Cockatoo, the tip of the upper mandible extends only a short distance) (Higgins 1999).

  • Calls: The normal contact calls of each species are very similar, but the individual notes of the contact call in Baudin's Black-Cockatoo are said to be slightly shorter and disyllabic. This difference is readily appreciable with experience (Higgins 1999; Saunders 1979).

  • Habitat: Although there is some overlap between habitats, especially during the non-breeding season, Baudin's Black-Cockatoo prefers wetter, heavily-forested areas dominated by Marri, Karri and Jarrah. It is occasionally found in Wandoo E. wandoo woodland, and often visits orchards, but generally avoids plantations of introduced Pinus trees (which are a favoured foraging habitat of Carnaby's Black-Cockatoo during the non-breeding season) (Higgins 1999).

  • Foraging behaviour: Foraging behaviour can sometimes help to discriminate between the two species. When feeding in Marri, Baudin's Black-Cockatoo extract seeds from their capsules by using its long, tapered upper mandible in a manner that causes little or no damage to the capsule itself. In contrast, Carnaby's Black-Cockatoo routinely breaks the rims from capsules when extracting seeds (Cooper 2000; Higgins 1999; Saunders 1974).

Habitat assessment
Habitat assessment is the primary technique used to determine use of an area by Baudin's Black-Cockatoo. Assessment includes the extent, type and quality of the vegetation present, including the presence and extent of plants known to be used by Baudin's Black-Cockatoos. In potential breeding habitat measurements of the DBH of trees in the patch of woodland/forest can be made to determine if the habitat could be breeding habitat. Surveys for Baudin's Black-Cockatoo foraging habitat should be undertaken in any remnant vegetation containing proteaceous heath/woodland, eucalypt woodlands or forest (particularly Marri and Jarrah forest) and in areas dominated by Pinus spp.

Additional information on black cockatoo use of an area can be determined by searching for signs of use. Habitat can be searched for evidence of use by black cockatoos (for example feeding signs or feeding debris), including sighting records. The presence of cockatoo droppings and feathers, or 'chewed' Banksia cones or Marri nuts, can indicate feeding by black cockatoos (including, if possible, the identification of bite patterns to indicate which black cockatoo species fed there). This can be assessed at any time of year, as cones can remain on the ground for many months. Cones and nuts should be identified by a suitably qualified person.

Targeted surveys
Short-term surveys are unlikely to give a true representation of habitat use by black cockatoos, due to the highly mobile nature of these birds and their reliance on different areas of habitat at different times of the year and between years.

The following tables give guidance to conducting surveys aimed at detecting the presence of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo at a site. The methodology was developed during a workshop in 2008 (Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop 2008). Consideration should be given to the timing, effort, methods and area to be covered. If surveys are conducted outside recommended periods or conditions, survey methods and effort should be adjusted to compensate for the decreased likelihood of detecting the birds. Surveys should be conducted by a suitably qualified person with experience in surveying for black cockatoos.

Surveys for breeding birds
Surveys for breeding black cockatoos should be conducted in likely breeding habitat, focusing on the hollows of large, mature nesting trees (see species habitat descriptions for likely nest tree species).

Aim To detect Baudin's Black-Cockatoos, especially (but not exclusively) nesting females to confirm that breeding is taking place on the site. The presence of lone Badin's Black-Cockatoo males may indicate there is a nest nearby.
Timing During the peak breeding season of October/November
Effort Over at least two suitable days, at approximately monthly intervals.



Surveys for foraging birds and/or foraging habitat
Surveys for black cockatoo foraging habitat should be undertaken in any remnant vegetation containing proteaceous heath/woodland, eucalypt woodlands or forest (particularly Marri and Jarrah forest) and in areas dominated by Pinus spp.
Aim 1) To record the presence and extent of foraging habitat; 2) to detect Baudin's Black-Cockatoos foraging at the site; and 3) estimate the number of birds using the site.
Timing One survey in winter. Two further surveys in spring.
Exception: In Marri habitats, the best time to survey for black cockatoos is December to April with three surveys conducted during this period.
Effort A total of three surveys should be undertaken. A survey should consist of both morning and evening visits, for two hours after dawn and two hours before dusk.
Surveyors should look for Baudin's Black-Cockatoos and listen for their characteristic calls.
Additional information The presence of cockatoo droppings and feathers, or 'chewed' Banksia cones or Marri nuts, can indicate feeding by black cockatoos (including, if possible, the identification of bite patterns to indicate which black cockatoo species fed there). This can be assessed at any time of year, as cones can remain on the ground for many months. Cones and nuts should be identified by a suitably qualified person.



Surveys for black cockatoo roost sites
Baudin's Black-Cockatoo roosts are generally located in the tallest trees in or near riparian environments or permanent water. Surveys for roosts should target these areas.

Different roosts may be used by birds during the non-breeding period and by non-breeding birds during breeding period. Surveys for roosts should be timed to detect use during either and/or both of these periods.
Aim 1) To look for evidence that a roost site occurs on the site; 2) to detect Baudin's Black-Cockatoos roosting at the site; and 3) estimate the number of birds using the roost.
Timing Daytime surveys can be made at any time of year to look for evidence that a roost site occurs on site; including habitat features such as tall trees in proximity to water and foraging habitat, records, cockatoo feathers and/or droppings. Following site assessment, dawn visits should be made at all likely roost sites in both a) non-breeding season (autumn/winter) and b) breeding season.
Effort A minimum of two dawn surveys per season, at approximately monthly intervals, should be conducted over at least one hour on windless mornings in the a) non-breeding season and b) breeding season. A survey should consist of a visit to the site, at least 30 minutes before sunrise. Surveyors should listen for Baudin's Black-Cockatoo calls until at least 30 minutes after sunrise and attempt to quietly move in the direction of calls to estimate the number of birds as they leave the roost. Counts are best made by standing under a flight path (e.g. a road, track or open area that the birds cross) and looking back towards the roost against an open skyline. Subsequent visits may be required to count the birds as they leave the roost. Roost sites may also be located by following birds returning to the roost in the evening.
Additional information The presence of cockatoo feathers and droppings at a site may also indicate roosting.



Further information
Breeding habitat should be surveyed during the breeding season, with efforts made to determine if the area is used for nesting and/or foraging. Baudin's Black-Cockatoos tend to forage near the nest during the breeding season. Surveys should note the distance, size and connectivity of remnant habitat patches in breeding areas (e.g. from satellite images).

When not breeding, black cockatoos tend to aggregate in large flocks and move through the landscape in search of food. These flocks base themselves at roost sites and use the roosts to access the local foraging resources. Numbers tend to be largest at the roost site between dusk and dawn (Johnstone & Kirkby 2008). The number of birds using a roost site will also vary seasonally. While sub-adults and other non-breeding birds will use roost sites all year round, the largest numbers will occur during the non-breeding period, when breeding adults and their young will join the non-breeding birds at roost sites. To get an accurate picture of the importance of a roost site, surveys should be conducted in both the breeding and non-breeding season.

Roosting flocks break up into foraging flocks at dawn, moving into foraging habitat. Away from roost sites Johnstone and Kirkby (2008) found that the largest flocks of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo are usually recorded within the first two hours of daylight, and in the two hours before dark, as flocks split again into smaller family groups during the middle of the day. The first two hours after dawn and before dark are therefore the best times to search for foraging black cockatoos.

In addition to the identification of black cockatoos by sighting or hearing, skilled observers will be able to infer their presence from tell-tale signs. For example, the scars left on Marri and other woody fruits can be used to distinguish between black cockatoo species. While the longer-billed Baudin's Black-Cockatoo are able to extract seeds with minimal damage to the outer fruit, Carnaby's Black-Cockatoo must tear open the fruit casing to get to the seeds inside (Cooper 2000; Stojanovic 2008). Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos feed similarly to Carnaby's Black-Cockatoos, tearing into the fruit to get at the seeds (Cooper 2000; Johnstone & Kirkby 1999).

Loss of habitat was formerly the major threat to Baudin's Black-Cockatoo. For example, suitable habitat was cleared for agricultural purposes throughout much of the cockatoo's range, and it is estimated that up to 25% of suitable habitat may have been lost (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone 1997; Mawson & Johnstone 1997; Storr 1991). The species was also threatened by forest management practices that did not allow for the maintenance of suitable habitat. This was because harvest rotation policies did not allow for the development of mature trees or, consequently, hollows that could be used the cockatoo for nesting (Saunders et al. 1985; Saunders & Ingram 1995). Feeding trees were also affected, but the removal of feeding trees is likely to have had little impact on the species, as regenerating forest is thought to provide the cockatoos with sufficient food (Saunders et al. 1985).

The threat from habitat loss appears to have largely abated in recent times (J. Blyth 2005, pers. comm.), although there appears to be an ongoing decline in population densities within areas of remaining habitat due to the selective removal of large Marri trees, from which the species obtains most of its food (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The threat from habitat loss has abated for several reasons: the clearing of forest for agricultural purposes has largely ceased; areas of forest that contain nest sites, or that are likely to contain nest sites, are protected from harvest or clearing; and logging practices are monitored by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (J. Blyth 2005, pers. comm.). The species is also likely to have benefited from the exclusion of woodchipping from old-growth forests (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Conservation Commission of Western Australia 2004).

The major threats to the species at present appear to be illegal shooting and competition with introduced bees for nest hollows (J. Blyth 2005, pers. comm.). Baudin's Black-Cockatoo sometimes feeds on and does damage to cultivated fruit (e.g. apples, pears) in orchards (Halse 1986; Long 1985). To prevent such damage, the species was subject to shooting under an Open Season Notice from the 1950s until 1989, when the notice was revoked (Mawson & Johnstone 1997). Few figures are available on the impact of these shootings, but in the Bridgetown district, from 1960 to 1965, bounty payments were made on 164 birds, and at Manjimup, 824 birds were shot during 1984 alone (Halse 1986; Higgins 1999). The species has been protected since 1996 (Mawson & Johnstone 1997), but illegal shooting may still be occuring (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The impact of ongoing illegal shooting upon the current population is not known (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but the low annual reproductive rate (Storr 1991) suggests that the species could be vulnerable to this process.

Baudin's Black-Cockatoo has a low annual reproductive rate of 0.6 young per pair (Storr 1991), which limits the potential of the species to recover in the presence or aftermath of a threatening process.

Recovery actions that have been completed or are underway include:

  • The protection of the species from shooting by orchardists, through the termination of an Open Season Notice in 1989 and the listing of the species as threatened fauna under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in 1996 (Mawson & Johnstone 1997).

  • The formation of recovery team in December 2004 to research and develop techniques that provide protection to apple and pear crops without doing harm to the cockatoos (Chapman & Massam 2005).

  • The cessation of woodchipping in forests inhabited by the species (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following actions were recommended by Garnett & Crowley (2000):

  • The development of a repeatable technique for monitoring the population.

  • The initiation of population monitoring at different sites across the range of the species.

  • The provision of assistance to orchardists to aid the development of a non-lethal technique to mitigate damage caused by Baudin's Black-Cockatoo, and the more vigorous enforcement of legislative provisions that make shooting illegal.

A recent study by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC), in consultation with the Western Australian Fruit Growers' Association (WAFGA) has determined that combinations of shooting to scare, harassment via motorcycles and gas guns are an effective means of reducing damage to fruit by Baudin's Cockatoo. An education strategy is now being developed by DEC as part of a recovery program, which aims to provide more information on the threats to the species (Chapman 2007).


Warren Catchments council (Manjimup Land Conservation District Committee, WA) received $11 038 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005-06 for co-ordination and encouragement of more volunteers through an awareness program to participate in breeding site surveys and trial of non-destructive scare techniques.

For detailed studies on this species see Saunders (1974, 1979).

A detailed field study of the breeding biology of Baudin's Black-Cockatoo was undertaken by the Western Australian Museum of Natural Science (and partly funded by the Department of Conservation and Land Management) during the late 1990s (Johnstone 1997). The study has been continued more recently with funding from the Western Australia Water Corporation (Blyth 2005, pers. comm.). The results of this study have been published by Johnstone and Kirkby (2008).

There is a national draft recovery plan in preparation for Baudin's Black-Cockatoo.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Calyptorhynchus baudinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006en) [Internet].
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:illegal control Calyptorhynchus baudinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006en) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Calyptorhynchus baudinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006en) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Calyptorhynchus baudinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006en) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Natural System Modifications:Indirect and direct habitat loss due to human activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment Calyptorhynchus baudinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006en) [Internet].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calyptorhynchus baudinii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:28:24 +1000.