Species Profile and Threats Database

For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Phaleria biflora
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Phaleria biflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aaq) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phaleria biflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012bl) [Listing Advice].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Oreodendron biflorum.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Phaleria biflora.
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Phaleria biflora
Scientific name Phaleria biflora [82049]
Family Thymelaeaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (C.T.White) Herber
Infraspecies author  
Reference Herber, B.E. (2001) Austrobaileya 6(1): 96-97
Other names Oreodendron biflorum [4952]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Phaleria biflora

Phaleria biflora was previously known as Oreodendron biflorum.

Phaleria biflora is a shrub or small tree growing to 5 m high with bright red new growth (BRI undated). Leaves measure 2.5–8 cm long by 1.5–4 cm wide. Leaf shape is ovate. Leaf arrangement is decussate (in pairs at right angles). The inflorescences are axillary, borne on peduncles 10–35 mm long and bear 2–10 flowers. The fruits are fleshy and black (Queensland Herbarium 2009; Rye 1990).

Phaleria biflora is endemic to the Wet Tropics bioregion of north-eastern Queensland where it has been recorded on the Great Dividing Range and Thornton Range at altitudes between 1000 and 1350 m above sea level (Queensland Herbarium 2009b; Rye 1990).

Three sub-populations of Phaleria biflora are recorded at the following sites over a range of approximately 40 km (Queensland Herbarium 2009):

  • Thornton Peak (Daintree National Park)
  • Black Mountain area (Daintree National Park)
  • Mt Lewis Forest Reserve.

No population sizes are known, but it is noted to be 'occasional to common' at the Black Mountain and SF143 sites (BRI undated; Hyland & Whiffin 1993).

Phaleria biflora grows as an understorey tree in mountain rainforest, often found in stunted rainforest on windswept ridges. The species has been recorded growing in (BRI undated; Hyland & Whiffin 1993):

  • complex notophyll vine forest with Oraniopsis appendiculata and Prumnopitys ladei on granite
  • on granite outcrops and pavements with stunted vegetation of simple evergreen microphyll moss-fern thicket.

Phaleria biflora flowering has been recorded in December and January and fruiting has been recorded in May and December (BRI undated; Queensland Herbarium 2009; White 1933).

Phaleria biflora is most similar to Phaleria chermsideana, but differs by having ovate leaves, a two (rarely three)-flowered inflorescence and a fruit septum thinner than the seed-coat (Herber 2001).

Known Threats

There are no known or obvious threats to this species (TSSC 2012bl).

Potential Threats

While climate change is a potential future threat to this species' long term survival, especially as it is restricted to high altitude areas (Queensland Herbarium 2009b), research is needed to identify other potential threats to Phaleria biflora (TSSC 2012bl).

It is unknown whether this species is specifically managed in Daintree National Park or Mount Lewis Forest Reserve (TSSC 2012bl).

Research priorities and actions

Research priorities for Phaleria biflora include:

  • Identifying the threatening processes impacting on, or potentially affecting, the species
  • Designing and implementing a monitoring program or, if appropriate, supporting and enhancing existing programs
  • Assessing more precisely the distribution and ecological requirements of the species, population sizes and the relative impacts of threatening processes
  • Undertaking survey work in potential habitat to locate any additional populations, and
  • Undertaking seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.

Regional and Local Priority Actions

The following regional and local priority recovery and threat abatement actions can support the recovery of Phaleria biflora (TSSC 2008aaq).

Habitat Loss, Disturbance and Modification

  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Identify populations of high conservation priority.
  • Ensure road widening and maintenance activities (or other infrastructure or development activities), involving substrate or vegetation disturbance in areas where Phaleria biflora occurs; do not adversely impact on known populations.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.

Conservation Information

  • Raise awareness of Phaleria biflora within the local community.
  • Establish and/or maintain partnerships with relevant private landholders and land managers to ensure appropriate species conservation.

Enable Recovery of Additional Sites and/or Populations

  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004), if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

Management documents relevant to Phaleria biflora are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Phaleria biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ra) [Internet].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Phaleria biflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aaq) [Conservation Advice].

BRI Collection Records (BRI) (undated). Queensland Herbarium specimens.

Herber, B. E. (2001). Oreodendron C.T.White reduced to Phaleria Jack (Thymelaeaceae, Thymelaeoidea). Austrobaileya, vol. . 6(1), :95-97.

Hyland, B.P.M. & T. Whiffin (1993). Australian Tropical Rain Forest Trees. CSIRO Publications, East Melbourne.

Queensland Herbarium (2009). Specimen label information.

Queensland Herbarium (2009b). Conservation Status Assessment for Phaleria biflora . Unpublished report. Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency. Brisbane.

Rye, B.L. (1990). Thymelaeaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 18:122-215. Canberra: AGPS.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008aaq). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Phaleria biflora. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from:

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2012bl). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phaleria biflora. [Online]. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra, ACT: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Available from:

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

White, C.T. (1933). Ligneous plants collected for the Arnold Arboretum in North Queensland by S.F. Kajewski in 1929. Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum. 4:1-113.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Phaleria biflora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 23:27:46 +1000.