Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Banksia anatona
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra anatona (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008my) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia anatona (cactus banksia)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013bw) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (26/04/2013).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Dryandra anatona.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia anatona.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (144) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013i) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia anatona.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Interim Recovery Plan. No. 111. Cactus Dryandra (Dryandra anatona) Interim Recovery Plan 2001-2004 (Hickman, E., 2001) [State Recovery Plan].
WA:Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20 (Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates, 1995) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Banksia anatona
Scientific name Banksia anatona [82758]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 66 [comb. nov.]
Other names Dryandra sp. 48 (aff. falcata;Stirling Range N.P.) [24453]
Dryandra anatona [64512]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/32686

Scientific name: Banksia anatona

Common name: Cactus Banksia

Prior to 2007 this species was known as Dryandra anatona. Phylogenetic analysis by Mast & Thiele (2007) resulted in the genus Dryandra being merged into Banksia.

Growing up to 5 m tall, Cactus Banksia has a single main stem with numerous short lateral branches that are covered with felty hairs. Its leaves are 3–7 cm long by 12–22 mm wide when flattened, and have 10–12 teeth on each side. The leaves are hairy above when young but this surface becomes glabrous over time. The underside of the leaf has a white, felty covering. The inflorescence is either terminal or on short lateral branchlets and comprises about 170 flowers (Brown et al. 1998; George 1999a).

Cactus Banksia is endemic to Western Australia where it is confined to the Stirling Range National Park (Hickman 2001). A re-introduced subpopulation has also been established on private property (subpopulation 6) (DEC 2010).

The species occurs in four extant and one introduced subpopulation (DEC 2010).

Extent of occurrence

The extent of occurrence is estimated to be approximately 10 km2, though this is not including the translocated subpopulation outside of the Stirling Range National Park and the subpopulation that is presumed extinct (DEC 2010).

The species has suffered a past reduction in extent of occurrence. Prior to subpopulation 1 becoming extinct in 1997 due to the impacts of dieback disease, the extent of occurrence for Cactus Banksia would have been approximately 40 km2 (not including the translocated subpopulation). Future declines are predicted as another subpopulation has not been relocated since a fire in 2000 and all natural subpopulations are showing signs of decline due to dieback disease (DEC 2010).

Area of occupancy

The area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 0.3 km2and was estimated during surveys of the individual subpopulations (DEC 2010).

Cactus Banksia has suffered a past decline in area of occupancy due to the loss of subpopulation 1 from dieback disease. Future declines are expected as all other natural subpopulations are infected with dieback disease (DEC 2010).

Cactus Banksia was first collected from the Stirling Range National Park in 1976 (Hickman 2001). During annual surveys by DEC staff, a further four populations were found in each of 1996, 1997, 1999 and 2000 (Hickman 2001).

By 1997 subpopulation 1 was already extinct due to dieback disease and inappropriate fire regimes. A major fire in spring 2000 resulted in the substantial loss of mature plants from subpopulations 2, 3, and 4 while subpopulation 5 has not been relocated since this fire (Hickman 2001).

The species continues to be monitored and surveyed as part of the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (DEC) management of the species (DEC 2010).

The total mature plant population size of the Cactus Banksia is estimated to be approximately 4414 plants (DEC 2010).

The following table (Table 1) provides data on population trends for all subpopulations of Cactus Banksia based on surveys conducted between the early 1990's and 2009 (DEC 2010).

Table 1: Recorded trends in subpopulation plant numbers.

Subpopulation Number of plants Date surveyed
1 18/08/93
01/09/94
04/05/00
15
15
0
2A 21/04/96
22/11/96
04/02/97
04/04/00
08/11/00
08/03/01
25/10/01
01/11/01
07/03/02
12/04/02
21/05/02
27/05/03
12/02/04
11/03/05
08/02/06
05/02/07
09/04/08
2000
2000
2000
2000
1000
1000
1100
2000
2000
2000
2000
1800
1800
1800
1800
4000
4000
2B 21/04/96
04/02/97
27/05/03
12/02/04
11/03/05
08/02/06
Not recorded
50
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3A 04/04/97
25/09/99
21/10/02
19/06/03
28/11/03
10/12/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
07/04/08
11/02/09
100
625
50
128
172
582
392
344
275
300
3B 21/10/02
10/12/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
4
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3C 21/10/02
24/03/03
10/12/03
01/12/04
28/11/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
31/03/06
09/05/07
203
353
Not recorded
50
305
Not recorded
Not recorded
11
11
3D 21/10/02
10/12/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
60
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3E 21/10/02
24/03/03
10/12/03
01/12/04
28/11/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
31/03/06
09/05/07
11/02/09
250
500
Not recorded
400
450
Not recorded
Not recorded
274
300
275
3F 21/10/02
10/12/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
20
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3G 21/10/02
10/12/03
21/02/05
15/02/06
31/03/06
15
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
4A 13/10/97
08/11/00
22/10/02
300
Not recorded
10
4B 23/04/99
08/11/00
10/01/02
03/04/03
25/02/04
18/02/05
23/02/06
10/05/07
30/04/08
900
3
101
61
61
104
74
75
90
4C 23/04/99
08/11/00
10/01/02
60
0
30
4D 10/05/07 37
5 12/10/00 7
6 05/06/07
29/12/07
49
48

All subpopulations are necessary for the species long-term survival and recovery (DEC 2010).

The species grows on slopes in sandy soil over gravelly shale, in thick wongan vegetation (George 1996).

Associated native species include Daviesia glossosema, Eucalyptus marginata, Andersonia echinocephala, Beaufortia decussata, Kingia australis, B. oreophila, B. coccinea, Lambertia uniflora, Hakea baxteri, Allocasuarina humilis, Conospermum coerulescens, Nuytsia floribunda, Lambertia ericifolia, Eucalyptus staeri, B. falcata, B. plumosa, Anarthria prolifera, B. sphaerocarpa and Isopogon latifolius (Hickman 2001).


Cactus Banksia occurs within the ecological community, 'Montane Thicket of the Eastern Stirling Range' which is listed as Declared Rare Flora (DRF) under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, managed as Critically Endangered by the Western Australian Government and listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Cactus Banksia has a relatively long primary juvenile period. The first flowering (of 50% of individuals) occurred 5.5 years after the 1991 fire in subpopulation 2. However another fire affected the same subpopulation in 2000 and only a few individuals had flowered 5.5 years after germination. Therefore it may take more than 5.5 years for Cactus Banksia to reach sexual maturity (DEC 2010).

Flowering is from January to June (Hickman 2001).

Cactus Banksia resembles B. falcatabut is hairier, has long (15–17 mm) floral bracts and has a different shaped fruit. Also, juvenile leaves are obovate to cuneate and shortly serrate (Hickman 2001)

It is advisable to conduct surveys during the flowering season from January to June (Hickman 2001).

Disease

Disease is considered a current and future serious threat to all populations. Dieback (Phytophthora cinnamomi) is a pathogen that causes root rot, resulting in susceptible plants dying of drought stress. All populations are infected with many deaths occurring. Subpopulation 1 has become extinct as a result of dieback. Aerial canker has been visually identified at subpopulation 2a (Hickman 2001; DEC 2010).

Inappropriate fire regimes

Inappropriate fire regimes are considered a past and potential current and future threat which may adversely affect the long term viability of populations. Fires that occurred in 1991 and 2000 killed many adult plants. If further fires occur before seedlings reach maturity there is a significant risk of depleting the soil seed store (Hickman 2001; DEC 2010).

The following management actions and research requirements have been carried out for Cactus Banksia (Hickman 2001; DEC 2010):

Existing recovery actions

  • Seed has been collected from subpopulations 1, 2, 3 and 4. These are stored in the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC).
  • The Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA) cultivated plants of Cactus Banksia from seedlings germinated by DEC's TFSC.
  • A new subpopulation of Cactus Banksia was established on private property in 2007.
  • In testing the Phytophthora cinnamomi susceptibility of 123 Cactus Banksia plants, DEC's Science Division staff found that 98% died within five weeks of inoculation, placing the species in the most dieback susceptible group.
  • In order to establish the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi on Cactus Banksia and the effectiveness of phosphite applications (a chemical used to reduce the spread and impact of Phytophthora and increase the resistance of susceptible and infected species), monitoring plots were established at subpopulation 2a and 4b in 1998 and 1999 respectively.
  • Subpopulation 2 and 4b have been sprayed annually with phosphite since 1998 and 1999 respectively. Subpopulation 3a, 3c and 3e have been sprayed annually since 2004.
  • The Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (ADTFRT) is overseeing the implementation of the Interim Recovery Plan and reports annually to DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies.
  • Staff from the DEC's Albany District Office regularly monitor populations and conduct field surveys for additional populations.

The following management actions and research requirements have been recommended for Cactus Banksia (DEC 2010):

Recommended recovery actions

Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by DEC, permission has been or will be sought from the appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken. Coordinate recovery actions

The Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery Team will continue to oversee the implementation of recovery actions for Cactus Banksia and to report on progress annually to the DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies.

Apply phosphite

As Cactus Banksia, and the Critically Endangered community in which it grows, are both severely infected with the pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi(dieback) DEC will continue to apply phosphite as a protective measure.

Monitor populations

Following the application of phosphite, monitoring its impact (if any) on Cactus Banksia and its effectiveness in controlling Phytophthora cinnamomiwill continue. Following fire, populations will need to be monitored for possible post fire recruitment from soil stored seed and to determine the fire response of adult plants (killed or resprouts). Further monitoring of habitat degradation (including the impact of dieback), population stability (expansion or decline), pollination activity, recruitment, seed production and longevity will need to be carried out.

Develop and implement a fire management strategy

Fire may kill adult plants of the species with most regeneration likely to be from soil stored seed. Frequent fire, prior to plants reaching maturity, is likely to result in insufficient soil stored seed for successful regeneration. Fire should therefore be prevented from occurring if possible, at least in the short term. A fire management strategy will be developed to determine fire control measures and fire frequency.

Collect seed and cutting material

Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against the possible future extinction of wild populations. Seed collections are also needed to propagate plants for translocations. A small quantity of seed has been collected but additional seed is required from all populations. Cuttings will also be collected to further establish a living collection of genetic material at the BGPA.

Conduct further surveys

Further surveys, supervised by DEC staff with assistance from local naturalists and wildflower society members, will be conducted during the species' flowering period (January–June).

Obtain biological and ecological information

Increased knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species will provide a scientific basis for management of Cactus Banksia in the wild. Investigations will include:

  • studying the soil seed bank dynamics and the effect of disturbance (such as fire), competition, grazing and rainfall on recruitment and seedling survival
  • determining reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth
  • investigating the species' reproductive system and pollination biology
  • investigating population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size
  • investigating the impacts of dieback disease and control techniques (phosphite) on Cactus Banksia and its habitat.

Promote awareness

The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of Cactus Banksia in the wild will be promoted to the public through the local print and electronic media and through poster displays. An information sheet that includes a description of the plant, its habitat type, threats and management actions will be produced. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will also be encouraged. Due to the susceptibility of this species and its habitat to dieback, the need for dieback hygiene procedures will be included in information provided to visitors to areas where it occurs.

Management documentation for the Cactus Banksia includes:

  • Cactus Banksia (Dryandra anatona) Interim Recovery Plan 2001-2004 (Hickman 2001).
  • Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (EA 2001m).
  • Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District (Robinson & Coates 1995).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra anatona (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008my) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra anatona (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008my) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra anatona (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008my) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra anatona (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008my) [Conservation Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2010). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. (Department of Environment and Conservation: Perth).

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

George, A.S. (1996). New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra R.Br. (Proteaceae: Grevilleoideae). Nuytsia. 10(3):313-408. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

George, A.S. (1999a). Dryandra. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S.Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:251-363. Canberra, ACT and Melbourne, Victoria: ABRS and CSIRO.

Hickman, E. (2001). Interim Recovery Plan. No. 111. Cactus Dryandra (Dryandra anatona) Interim Recovery Plan 2001-2004. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/flora/dry_ana_irp111.pdf.

Mast, A.R. & K. Thiele (2007). The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 20:63-71.

Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates (1995). Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20. [Online]. Como, Western Australia: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia anatona in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 09:43:11 +1000.