Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011a) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (23/12/2010).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (102) (23/12/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 184 - Glenelg Spiny Crayfish Euastacus bispinosus, Murray Spiny Crayfish Euastacus armatus (Van Praagh, B., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Invertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2009)
Scientific name Euastacus bispinosus [81552]
Family Parastacidae:Decapoda:Malacostraca:Arthropoda:Animalia
Species author Clark, 1941
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is also listed as a protected species under the South Australian Fisheries Management Act 2007 and is subject to fishing restrictions in Victoria, under the state Fisheries Act 1995.

The Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is a large, long-lived freshwater crayfish, which is distinguished by its robust claws and spiny carapace (main body) (TSSC 2011). This species is commonly olive green in colour, sometimes brown, with splashes of red colouration on the joints of their claws and legs. They are known to grow up to at least 130 mm OCL (occipital carapace length; length between eye and end of main body segment) and up to 1.1 kg in weight (McCormack 2012; TSSC 2011).

The Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is restricted to the Glenelg river and associated tributaries and the Fitzroy river in south-west Victoria and several spring-fed coastal streams and sinkholes in south-east South Australia (Miller et al. 2013; TSSC 2011; Whiterod & Hammer 2012). The species exists in two or three locations outside the ‘core’ extent of occurrence in South Australia (i.e. The Pines, Allendale sinkhole and Mosquito Creek); however, there is considerable distance between them and they are considered likely to have occurred due to translocation (Hammer & Roberts 2008; Whiterod et al in prep). The species' range is known to reach elevations of 320 m above sea-level, but probably reaches higher elevations in the Grampians (Van Praagh 2003).

The species has a total estimated extent of occurrence (as of 2013) of approximately 13 000 km2 (Whiterod & Hammer 2012; Whiterod pers. comm 2013). The vast majority of this extent of occurrence is in Victoria, as the South Australian population of the species only has an extent of occurrence of 300 km2 (Whiterod et al. in prep). The actual portion of this distribution that is occupied by the species is much smaller; the species’ area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 22 km2 in total (19.7 km2 in Victoria and 2 km2 in South Australia) (Sweeny & Dickson 2011; TSSC 2011; Whiterod et al. in prep).

The distribution of the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is fragmented and there is no habitat connecting areas of known occurrence in Victoria and South Australia. Therefore, the Victorian and South Australian groups can be described as two distinct and separate populations (Hammer & Roberts 2008; Whiterod & Hammer 2012).

Victoria

The Victorian population occurs from the source of the Glenelg River in the Grampians, to within 18 to 20 km of the river mouth, the Crawford River, the headwaters of the Wimmera River, Scrubby Creek sub-catchment, the Fitzroy sub-catchment and associated tributaries (Honan & Mitchell 1995b; Sweeny & Dickson 2011). The Victorian population is considered to be split into ‘sub-populations’, which are isolated from each other by barriers or unsuitable habitat; however, the boundaries of these sub-populations are not well understood (Whiterod pers. comm. 2013). The Victorian population occurs over an extensive range, but occurs at a low density; however, the highest densities for this population have been identified in the Crawford River (Whiterod pers. comm. 2013). There is no reliable population estimate for the Victorian population (TSSC 2011).

South Australia

The majority of the South Australian population occurs in an area of karst (limestone) geology, which was previously covered by a large peat swamp prior to European arrival in Australia (Sweeny & Dickson 2011). The South Australian population now occurs in seven remnant spring-fed streams (and associated drainage channels) and two spring-fed sinkholes (Whiterod pers. comm. 2013). These figures include the outlying occurrences (thought to be due to translocation) at The Pines and Allens Sinkhole (the status of individuals at Mosquito Creek is unknown, due to a prolonged drying period in 2012 (Whiterod & Hammer 2012). There is considerable variation in the abundance of individuals between different sites (or sub-populations) in South Australia; some sub-populations have very few individuals and some have many; more than 60% of the South Australian population occurs at Eight Mile Creek and Deep Creek (Whiterod & Hammer 2012). The South Australian population appears to exhibit low abundance (which is continuing to decline) and a notable sex bias towards females and a high incidence of gonopore (sex organ) aberrations (likely to be an expression of inbreeding) (Hammer & Roberts 2008; Miller et al. 2013; Whiterod & Hammer 2012).

The distribution of the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is known to overlap the following protected areas (Van Praagh 2003):

  • Discovery Bay Coastal Park.
  • Lower Glenelg National Park.
  • Grampians National Park.

Crayfish of the genus Euastacus generally occupy river systems that are higher-altitude, permanently-flowing, cool and well-oxygenated (McCormack 2012; Crandall, Martin, Morgan & Riek cited in TSSC 2011). They are also known to be associated with wet sclerophyll forest, riparian vegetation containing Eucalyptus and Leptospermum species, bracken (Pteridium esculentum) and even pine plantations (Van Praagh 2003).

Victoria

In Victoria, the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is generally found in cool, shaded, flowing habitats with good water quality and intact riparian vegetation (TSSC 2011). Within these areas, the crayfish use undercut banks, woody debris, rock boulders and cobbled river beds as refuges when they are not feeding. In the Grampians, where these types of habitat may be absent, the species prefers soft-sediment channels and pools (30 to 100 cm deep) containing low levels of colouration, mud and aquatic vegetation (i.e. Triglochin spp.), high levels of dissolved oxygen and a high cover of cobbles and high alkalinity (Johnston & Robson 2009; McCormack 2012). The species also create burrows, to which they retreat during long periods of inactivity (McCormack 2012; TSSC 2011). Deep pools fed by springs are likely to be important habitat refuges for the crayfish during summer, when water temperatures are high and flows are reduced (Honan 2004). The species is also known to be associated with heathy, riparian vegetation with ferns and vines (Morgan cited in Van Praagh 2003). The main channel of the Glenelg River is not considered to be likely habitat, as it is highly modified and de-snagged (Whiterod pers. comm. 2013).

Honan (2004) identified two key features of streams containing the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish in Victoria – some debris which they can use for shelter and reasonable water quality. Streams that contain the species are known to vary significantly in regards to width, depth, substrate, debris content and temperature. As use of habitat characteristics as a proxy for occurrence is unreliable, adequate surveys are likely to be important for determining whether the species is present.

South Australia

The South Australian population of the species exists in the remnants of a very large peat swamp system, as well as the artificial channels and streams used to drain it (TSSC 2011). Despite being close to the coastline, South Australian habitat is characterised by relatively strong flows of cool, clear, low salinity water with low levels of suspended solids, which is thick with aquatic vegetation and an array of aquatic fauna (Hammer 2002; Hammer & Roberts 2008). The availability of suitable microhabitats appears to be a limiting factor in the species' South Australian distribution, as rocks and woody debris is rare (Hammer & Roberts 2008). The greatest abundance of individuals occur in large, relatively deep pools (5-10 m) with a high cover of fringing vegetation and undercut banks (Sweeny & Dickson 2011).

Individuals of the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish continue to grow throughout their entire life (TSSC 2011). The largest confirmed record of the species (130 mm OCL and 1.1 kg), was estimated to be 26 years of age and historical accounts suggest that the species may grow even larger and reach 50 years of age (TSSC 2011).

Female crayfish are estimated to reach sexual maturity at approximately 61.5 mm OCL in South Australia and 85—86 mm OCL (8-11 years of age) in Victoria (Whiterod & Hammer 2012). They reproduce annually, with fertilisation occurring in during May to June, producing a large clutch of eggs (several hundred), with the number of eggs produced dependant on the OCL size of the female (which illustrates the importance of large females to population viability) (McCormack 2012; Sweeny & Dickson 2011; TSSC 2011). Females carry fertilised eggs under their abdomens for several (5 or 6) months and carry the larvae for a further month after they hatch (McCormack 2012). When juvenile crayfish reach approximately 5—6 mm OCL and have consumed their yolk sacs, they are released from the mother's care and subsequently begin feeding freely (generally November or December) (Honan 1998; Honan & Mitchell 1995; McCormack 2012).

The Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is considered to be both a detritivore and a predator (TSSC 2011). They forage on the river bed for a variety of organic material, such as decomposing vegetation and animal material, aquatic macrophytes and algae (Honan 2004). They are also known to strike at living prey, such as fish and other aquatic invertebrates. In some streams and systems, when they achieve an adult size, they are considered to be the apex predator (McCormack 2012; TSSC 2011a).

Adult crayfish can move significant amounts of riverbed substrate and organic matter during foraging. This action is thought to play a role in nutrient recycling and structural dynamics in the streams where crayfish occur (TSSC 2011a).

Similarly to the closely related Murray River Crayfish (Euastacus armatus), Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is likely to have very limited dispersal and recolonisation abilities (Gilligan et al. 2007; Sweeny & Dickson 2011). The animals are not able to move effectively over land and are susceptible to desiccation and predation; aquatic connectivity is likely to be required for effective dispersal. However, individuals have been recorded moving 50 to 75 m along waterbodies over periods of several years, so it is likely that even where aquatic connectivity exists, movements are unlikely to be extensive (Sweeny & Dickson 2011).

The Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is a relatively well-studied species and is large and conspicuous. However, care must be taken when carrying out desktop surveys for the species; absence of records from desktop databases should not necessarily be taken as an indicator of the likelihood of occurrence. Habitat is also known to be an inappropriate proxy for accurately determining whether the species is likely to be present and targeted surveys are, therefore, likely to be necessary for making an assessment of impacts.

Targeted survey methods for the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish

Targeted surveys for the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish are best carried out using a number of different survey techniques, such as netting, trapping, visual surveys and backpack electro-fishing (Whiterod pers. comm. 2013). This approach is recommended as each individual approach is known to have strengths and weaknesses and using several techniques improves detectability of individuals across different habitat types and across different age classes. Some survey methods which are known to be suitable for the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish include:

  • Munyana nets. Mesh (grid) and opening sizes can be varied, depending on the minimum size class being targeted. Traps may need to be modified (i.e. adding cover to the external net surface and adding refuges within the trap) in order to reduce the risk that individuals will become agitated and attempt to escape. Munyana nets are likely to be particularly useful if sampling in deeper water, or fast-flowing sections of streams. Traps should be baited with ox liver or a similar substance.
  • Opera house nets. Mesh (grid) and opening sizes can be varied, depending on the size classes of animals being targeted. Opera house nets are likely to be better for smaller individuals and may require some modification in the same manner as the munyana nets. Traps should be baited with ox liver or similar substance.
  • Backpack electrofishing in areas which are shallow enough for wading, or faster-flowing sites. Whiterod and Hammer (2012) utilised backpack electrofishing to target juveniles, using the following settings: 250-300 V, 70 H, 7% duty cycle and approx 1000 seconds).
  • Underwater transect observations in clear water conditions.

Detectability

Adult Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish are known to be more active in winter, as they moult between January and May and are likely to shelter during this period. Smaller individuals (< 50mm OCL) may moult again in November. Surveys are therefore best carried out in June to October, in order to maximise detectability of adults and juveniles.

Some of the threats to the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish have been addressed (i.e. closure of the South Australian and Victorian fishery); however, many of the threatening processes still remain (Sweeny & Dickson 2011). The threats identified below have been taken from the Conservation Advice for the species and the threat risk assessment carried out at the expert workshop in June 2013 (Nature Glenelg Trust 2013). Many of the extreme or very high risk threats relate to wide ranging (and interrelated) impacts on habitat condition. Genetic deterioration is likely to strongly affect the ability of the species to respond to these threats and climate change is an overriding and emerging threat to the species (Nature Glenelg Trust 2013). South Australian populations are characterised by critically low levels of genetic diversity generally, highlighting their potential vulnerability to localised extinction (Miller et al. 2014).

The Victorian population of the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is threatened by the following factors (Honan 2004; Nature Glenelg Trust 2013; TSSC 2011):

  • Clearing of riparian vegetation and cattle grazing adjacent to waterways (resulting in habitat degradation via erosion and siltation) – extreme risk.
  • Genetic deterioration (inbreeding depression) – extreme risk.
  • Low levels of water inflow due to nearby Eucalyptus sp. plantations (low flows can lead to pools drying, lowered dissolved oxygen levels and increased salinity – extreme risk.
  • Habitat destruction due to de-snagging of streams and dredging – extreme risk.
  • Water quality issues (nutrient-laden runoff, herbicides/pesticides, salinity, deep pool stratification – very high to extreme risk.
  • Climate change – extreme risk.
  • Illegal fishing (fishing restrictions have been in place since the 1980's) – very high risk.
  • Natural disturbance events (fire, flood) – very high risk.
  • Marine intrusion – very high risk.
  • Disease – substantial risk.
  • Introduced species (including legal stocking of); trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta), the Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and European Carp (Cyprinus carpio) – substantial risk.
  • Hybridisation – low risk.

The South Australian population of the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish is threatened by the following factors (Honan 2004; Nature Glenelg Trust 2013; TSSC 2011):

  • Clearing of riparian vegetation and cattle grazing adjacent to waterways (resulting in habitat degradation via erosion and siltation) – extreme risk.
  • Genetic deterioration (inbreeding depression) – extreme risk.
  • Wetland draining and channel modification – extreme risk.
  • Habitat destruction due to de-snagging of streams and dredging – extreme risk.
  • Reduced stream flows and groundwater recharge – extreme risk.
  • Marine intrusion – extreme risk.
  • Water quality issues (nutrient-laden runoff, herbicides/pesticides, salinity, deep pool stratification – moderate to extreme risk.
  • Fishing pressure (although the species is now protected under South Australian fishing regulations) – substantial risk.
  • Low levels of water inflow due to Eucalyptus spp. plantations – moderate risk.
  • Natural disturbance events (fire, flood) – moderate risk.
  • Introduced aquatic species – low risk.
  • Hybridisation – low risk.

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision

A recovery plan for the species is not considered to be necessary at this time, as the approved conservation advice for the species (TSSC 2011a) provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and assist in the mitigation of key threats.

The conservation advice identifies research actions, regional priority actions (relating to habitat loss and disturbance, introduced species, fire and fishing) and local recovery actions. The following research, regional priority and local priority actions have been identified for the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish (TSSC 2011a):

Research priorities 

  • Monitoring of known populations, measuring both adult numbers and levels of juvenile recruitment.
  • Understanding the interactions of ground water and stream flows, and the effect of groundwater extraction on this processes.
  • Pesticide impacts on aquatic invertebrate communities within the species’ range.

Regional priority actions

Habitat Loss, Disturbance and Modification

  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Ensure river management maintains at least minimum river flows.
  • Ensure river and catchment use minimises impacts on water table levels, river flows and water quality.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Ensure use of pesticides and herbicides on agricultural and plantation timber crops does not effect stream habitats and water quality.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
  • Control access routes to suitably constrain public access to known sites on public land.
  • Suitably control and manage access on private land and other land tenure.

Introduced / Translocated Fish

  • Control introduced fish in the species’ habitat, including Carp, Redfin and Brown and Rainbow Trout where possible.
  • Control translocated native fish (i.e. Australian Bass) where possible.
  • Avoid stocking introduced Trout in the species’ habitat.

Fire

  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the habitat of Glenelg spiny freshwater crayfish.
  • Where appropriate provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plan(s), risk register and/or operation maps.

Fishing

  • Continue protection from fishing in South Australia.
  • Continue the moratorium on fishing for the Glenelg spiny freshwater crayfish in Victoria.
  • Permanently close the fishery in Victoria.

Enable Recovery of Additional Sites and/or Populations

  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.

Local Priority Actions

Stock Trampling 

  • Prevent stock trampling and further degrading stream habitats through fencing and provision of off-river watering sites.

Conservation Information

  • Raise awareness of the Glenelg spiny freshwater crayfish in the local community, including recreational fishers.
  • Engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur and adjacent lands, and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.

Status of species recovery

Recovery actions for the GSFC have been carried out prior to and following the species listing under the EPBC Act. In addition to research on population demographics and genetics (particularly in SA), recovery actions have included riparian vegetation improvement projects, creation of rocky stream refuges and improving water availability via environmental water releases in the Glenelg-Hopkins catchment (in Victoria The species remains highly susceptible to ongoing threats, however and further research, habitat protection and habitat restoration funding and effort is required in order to achieve the recovery objectives.

Documents relevant to the management of the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal take Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alterations to hydrology through water extraction Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to habitat hydrology Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat modification and disturbance due to dredging and associated activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:drawdown caused by pine plantations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Forestry Effluents:Herbicide application Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2011) [Listing Advice].

Gilligan, D, R. Rolls, J. Merrick, M. Lintermans, P. Duncan & J. Koehn (2007). Scoping the knowledge requirements for Murray Crayfish (Euastacus armatus). NSW Department of Primary Industries. Fisheries Final Report Series No. 89, Cronulla, Sydney.

Hammer, M. (2002a). The South East fish inventory: distribution and conservation of freshwater fishes of south east South Australia. Native Fish Australia (SA) Inc., Adelaide.

Hammer, M. & M. Roberts (2008). Distribution, status and conservation management of the Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Euastacus bispinosus) in rising-spring wetland habitats of Lower South East, South Australia. Report to the Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia. Aquasave Consultants.

Honan, J.A. (1998). Egg and juvenile development of the Australian Freshwater Crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW. 119:37-54.

Honan, J.A. (2004). Habitats of Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Euastacus bispinosus) in the Glenelg River drainage. Report to Glenelg-Hopkins Catchment Management Authority.

Honan, J.A. & B.D. Mitchell (1995). Reproduction of Euastacus bispinosus Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae) and trends in reproductive characteristics of freshwater crayfish. Marine and Freshwater Research. 46:485-499.

Honan, J.A. & B.D. Mitchell (1995a). Catch characteristics of the large freshwater crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae), and implications for management. Freshwater Crayfish. 10:57-69.

Johnston, K. & B. Robson (2009). Habitat use by five sympatric Australian freshwater crayfish species (Parascacidae). Freshwater Biology. 54:1629-1641.

McCormack, R. (2012). The Glenelg Spiny Crayfish. In: A Guide to Australia's Spiny Freshwater Crayfish. Page(s) 77-79. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.

Miller, A., A. van Rooyen, O. Sweeny, N. Whiterod & A. Weeks (2013). The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg Spiny Crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus. Molecular Biology Reports. 40(7):4415-4419.

Miller, A.D., O.F. Sweeney, N.S. Whiterod, A.R. Van Rooyen, M. Hammer & A.R. Weeks (2014). Critically low levels of genetic diversity in fragmented populations of the endangered Glenelg spiny freshwater crayfish Euastacus bispinosus. Endangered Species Research. 25:43-55.

Nature Glenelg Trust (2013). Glenelg Spiny Crayfish Conservation Workshop: Present and Future Status of an iconic species. Nature Glenelg Trust, Mt Gambier, South Australia.

Sweeny, O. & C. Dickson (2011). A regional plan for the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, in the south-east of South Australia. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Adelaide.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2011). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish). [Online]. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra, ACT: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81552-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2011a). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Euastacus bispinosus (Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish). [Online]. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra, ACT: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81552-conservation-advice.pdf.

Van Praagh, B. (2003). Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 184 - Glenelg Spiny Crayfish Euastacus bispinosus, Murray Spiny Crayfish Euastacus armatus. [Online]. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Whiterod, N. (2013). Personal Communication. Notes from the expert workshop on the Glenelg Spiny Freshwater Crayfish, June 2013, Victoria.

Whiterod, N. & M. Hammer (2012). Population monitoring of Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Euastacus bispinosus) in rising-spring habitats of lower south east South Australia. Report to Friends of Mt Gambier Area Parks (Friends of Parks Inc.). Aquasave Consultants, Adelaide.

Whiterod, N., O. Sweeny & M. Hammer (In prep). Pricklybacks on the brink? Assessing the status of a disjunct population of the endangered crayfish Euastacus bispinosus in rising-spring habitats of south east South Australia. Endangered Species Research.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Euastacus bispinosus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 08:09:15 +1000.