Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Thalassarche eremita
Listed marine as Thalassarche eremita
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche eremita
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto) [64697].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche eremita.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche eremita.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche eremita.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche eremita.
 
Scientific name Thalassarche cauta eremita [82342]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Murphy, 1930)
Reference  
Other names Thalassarche eremita [64457]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche cauta eremita, under Australian legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as an Endangered, Marine and Migratory species under the Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Scientific name: Thalassarche cauta eremita

Common name: Chatham Albatross, Chatham Island Mollymawk

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. The Chatham Albatross was previously recognised as a sub-species of the Shy Albatross and as such, is sometimes referred to as Diomedea cauta eremita. Recently however, the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. This working group has agreed to follow Robertson & Nunn (1997) in resurrecting the historic generic name Thalassarche for medium sized albatrosses, and splitting the D. cauta complex into four species. Under this revised taxonomy Thalassarche cauta represents the Shy Albatross, the other two subspecies (including the Chatham Albatross) are raised to full species status: T. salvini and T. cauta eremita, and a fourth subspecies T. steadi is established.

The Chatham Albatross is a medium sized albatross, with a wing-span less than 2.1 m. The bright yellow bill has a distinctive black spot near the tip of the lower mandible, allowing discrimination from the similar Shy Albatross. The Chatam Albatross has a sooty grey wash over the crown, cheeks and neck, and a dark back and wings. Its blackish notch at the front of the wing, next to the body, is the darkest of the Shy Albatross complex (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

Breeding for the Chatham Albatross is restricted to Pyramid Rock, Chatham Islands, off the coast of New Zealand (Gales 1998). The principal foraging range for this species is in coastal waters off eastern and southern New Zealand, and Tasmania (Environment Australia 1999; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Chatham Albatross also forages in coastal waters of the central South Pacific and off South America (Environment Australia 2001f; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The breeding population of the Chatham Albatross is estimated to be between 2000 and 4000 pairs, with the total population around 20 000 individuals (Croxall & Gales 1998; Gales 1993).

Decreases in the population size of the Chatham Albatross in Australian waters are probable over the next three generations (75 years) (Environment Australia 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The generation length of the Chatham Albatross is 25 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Chatham Albatross is a marine species. It occurs in subantarctic and subtropical waters reaching the tropics in the cool Humboldt Current off South America (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It has been noted in shelf-waters around breeding islands, over continental shelves during the non-breeding season, and occurs inshore and offshore (Cox 1976; Falla 1937; Marchant 1977). It enters harbours and bays (Jehl 1973) and is scarce in pelagic waters (Falla 1937; Jehl 1973).

The Chatham Albatross preference for sea-surface temperatures is poorly known. In Chilean waters it has been observed over waters of 11.5 to 15°C (Jehl 1973). The species nests on level or gently sloping ledges, summits, slopes and caves of rocky islets and stacks. It is usually in broken terrain with little soil and vegetation (Brothers 1979a, b; Fleming 1939; Green 1974; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Miskelly 1984).

The breeding biology of the Chatham Albatross is poorly known and there have been no detailed studies. Robertson and colleagues (2000; 2001) state that these Albatrosses first return to the colony when aged four years, and indicate that breeding begins at age seven.

The species breeds annually in colonies of six to 500 nests, usually in association with the Australasian Gannet Sula serrator (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Breeding occurs between September and December. Adults arrive at the colony late August with laying in mid-September to early October and hatching late November to early December (Johnstone et al. 1975).

The nest is a conical mound of mud, guano, rock fragments, feathers, plant material, fish and bird bones, lined with fine material (MacDonald & Green 1963; Miskelly 1984). It varies from a solid column on flat sites to a small lip on sloping rocks (Robertson & van Tets 1982). Nests are re-used annually and layers of dead chicks from previous seasons are sometimes visible (Robertson & van Tets 1982).

Incubation of a single egg is performed by both sexes in alternate shifts, a single shift averaging four days. The total incubation period is 72 days (Robertson & van Tets 1982).

Adults guard the chick for some time after hatching, gradually leaving it alone for longer periods, once it can sit up and defend itself (Brothers 1979b; Fleming 1939). The chicks are independent of parents when fledged (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Chatham Albatross probably eats fish and cephalopods (E. Reid 2002, pers. comm).

The Chatham Albatross has been recorded following fishing boats (E. Reid 2002, pers. comm.). The species gathers to scavenge at commercial fishing grounds (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It takes food from the surface or just below, and has been observed diving to depths of 2 m or more for offal (Nicholls 1979).

The Chatham Albatross is found mainly in seas around Chatham Island, but also ranges to the east and south coast of New Zealand and central south Pacific. It is a rare vagrant to southeast Australian waters (Harrison 1983; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Powlesland 1985).

Threats to the Chatham Albatross at Pyramid Rock include predation by introduced predators and degradation of the breeding habitat through human or other disturbance.

The hunting of populations by humans is responsible for earlier population declines (Environment Australia 2001f).

Longline fisheries are also responsible for the deaths of foraging Chatham Albatross, both inside and outside the Australian Fishing Zone (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1993,1998; New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries 1997).

The Action Plan for Australian Birds, the Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 and the Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Chatham Albatross (AGDEH 2006q; Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal take National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Draft Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant Petrels (Env. Aust, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Brothers, N.P (1979a). Seabird Islands No. 74: Pedra Branca, Tasmania. Corella. 3:58-60.

Brothers, N.P (1979b). Seabird Islands No. 78: Mewstone, Tasmania. Corella. 3:68-69.

Cox, J.B (1976). A review of the Procellariiformes occurring in South Australian waters. South Australian Ornithologist. 27:28-82.

Croxall, J.P. & R. Gales (1998). An assessment of the conservation status of albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 46-65. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001f). National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/albatross/index.html.

Falla, R.A. (1937). British Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition Report. Series B, Vol. 2, Birds.

Fleming, C.A. (1939). Birds of the Chatham Islands. Emu. 38:380-413.

Gales, R. (1993). Cooperative Mechanisms for the Conservation of Albatrosses. Hobart, Tasmania: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Tasmanian Government Printer.

Gales, R. (1998). Albatross populations: status and threats. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 20-45. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Green, R.H. (1974). Records of the Queen Victoria Museum. 51:Jan-17.

Harrison, P (1983). Seabirds: An Identification Guide. London: Croom Helm.

Jehl, J.R. (1973). The Distribution of Marine Birds in Chilean Waters in Winter. Auk. 90:114-135.

Johnstone, G.W., D. Milledge & D.F Dorward (1975). The White-capped Albatross of Albatross Island: numbers and breeding behaviour. Emu. 75:1-11.

MacDonald, D. & R.H. Green (1963). Albatross Island. Emu. 63(1):23-31.

Marchant, S. (1977). A seawatch on the southern coast of New South Wales. Emu. 77:9 to 18.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Miskelly, C.M. (1984). Birds of the Western Chain, Snares Islands 1983-84. Notornis. 31:209-223.

New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries (1997). Managing the Incidental Capture of Seabirds in New Zealand Fisheries. Ministry of Fisheries & Department of Conservation, New Zealand.

Nicholls, G.H. (1979). Underwater swimming by albatrosses. Cormorant. 6:38.

Pizzey, G. & F. Knight (1999). The Graham Pizzey and Frank Knight Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Pymble, Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Powlesland, R.G. (1985). Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1983 and a review of albatross recoveries since 1960. Notornis. 32:183-195.

Reid, E. (2002). Personal Communication.

Robertson, C.J.R. & G.B. Nunn (1997). Toward a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) pp. 413-19. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Robertson, C.J.R. & van Tets, G.F (1982). The status of birds at the Bounty Islands. Notornis. 29:311-336.

Robertson, C.J.R., D. Bell & D.G. Nicholls (2000). The Chatham albatross (Thalassarche eremita): at home and abroad. Notornis. 47 (3):174.

Robertson, C.J.R., D. Bell & P. Scofield (2001). Population assessment of the Chatham mollymawk at The Pyramid, December 2001. DOC Science Internal Series 91. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche cauta eremita in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 08:57:19 +1000.