Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche cauta cauta
Listed marine as Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto)
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto)
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto) [64697].
Listed Critical Habitat Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross) - Albatross Island, The Mewstone, Pedra Branca. .
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche cauta cauta.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto).
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea cauta cauta.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto).
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche cauta cauta.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Shy Albatross - vulnerable species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1997g) [Internet].
NSW:Shy Albatross - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005mh) [Internet].
NSW:Shy Albatross Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999bz) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Shy Albatross (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2009t) [Internet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea cauta cauta
Scientific name Thalassarche cauta cauta [82345]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Gould, 1841)
Reference  
Other names Diomedea cauta cauta [25995]
Thalassarche cauta (sensu stricto) [64697]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

New South Wales: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Queensland: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Vulnerable under the Nature Conservation Act 1992.

Tasmania: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Victoria: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988

Western Australia: At the species level, Thalassarche cauta is listed as Vulnerable under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Thalassarche cauta cauta

Common name: Shy Albatross

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. The Shy Albatross was previously thought to belong to the Diomedea genus, and as such is sometimes referred to as D. cauta. Three sub-species were recognised under this taxonomy: D. c. cauta, D. c. salvini , and D. c. eremita.

Recently, the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. This working group has agreed to follow Robertson and Nunn (1997) in resurrecting the historic generic name Thalassarche for medium sized albatrosses, and splitting the D. cauta complex into four species. Under this revised taxonomy Thalassarche cauta represents the Shy Albatross; the other two subspecies are raised to full species status: T. salvini and T. eremita, and a fourth subspecies T. steadi is established.

However, this profile follows Dickson (2003), CAVS (2006), AFD (2006) and Christidis and Boles (2008) in treating the Shy Albatross as a subspecies.

The Shy Albatross is the largest of the black-backed albatrosses, with a wingspan of 2.12 - 2.56 m. They have a distinctive underwing pattern; mostly white, with very narrow black margins and a diagnostic black notch at the top of the wing, just next to the body. The forehead and crown are white, forming a pronounced white cap sharply bordered by a narrow greyish-black brow and light greywash across the sides of the head (including nape, ear-coverts, cheeks and sides of throat in most individuals) (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The lower mantle and back are blackish with a pronounced silvery bloom that contrasts with the darker, uniform blackish scapulars and upperwings. The rump and upper tail-coverts are white, while the tail is a light grey, turning darker brown with wear. The bill is a uniform greyish-horn colour, merging to straw-yellow by the mid-section, with a yellow tip. The iris is dark brown, and the legs and feet are bluish-flesh (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The recent separation of Shy Albatrosses from other closely related taxa confounds our understanding of its at-sea distribution. Shy Albatrosses appear to occur over all Australian coastal waters below 25° S. It is most commonly observed over the shelf waters around Tasmania and southeastern Australia (Barton 1979; Blakers et al.1984; Tickell 1995; Reid et al. in press). It appears to be less pelagic than many other albatrosses, ranging well inshore over the continental shelf, even entering bays and harbours (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Reid et al.in press).

Most adult Shy Albatrosses remain in the waters off southeast Australia all year round, and seldom venture more than 600km from the breeding colony (Brothers et al. 1998; Reid et al. in press). Breeding occurs on Albatross Island, Bass Strait, and Mewstone and Pedra Branca, off southern Tasmania (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). However, juvenile, immature and some Shy Albatrosses cover much greater distances. These birds can be found in most sub-Antarctic to subtropical waters. They may also enter the tropics off South America, and have even been recorded in the Northern Hemisphere; west USA and north Red Sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The broad routes of post-fledging dispersal appear to be colony specific. Young birds from Albatross Island have been found only as far west as southwest Western Australia and east to Queensland. In contrast, juveniles and immatures from the Mewstone have been recovered off both South Africa and New Zealand. A first year Shy Albatross from the Mewstone has also been recorded off Tasmania (Brothers et al. 1997). Satellite-transmitters attached to adult Shy Albatrosses from the Pedra Branca colony have revealed that post-breeding birds usually forage over the continental shelf from the southeast of Tasmania to the southeast of Victoria (Brothers et al. 1998). None of the immature birds banded at Pedra Branca have ever been recovered away from the colony (Brothers et al. 1997). Thus, little information exists regarding juvenile dispersal from Pedra Branca.

The extent of occurrence for the Shy Albatross is estimate with high reliability to be 5 000 000km² with a stable trend (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated with high reliability to be 6km² with a stable trend (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Shy Albatross is endemic to Australian territory. No Shy Albatrosses breed outside of the Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ), however, they do disperse to areas outside of the AFZ, with Immature Shy Albatrosses migrating as far as South Africa (Brothers 1979b; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The current population for the Shy Albatross is estimated at 55 000 to 60 000 individuals, including immatures (Gales 1998), with 5000 pairs breeding on Albatross Island, 7000 on Mewstone Island and 250 on Pedra Branca Island (Croxall & Gales 1998; Gales, 1998).

The Shy Albatross is the only albatross species endemic to Australia, i.e. breeding colonies exist only within areas of Australian jurisdiction. The total breeding population is currently around 12 200 breeding pairs (Brothers et al. 1997).

Breeding populations of Shy Albatrosses

Breeding Locality Annual Breeding Pairs Year of Census Census Reliability Population Status
Albatross Island 5000 1995 Moderate Increasing
The Mewstone 7000 1995 Moderate ?
Pedra Branca 200 1995 Moderate ?
? Population status is unknown due to a lack of recent or consistent population censuses

Population status within areas under Australian jurisdiction

The first European sighting of the Shy Albatross colony on Albatross Island was by George Bass in 1798, when about 20 000 breeding pairs where thought to have nested on the island annually. By 1909, however, plume and egg hunters had decimated the colony to only 250-300 nests (Green 1974; Johnstone et al.1975). Population surveys taken since then indicate that the population is staging a recovery. However, the current population at Albatross Island still constitutes only 25% of the original population size.

The colonial histories of the Mewstone and Pedra Branca have not been well documented. Due to the difficulties of surveying nesting seabirds on these islands, early estimates are perhaps unreliable, and hence the status of these populations remain unknown. The Pedra Branca population remains critically low, but may have always been very small (Environment Australia 2001f).

Shy Albatross population trend at Albatross Island

Year of Census Breeding Pairs Reference
<1798 ~20 000 Johnstone et al.1975
1894 400 Green 1974
1909 250-300 Green 1974
1960 670 Green 1974
1973 1505 Green 1974
1983 2000 N. Brothers pers. comm., in Blakers et al. 1984
1991 3000 N. Brothers pers. comm., in Gales 1993
1995 5000 Brothers et al. 1997

Shy Albatross population trend at the Mewstone

Year Breeding Pairs Reference
1977 1500 - 2000 Brothers 1979a
1991 4500 N. Brothers pers. comm., in Gales 1993
1995 7000 Brothers et al. 1997

Shy Albatross population trend at Pedra Branca

Year Breeding Pairs Reference
1978 100 Brothers 1979b
1991 250 N. Brothers pers. comm., in Gales 1993
1995 200 Brothers et al. 1997

No Shy Albatrosses breed outside of the AFZ, however, they do disperse to areas outside of the AFZ (Environment Australia 2001f).

The Shy Albatross is a marine species occurring in subantarctic and subtropical waters, reaching the tropics in the cool Humboldt Current off South America (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Shy Albatross preference for sea-surface temperatures is poorly known. In the southern Indian Ocean the species has been observed over waters of 6.4-13.5°C (Rand 1963).

Birds have been noted in shelf-waters around breeding islands and over adjacent rises. During the non-breeding season, the Shy Albatross occurs over continental shelves around continents. The species occurs both inshore and offshore (Cox 1976; Falla 1937; Marchant 1977) and enters harbours and bays (Jehl 1973). The birds are scarce in pelagic waters (Falla 1937; Jehl 1973).

The species flies low to moderately high, using updraft from wave fronts for lift (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Shy Albatross nests on level or gently sloping ledges, summits, slopes and caves of rocky islets and stacks, usually in broken terrain with little soil and vegetation (Brothers 1979a, b; Fleming 1939; Green 1974; Miskelly 1984).

Shy Albatrosses have an annual breeding cycle lasting about eight months, from September until April. The birds breed in colonies of six to 500 nests, usually in association with the Australasian Gannet Sula serrator (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Mean nest densities are 1-2 nests per m², with some nests being only 30cm apart (Brothers 1979a).

The nest is a conical mound of mud, guano, rock fragments, feathers, plant material, fish and bird bones, lined with fine material (MacDonald & Green 1963; Miskelly 1984). The nest structure varies from a solid column on flat sites to a small lip on sloping rocks (Robertson & van Tets 1982). The nests are re-used annually and layers of dead chicks from previous seasons are sometimes visible (Robertson & van Tets 1982).

Most eggs are laid in September or early October. Breeding is asynchronous among colonies, with the mean egg-laying date at Pedra Branca (and probably the Mewstone) being about one to two weeks later than on Albatross Island. The egg is incubated for about ten weeks. The chick hatches in December and is brooded for a further three weeks (Johnstone et al. 1975).

The incubation of a single egg is carried out by both sexes in alternate shifts, with a single shift averaging four days. The total incubation period is 72 days (Robertson & van Tets 1982). Adults guard the chick for some time after hatching, gradually leaving it alone for longer periods once it can sit up and defend itself (Brothers 1979b; Fleming 1939).

Satellite telemetry has recently been used to determine the foraging areas of breeding Shy Albatrosses from Albatross Island and Pedra Branca (Brothers et al.1998). During incubation birds from Albatross Island foraged off northwest Tasmania in an area encompassing 27,700km² of ocean, predominantly in water less than 200m deep. Incubating birds from Pedra Branca tended to forage over a smaller area (9,500km²) towards the east or southeast edge of the continental shelf. The maximum foraging range of any breeding bird was 265km from its colony (Brothers et al. 1998).

Breeding success at Albatross Island varies from 20-50%. The lower figures are partly due to an avian pox virus that causes chick mortality (N. Brothers pers. comm., in Gales 1993). If successful, the chick fledges in April at about 4.5 months old. Immature birds begin returning to the natal colony after at least three years at sea. They become fairly sedentary once they reach 4-5 years of age. After a minimum of 5-6 years, most Shy Albatrosses form paires and begin breeding annually (Brothers 1997).

The main foods of the Shy Albatross are fish, cephalopods (squid), crustaceans and tunicates (Marchant & Higgins 1990).
The Shy Albatross feeds in waters over the continental shelf, including harbours and bays (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and follows fishing vessels in flocks (Brothers et al. 1998; Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Most observations of Shy Albatrosses feeding at sea have, till recently, been of birds seizing dead or moribund prey at the surface, taking fish from surface schools while flying, or occasionally making shallow dives or surface plunges (Barton 1979; Harper et al.1985; Croxall and Prince 1994). However, recently Hedd and co-workers (1998) used time-depth recorders and maximum depth gauges attached to adult Shy Albatrosses to demonstrate that this species routinely penetrates the water surface to take prey. The majority of plunge-dives were to within 3m of the surface, lasting less than six seconds. However, Shy Albatrosses also actively swam underwater for up to 19 seconds to a depth of 7.4m. Nine of the 15 birds monitored in the study dived below 5m indicating that it is a standard foraging strategy used by this species. Diving only occurred between 07:00 and 22:00 hours. The deepest dives occurred between 10:00-12:00 hrs (Hedd et al.1998).

The diet of Shy Albatrosses at Albatross Island has recently been examined. Between 1995-1998, the food samples delivered to chicks by their parents were mostly fish (89% by wet mass) and cephalopods (10% by wet mass), with small amounts of tunicates and crustaceans (Hedd and Gales, in press). Prey selection appeared to be relatively constant across seasons and years. Most (80%) of the fish delivered by adults to chicks were pelagic schooling Jack Mackerel Trachurus declivus and Redbait Emmelichthys nitidus, while 84% of the cephalopods were Gould's Squid Nototodarus gouldi. Thus, there is considerable evidence to indicate that Shy Albatrosses capture most of their prey live during the day, from on or just below the surface (Hedd and Gales, in press).

Shy Albatrosses usually forage singly or in flocks of up to 20 birds (Barton 1979). However, they will also aggregate behind fishing vessels into flocks of over 100 birds (T. Reid pers. comm.) where they are usually able to out-compete all smaller Procellariiformes (that is, all but the Wandering, Tristan, Antipodean, Gibson's and Royal Albatrosses: Brothers 1991). The species is among the most frequently killed by longlines in the Australian Fishing Zone (Brothers 1991; Gales 1993).

Some populations of the Shy Albatross migrate to waters off South Africa or South America, while others remain at or near colonies all year (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Adults at the Tasmanian colonies are present there all year. Fledglings from Albatross Island appear to move only around southern Australia (Marchant & Higgins 1990). There are records of Shy Albatrosses from Tasmanian waters in southern Africa in all months, but most commonly between August-October (Summerhayes et al. 1974). One young bird banded in southern African waters was recovered near the banding site one year later and may have remained there through summer. Another bird banded as an adult was recovered there eight years later (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Ross 1986).

Although numbers of Shy Albatross have been increasing through the 20th century, the species is still vulnerable to deaths associated with commercial fishing (Gales 1998). Around 10% of the feeding ground off Tasmania and 100% of that used by birds from Pedra Branca and Mewstone are also used by longline fishing vessels (Brothers et al. 1998) and the species is among the most frequently killed by longlines in the AFZ (Brothers 1991; Gales 1993). Such mortality rates are unlikely to be sustainable.

Trawl fisheries throughout the species range also pose a threat to Shy Albatrosses, which drown if they get trapped in the nets or trawl gear or are killed by collisions with cables (Adams 1992; Brothers et al. 1998; Gales 1993).

The population size is likely to decrease by at least 20% over the next three generations (45 years) as a result of fishing bycatch (Environment Australia 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Shy Albatrosses are also shot off Tasmania to reduce bait stealing and for bait and food in South African waters (Adams 1992; EABG 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Avian pox virus, probably transmitted by parasitic fleas and ticks, also kills an unknown number of birds (EABG 1999; Johnstone et al. 1975).

Commercial overexploitation of squid or fish reserves in Bass Strait could pose a threat to Shy Albatrosses in the future by direct competition for food (Gales 1998).

The Shy Albatross was formerly killed for feathers and eggs (Johnstone et al. 1975).

Ocean Watch Australia Ltd (NSW) received $24 860 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003-04, part of which was for demonstration of de-hookers and line-cutters to fishermen to increase industry's awareness of their application; provision of the devices and monitoring of experiences; project outcomes communicated to fishermen and production of instruction video; and aiming to reduce by-catch fatalities.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds and the National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-petrels provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Shy Albatross (Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett &Crowley 2000)

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities Incidental capture of seabirds in the New Zealand subantarctic squid trawler fishery, 1990. Bird Conservation International. 1:351-359. (Bartle, J.A. , 1991) [Journal].
National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Infection by parasites National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche cauta cauta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 14 Jul 2014 01:16:24 +1000.