Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Caladenia sp. Kilsyth South (G.S.Lorimer 1253)
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. aff. vensuta (Kilsyth South Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001ah) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan] as Arachnorchis sp. aff. venusta (Kilsyth South).
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (15/09/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001e) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia sp. aff. venusta (Kilsyth South).
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia sp. Kilsyth South (G.S.Lorimer 1253).
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 191-Kilsyth South Spider-orchid Caladenia sp. aff. venusta (Coates, F., 2003e) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Caladenia sp. Kilsyth South (G.S.Lorimer 1253)
Scientific name Caladenia sp. Kilsyth South (G.S.Lorimer 1253) [82021]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Vic Herbarium
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Arachnorchis sp. aff. venusta (Kilsyth South) [76147]
Caladenia sp. aff. venusta (Kilsyth South) [85700]
Caladenia sp. aff. venusta [68228]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific Name: Caladenia sp. Kilsyth South (G.S.Lorimer 1253)

Common Name: Kilsyth South Spider-orchid

This species has previously been known as Caladenia sp. aff. venusta G.W.Carr, and as Arachnorchis sp. aff. venusta (Kilsyth South) (Kilsyth South Spider-orchid).

This species is similar to Caladenia venusta, but smaller in all its parts and creamy white instead of stark white (Jeanes & Backhouse 2006).

The Kilsyth South Spider-orchid is a terrestrial orchid growing to 35 cm tall, with one to two large creamy white flowers. The tepals grow to 70 mm long, giving it its spider-like appearance, and have reddish-brown glandular tips. The labellum (lip) of the flower has reddish calli and teeth (Jeanes & Backhouse 2006).

The Kilsyth South Spider-orchid is confined to a single population on private property at Kilsyth South, in the Dandenong Range in Victoria. This is the only location at which the plants occur (Carr 1998).

The area of occurrence for this species is estimated to be 2 ha, and the area of occupancy is estimated at 1 ha (TSSC 2001ah).

There are no records of this species formerly occurring over a wider area. However, it is possible that some individuals of this species may have been misidentified as belonging to similar taxon such as Caladenia venusta and, if so, it may be possible to identify these in herbarium material (Coates et al. 2002).

The observed population of Kilsyth South Spider-orchid is 23 individuals, based on observations over several years (TSSC 2001ah).

The population trend for this species is unknown, but it is believed that the previous abundance at the known site is likely to have been at least twice the current numbers, or possibly many hundreds (Coates et al. 2002).

Kilsyth South Spider-orchid is located in Eucalyptus radiata - Eucalyptus cephalocarpa grassy open forest. The ground layer is species rich with patches of exposed ground and many orchids. Associated species include Joycea pallida, Patersonia fragilis (Swamp Iris), P. occidentalis, Thelionema caespitosum and Sphaerolobium minus (Coates et al. 2002).

The Kilsyth South Spider-orchid flowers during September and October (Jeanes & Backhouse 2006).

This orchid is known to be at risk of illegal collection, as it is sought after by orchid collectors. However, due to difficulty of access to the site, illegal collection is assessed as being a low threat (Coates et al. 2002). Permission to clear the land has been refused by the City of Maroondah and the Victorian Civil and Administrative Appeals Tribunal (Coates et al. 2002).


The conditions needed to maintain the orchid's associated mycorrhizal fungi and pollinator are unknown, and the orchid could, therefore, be threatened by their loss (Coates et al. 2002).

There is a National Recovery Plan (Coates et al. 2002) for the Kilsyth South Spider-orchid. Specific in-situ management actions require access to the property on which the orchid occurs (Coates et al. 2002).

Recovery actions from the plan include investigating the population biology and habitat requirements, managing risks to the orchid, promoting increase of in situ and ex situ populations, translocating cultivated plants, implementing education and communication strategies, and measuring population trends against management actions (Coates et al. 2002).

In addition, the Recovery Plan includes the goal of voluntary acquisition of the single site. The land on which the orchid occurs was put up for sale in April 2008 (Toffolon 2008).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. aff. vensuta (Kilsyth South Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001ah) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Work and Other Activities:Vandalism
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus discolor (Blackberry) Significance of Vegetation at Lot 10 Tereddan Drive, Kilsyth South (Carr, G.W., 1998) [Report].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Erica quadrangularis (Heath) Significance of Vegetation at Lot 10 Tereddan Drive, Kilsyth South (Carr, G.W., 1998) [Report].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. aff. vensuta (Kilsyth South Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001ah) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Significance of Vegetation at Lot 10 Tereddan Drive, Kilsyth South (Carr, G.W., 1998) [Report].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. aff. vensuta (Kilsyth South Spider-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2001ah) [Listing Advice].

Carr, G.W. (1998). Significance of Vegetation at Lot 10 Tereddan Drive, Kilsyth South. Unpublished Report for Maroondah City Council. Ecology Australia PtyLtd, Fairfield, Vic.

Coates, F. (2003e). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 191-Kilsyth South Spider-orchid Caladenia sp. aff. venusta. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Jeanes, J. & G. Backhouse (2006). Pictorial Guide to: Wild Orchids of Victoria, Australia. Seaford, Aquatic Photographics.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2001ah). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. aff. vensuta (Kilsyth South Spider-orchid). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/c-venusta.html.

Toffolon, C. (2008). Threat to Kilsyth South Spider-orchid grows. Maroondah Leader. 20 May.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia sp. Kilsyth South (G.S.Lorimer 1253) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 30 Aug 2014 12:15:59 +1000.