Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, "local actions are being undertaken to assist the species, therefore the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats (14/11/2008)".
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (59) (14/11/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008m) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Listing statement for Hibbertia basaltica (basalt guineaflower) (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2008) [State Species Management Plan].
TAS:Hibbertia basaltica (Basalt Guinea-flower): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014cz) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Scientific name Hibbertia basaltica [81675]
Family Dilleniaceae:Dilleniales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author A.M.Buchanan & Schah.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Buchanan, A.M. & Schahinger, R.B. (2005), Muelleria 22: 105-108, Figs 1-4 [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Hibbertia basaltica

Common name: Basalt Guinea-flower

The Basalt Guinea-flower is a prostrate woody subshrub that spreads by overground stems. It has linear-oblong leaves less than 1 cm long, and bright-yellow flowers that occur on 1–2 cm long stalks at the ends of short leafy branches. The branches grow to about 40 cm long. The plant has a mix of simple and stellate hairs on its branches, leaves and floral parts. The leaves are 4–5 mm long, with margins revolute almost to the broad midrib and a blunt apex.

Flowers are solitary, at the ends of numerous short lateral branches on 1–2 cm long peduncles, with a flat narrow-elliptic bract 2–3 mm long attached to the peduncle's middle third. Each flower has five bright yellow petals, broad and notched at the tip, that are 7.5–10 mm long (about twice as long as the sepals). The stamens are arranged in two groups (of 4–5 and 1) on opposite sides of the two carpels; ovaries are shortly pubescent. The seeds are smooth, kidney-shaped, reddish-brown to black, and are about 2 mm long (Buchanan & Schahinger 2005).

The Basalt Guinea-flower is restricted to an area between Pontville and Bridgewater in southern Tasmania, occurring on basalt slopes along the lower reaches of the Jordan River and one of its tributaries. The linear extent of the species is 5.5 km (Buchanan & Schahinger 2005).

The extent of occurrence for this species is 2.9 km², and the area of occupancy is 4 to 5 ha (TSS 2008).

This species is found in five locations. Over 95% of the population occurs on four private properties and a small parcel of Crown land, with potential changes of land use in each instance - such as land clearance, changes in grazing pressure, expansion of quarrying activities - taken to represent a single threatening event (TSS n.d., unpubl. data).

The Basalt Guinea-flower's distribution can be considered highly fragmented as it is found in relatively small and isolated subpopulations.

The Brighton-Pontville-Tea Tree area was exhaustively surveyed over a 20 year period, as the botanical significance of its basalt substrate began to be appreciated. Particular focus was given to the native grasslands at the Pontville small arms rifle range on Commonwealth land (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1993; Kirkpatrick et al. 1988; TSS n.d., unpubl. data).

The Threatened Species Section (TSS) contracted extension surveys of potential habitat for Basalt Guinea-flower during the species' 2004 flowering season, with additional surveys in 2005 (TSS n.d., unpubl. data). Estimates of population size and area of occupancy are believed to be a close representation of the actual population size, and it is unlikely that additional Basalt Guinea-flower populations will be discovered outside the currently known areas (TSS 2008).

The total population size is estimated to be 2500 mature individuals.

There are five subpopulations, and the largest subpopulation has 900–1200 plants (TSS 2008).

There is the potential loss of up to 1800–1900 plants on private property in the next 10 years due to ongoing residential development, heavy grazing pressure and extensions to quarrying activities (TSS 2008).

A woody species such as the Basalt Guinea-flower might be expected to have a lifespan in the order of 10–20 years, though its generation length remains unknown (TSS 2008).

Part of the central subpopulation occurs on Crown land that has been recommended to become a Nature Reserve. Aside from fencing of the area, there has been no active management for the Basalt Guinea-flower (TSS 2008).

The Balsalt Guinea-flower occurs within native grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra) and Spear grasses (Austrostipa spp.), with the occasional small tree (Prickly Box, Bursaria spinosa) (TSS 2008). The soil type is shallow clay loam on basalt, and there is a high amount of rock cover. This species grows at 15 to 45 m above sea level, in an area with 600 mm of rainfall per year. Plants occur on rocky slopes near the Jordan River (Buchanan & Schahinger 2005).
Co-occurring threatened plants listed on the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 include the vascular plants Cryptandra amara, Calocephalus citreus, Pultenaea prostrata and Vittadinia muelleri, and the lichens Xanthoparmelia amphixantha, Xanthoparmelia molliuscula and the endemic Xanthoparmelia vicariella (Gilfedder 2001; TSS n.d., unpubl. data). The EPBC-listed Dianella amoena (Matted Flax-lily) may also occur with the Basalt Guinea-flower, though a taxonomic revision of Dianella in Tasmania is required before this can be confirmed (Carter 2005).

Flowering of the Basalt Guinea-flower occurs from late September to late November, with fruit dehiscence (opening to release contents) by mid-December (Buchanan & Schahinger 2005).

The species' pollination mechanism and germination triggers are poorly understood. Other Hibbertia species in Australia are known to be subject to buzz-pollination, either by bees (Bernhardt 1984, 1986) or a range of flies (such as hover flies, tachinids and bee flies). Past studies indicate that Hibbertia seeds may have a seed coat-imposed dormancy and/or an embryo-imposed dormancy (Allan et al. 2004; Schatral et al. 1997). Seed scarification and smoke are thought to play a key role in breaking seed dormancy in Hibbertia species (Allan et al. 2004; Dixon et al. 1995).

The species' required disturbance regime is also poorly known. The Basalt Guinea-flower typically occurs on very rocky slopes where it is afforded some protection from grazing. Observations in 2005 showed that plants grazed heavily by sheep produced fewer flowers than those in ungrazed areas, suggesting a diminished capacity for recovery in the former areas due to reduced seed production (TSS 2008).

The Basalt Guinea-flower may be distinguished from the other Hibbertia species currently recognised in Tasmania by its unique stamen arrangement, prostrate habit and showy pedunculate flowers (Buchanan 2005; Buchanan & Schahinger 2005; Curtis & Morris 1975; Toelken 1996, 1998, 2000).

Surveys should be undertaken during the species' peak flowering period, mid to late October, targeting rocky basalt slopes adjacent to streams in Tasmania's southern Midlands. The species is very showy when in flower and can be easily recognised. Difficulties may be encountered later in the season due to the abundant annual growth of native grasses, as well as the large number of yellow-flowered exotic 'daisies' in the more degraded native pastures (TSS 2008).

Substantial areas of habitat for the Basalt Guinea-flower are thought to have been lost in the Pontville-Bridgewater area since European settlement in the early 19th century. This area has been heavily modified through residential, agricultural and light industrial development. Only small remnants of native grassland on basalt survive in the area, almost all of them on private land and subject to a range of ongoing threats (Buchanan & Schahinger 2005).

The three extant Basalt Guinea-flower subpopulations continue to be threatened by land clearance. Future degradation of the species' habitat on adjacent Crown land through edge effects is also possible. Additional threats for those subpopulations on private land include a heavy grazing regime, woody weed invasion (all sites; primarily Gorse (Ulex europaeus) and Briar Rose (Rosa rubiginosa)), a proposed bypass (northern subpopulation), and an expansion of quarrying activities (southern subpopulation) (TSS 2008).

Observations by the TSS in 2005 have highlighted the negative impact on the species from heavy grazing by sheep. Plants at the northern subpopulation survive only deep within rock crevices, and have very few flowering shoots compared with those at ungrazed sites (and therefore have a diminished capacity for reproduction). It is considered likely that plants on deeper soils at this site have been lost in the past due to grazing (TSS 2008).

The Basalt Guinea-flower has a total area of occupancy of less than 5 ha in total, with the largest known patch about 1 ha (TSS 2008), thus exposing the species to unforeseen stochastic events.

Minister's reason for recovery plan decision

A recovery plan for the Basalt Guinea Flower is not considered necessary at this time. Local actions are being undertaken to assist the species, therefore the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage key threats.

The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008adk) recommend the following local and regional priority recovery and threat abatement actions:

  • Investigate land management agreements or conservation covenants to ensure that appropriate grazing levels are prescribed, and that the species' native grassland habitat is not ploughed, improved or inadvertently destroyed.
  • Manage quarrying and firewood drying activities so further individuals, populations and habitats are not degraded or destroyed.
  • Implement an urgent control program for woody weeds in the species' habitat, using appropriate methods.
  • Manage or prevent grazing pressure at known sites
  • Ensure no inappropriate build up of woody or herbaceous debris, which could act as fuel for a potential fire in protected Crown Land habitats.
  • Identify appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination.

    Most of the known Basalt Guinea-flower sites on private land are used for sheep grazing and other rural-based activities, with varying levels of woody weed invasion. Land management agreements or conservation covenants are required to ensure that appropriate grazing levels are prescribed, and that the species' native grassland habitat is not ploughed, degraded or inadvertently destroyed (TSS 2008).

    Part of the central Basalt Guinea-flower subpopulation occurs within a 3.2 ha parcel of Crown land (Gilfedder 2001). The area was fenced off from recently subdivided private land in 2003–2004 through a Threatened Species Network Community Project sponsored by the Natural Heritage Trust and the Worldwide Fund for Nature, though there have been no species-specific recovery actions. Weeding days targeting Gorse and Briar Rose are also being undertaken (TSS 2008).

    One population occurring on private land is now protected by a conservation covenant under the Tasmanian Land Use Planning and Approval Act 1993 (TSS 2008).

    Formal monitoring is required at all known sites to determine the response of the Basalt Guinea-flower to a range of disturbances, and to better understand its pollination mechanisms and germination requirements to improve the future management of the species.

    The Listing Statement for Hibbertia basaltica (basalt guineaflower) (TSS 2008) also contains management guidelines. Recommended recovery actions in the listing statement include:

    • Design and implement a management plan for the Crown land population, addressing issues such as weed invasion and ecological burns to reduce biomass.
    • Negotiate conservation covenants or land management agreements with private landholders to preserve the quality of species' habitat.
    • Undertake formal monitoring of populations to determine the species' response to disturbance and gain further understanding of its pollination and germination.
    • Search suitable habitat for further populations of the Basalt Guinea-flower.

  • Buchanan & Schahinger (2005) have provided a formal description of the species, with brief notes on its distribution, habitat and conservation status.

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].
    Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet Briar, Briar Rose, Sweet Briar Rose, Eglantine) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adx) [Listing Advice].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adk) [Conservation Advice].

    Allan, S.M., S.W. Adkins, C.A. Preston & S.M. Bellairs (2004). Improved germination of the Australian natives: Hibbertia commutata, Hibbertia amplexicaulis (Dilleniaceace), Chameascilla corymbosa (Liliaceae) and Leucopogon nutans (Epacridaceae). Australian Journal of Botany. 52 (3):345-351.

    Bernhardt, P. (1984). The pollination biology of Hibbertia stricta (Dilleniaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 147:266-277.

    Bernhardt, P. (1986). Bee-pollination of Hibbertia fasciculata (Dilleniaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 152:231-241.

    Buchanan, A.M. (2005). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania & Index to the Students Flora of Tasmania. Fourth Edition. Tasmanian Herbarium Occasional Publication No. 7. Hobart, Tasmania: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

    Buchanan, A.M. & R.B. Schahinger (2005). A new endemic species of Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) from Tasmania. Muelleria. 22:105-109. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/__data/page/1406/Kellerman.pdf.

    Carter, O. (2005). Draft Recovery Plan for Dianella amoena (Matted Flax-lily) 2006-2010. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.

    Curtis, W.M. & D.I. Morris (1975). The Student's Flora of Tasmania. Part 1 (Second Edition). Hobart: Government Printer.

    Dixon, K.W., S. Roche & J.S. Pate (1995). The promotive effect of smoke derived from burnt native vegetation on seed germination of Western Australian plants. Oecologia. 101:185-192.

    Gilfedder, L. (2001). Botanical survey of Jordan property, Pontville. Resource Management and Conservation Division, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Gilfedder, L. & J.B. Kirkpatrick (1993). Factors influencing the condition of natural vegetation remnants in subhumid Tasmania. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Save the Bush Research Program Publisher.

    Kirkpatrick, J., L. Gilfedder & R. Fensham (1988). City Parks and Cemeteries: Tasmania's remnant grasslands and grassy woodlands. Hobart, Tasmanian Conservation Trust.

    Schatral, A., J.M. Osborne & J.E.D. Fox (1997). Dormancy in seeds of Hibbertia cuneiformis and H. huegelii (Dilleniaceae). Australian Journal of Botany. 45:1045-1053.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008adk). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hibbertia basaltica. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81675-conservation-advice.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2008). Listing statement for Hibbertia basaltica (basalt guineaflower). [Online]. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LJEM-7F52WN/$FILE/Hibbertia%20basaltica.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (no date). Unpublished data held by the Threatened Species Section. Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (DPIWE), Hobart.

    Toelken, H.R. (1996). Hibbertia . In: Walsh, N.G., & Entwisle, T.J. (eds), eds. Flora of Victoria. 3:300-315. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

    Toelken, H.R. (1998). Notes on Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) 2. The H. aspera - H. empetrifolia complex. Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens. 18(2):107-160.

    Toelken, H.R. (2000). Notes on Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) 3. H. sericea and associated species. Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens. 19:1-54.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hibbertia basaltica in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 27 Jul 2014 01:49:23 +1000.