Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Stachystemon nematophorus
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for competition and land degradation by unmanaged goats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008ada) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pseudanthus nematophorus.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (44) (14/8/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006h) [Legislative Instrument] as Stachystemon nematophorus.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Stachystemon nematophorus.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District (Patrick, S.J., 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Stachystemon nematophorus
Scientific name Stachystemon nematophorus [81447]
Family Euphorbiaceae:Euphorbiales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Halford & Henderson (2003)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Halford, D. & Henderson, R. (2003) `Studies in Euphorbiaceae A.L.Juss. sens. Lat. 5, a Revision of Pseudanthus Sieber ex Spreng. And Stachystemon Planch. (Oldfieldioideae Kohler & Webster, Caletieae Mull. Arg.), Austrobaileya, vol. 6: 17-3.
Other names Pseudanthus nematophorus [6983]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Stachystemon nematophorus (F.Muell.) Halford & Henderson (2003).

Common name: Three-flowered Stachystemon (CALM 2005).

The Three-flowered Stachystemon was previously known as Pseudanthus nematophorus F.Muell. but was moved to the genus Stachystemon by Halford and Henderson (2003).

The Three-flowered Stachystemon is an erect, woody, dense shrub, growing to 1.2 m high. Flowers are very small turning yellow-green (WA Herbarium 2005).

The Three-flowered Stachystemon is endemic to the Kalbarri area approximately 500 km north-north-west of Perth, Western Australia, within the Northern Agricultural NRM region (CALM 2005).

The extent of occurrence for the Three-flowered Stachystemon is estimated to be approximately 620 km² (CALM 2005).

The area of occupancy for this species is unknown, but would be significantly less than the extent of occurrence (i.e. less than 620 km²) (CALM 2005).

The seven populations of the Three-flowered Stachystemon are slightly fragmented as they are all separated from each other by at least 9.5 km. However, the majority of the populations are within the Kalbarri National Park which is reasonably well vegetated (CALM 2005).

CALM has surveyed all seven known populations of the Three-flowered Stachystemon at least once and several populations over two or three consecutive years. Populations 1, 3/6 and 8 were last surveyed in late 2004, populations 2, 6, 7a and 7b were last surveyed in late 2003, and populations 4 and 5 were last surveyed in 2002. However, due to the nature of the gorge terrain in which this plant occurs, most populations have not been fully surveyed, and it is likely that further survey could locate more plants nearby at most populations. The table below presents as summary of the survey effort to date (CALM 2005).

Population Date Size Survey Type
1 15/09/2004 200+ Field survey
1 27/08/2003 200+ Field survey
1 22/03/2002 50+ Field survey
1 14/03/2002 38 Field survey
1 5/08/2000 Unknown Herbarium record
1 30/10/1999 Unknown Herbarium record
2 29/08/2003 52+ Field survey
2 10/05/2002 52+ Field survey
2 12/9/1988 Unknown Herbarium record
2 20/08/1985 50 Herbarium record
3 15/09/2004 50+ (connected to pop.6) Field survey
3 27/8/2003 15 Field survey
3 8/11/2002 2+ Field survey & Herbarium record
4 19/11/2002 30+ Field survey & Herbarium record
5 19/11/2002 30+ Field survey & Herbarium record
6 15/9/2004 (connected to pop.3)
6 27/8/2003 15 + 1 = 16 Field survey
6 8/01/2003 15 Field survey
7a 5/09/2003 100+ Field survey
7b 5/09/2003 100+ Field survey
8 15/09/2004 60+ Field survey
8 4/09/2003 50+ Field survey

The total population size of the Three-flowered Stachystemon is estimated to be 622+ mature individuals occurring in 7 populations (CALM 2005).

The difficult terrain in the gorge area where this species occurs makes it difficult to do accurate surveys. Populations 7a and 7b have only been partially surveyed and further surveys would most likely reveal a larger population than the estimated 100+ plants at each site (CALM 2005).

In September 2004 a survey of the previously identified populations 3 and 6 indicated that these two populations can be considered as one as there is little distance between the plants at the two sites and because genetic transfer potentially occurs between these sites (CALM 2005).

There is only limited repeat survey information for some of the populations of the Three-flowered Stachystemon so the population trend for the entire species is largely unknown. However, for those sites which have been surveyed over several years, the populations appear to be stable (populations 2 and 8) or population size has increased slightly (population 1 and 3/6) although this increase is due to more detailed survey rather than recruitment of new plants (CALM 2005).

It is unknown if the Three-flowered Stachystemon undergoes extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers. However, this is unlikely as this species appears to be quite long lived (CALM 2005).

The generation length of the Three-flowered Stachystemon is unknown, although all survey forms have only recorded mature adult plants (no seedlings or dead plants) indicating these plants are likely to be quite long lived (CALM 2005).

All populations of the Three-flowered Stachystemon (except populations 4 and 5) are located within Kalbarri National Park which is managed by the Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM).

The Three-flowered Stachystemon occurs in open scrub to low heath vegetation on breakaways, rocky areas, gravel pits and gully edges. Soils range from red sand over red sandstone, white-brown sand over sandstone, to grey sand/gravel over laterite (WA Herbarium 2005). The Three-flowered Stachystemon has also been recorded in dense heath in the Gorge areas of Kalbarri National Park on rocky pavement in sandy soils in rock crevices (Halford et al. 2003).

Species associated with the Three-flowered Stachystemon include: Acacia scirpifolia, Melaleuca sp., Scholtzia sp., Hibbertia hypericoides, Acanthocarpus parviflorus, Lechenaultia chlorantha and Darwinia oldfieldii (CALM 2005; WA Herbarium 2005).

The Three-flowered Stachystemon is not part of any listed threatened ecological community. Population 2 co-occurs with, and population 8 is very close to, populations of the Western Australian Declared Rare Flora species Lechenaultia chlorantha which is ranked as Endangered (CALM 2005).

Details of the flowering period of the Three-flowered Stachystemon are largely unknown, although flowers were recorded on plants at population 2 in May 2002 and flowers and immature fruit were recorded on plants at population 1 during March 2002. Fruit were recorded on plants at populations 1, 2, 3 and 6 during August 2003 and have been reported in September (Halford et al. 2003) so it is likely that flowering generally occurs in the Autumn and that fruit develops during the winter months (CALM 2005).

The Three-flowered Stachystemon is distinctive when flowering and is not easily confused with any other species of Stachystemon because of the single elongated inner tepal in the male flowers (Halford et al. 2003).

Survey would be best carried out during the flowering period (in Autumn) to maximize the chance of identifying the Three-flowered Stachystemon (CALM 2005).

The only actual recorded threat to the Three-flowered Stachystemon is grazing by feral goats at populations 4 and 5. Pigs and rabbits have also been recorded in areas near some of the populations although no damage has been reported for this species to date. Grazing by feral animals is likely to continue to be a potential risk to this species in the future although it is unclear how significant the impact will be (CALM 2005).

Other potential risks are possible recreational impacts as population 3/6 is near to a proposed walking trail. Although the alignment of the trail has been designed to minimize impacts on rare flora populations (CALM 2005).

All populations may be potentially at risk from inappropriate fire regimes, however the Three-flowered Stachystemon's fire response is unknown (CALM 2005).

The table below outlines the present and potential future threats to this species (CALM 2005).

Population Present Future
Pop. 1 Possible roadworks and gravel extraction Possible roadworks, inappropriate fire regimes and gravel extraction
Pop. 2 Potential grazing by pigs, rabbits and goats Potentially grazing by pigs, rabbits and goats, inappropriate fire regimes
Pop. 3 Potential grazing by pigs, impact of recreational activities Potential grazing by pigs, inappropriate fire regimes, impact of recreational activities
Pop. 4 Grazing by feral goats Grazing by feral goats and inappropriate fire regimes
Pop. 5 Grazing by feral goats Grazing by feral goats and inappropriate fire regimes
Pop. 6 Grazing by feral pigs, impact of recreational activities Potential grazing by pigs, inappropriate fire regimes, impact of recreational activities
Pop. 7a Potential grazing by feral pigs, rabbits and goats Potential grazing by feral pigs, rabbits and goats,inappropriate fire regimes
Pop. 7b Potential grazing by feral pigs, rabbits and goats Potentially grazing by feral pigs, rabbits and goats, inappropriate fire regimes
Pop. 8 Possibly roadworks and gravel extraction Possibly roadworks and gravel extraction and inappropriate fire regimes

All land managers who have populations of the Three-flowered Stachystemon on their property have been notified and advised of their legislative responsibilities to protect the plants. Legislative protection under the Wildlife Conservation Act (1950) and clearing provisions under the Environmental Protection Act (1986) provide legal protection from clearing and other human physical disturbance to the plants and population sites (CALM 2005).

As this species is listed as Declared Rare Flora (DRF) and currently ranked Endangered, an IRP will be prepared for this species when resources are available. Recovery actions for this species could include (CALM 2005);

  • Further survey to seek to locate additional populations,
  • Continued monitoring of known populations,
  • Biological research to gain an understanding of the ecology of this species,
  • Control of feral goats, rabbits and pigs (CALM 2005).

There is no recovery plan or interim recovery plan specific for this species although the Three-flowered Stachystemon is included in Wildlife Management Program 26: Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District under the nomenclatural synonym Pseudanthus nematophorus (Patrick 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Nassella trichotoma (Serrated Tussock, Yass River Tussock, Yass Tussock, Nassella Tussock (NZ)) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Nassella neesiana (Chilean Needle grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006dg) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Stachystemon nematophorus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008yl) [Conservation Advice].

Halford, D. & R. Henderson (2003). Studies in Euphorbiaceae A.L.Juss. sens. Lat. 5, a Revision of Pseudanthus Sieber exSpreng. and Stachystemon Planch. (Oldfieldioideae Kohler & Webster, Caletieae Mull. Arg.). Austrobaileya. 6:17-3.

Patrick, S.J. (2001). Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District. [Online]. Wildlife Management Program No 26. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Stachystemon nematophorus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 10:41:47 +1000.