Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Banksia pseudoplumosa
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aep) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeu) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, specific management actions are needed to address the threats to the species. This includes possible translocations to establish new populations in areas free from dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (19/12/2008).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans False plumed Banksia (Banksia pseudoplumosa) Interim Recovery Plan 2011-2016 (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2011a) [Recovery Plan] as Banksia pseudoplumosa.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (69) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008d) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia pseudoplumosa.
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Banksia pseudoplumosa
Scientific name Banksia pseudoplumosa [82760]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 69 [comb. nov.]
Other names Dryandra pseudoplumosa [82759]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/32141

The current conservation status of Banksia pseudoplumosa, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed Declared rare flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Banksia pseudoplumosa

Banksia pseudoplumosa is a non-lignotuberous shrub, growing to 1.8 m high in gravelly soils. Flowering occurs from November to December (WA CALM 2006).

Banksia pseudoplumosa is endemic to Western Australia where it occurs 60 km north of Albany to 115 km north-north-east of Albany in the South Coast Natural Resource Management Region (WA CALM 2006). This species is known from seven subpopulations, which occur within a 65 km range on a limited number of laterite ridges. Suitable habitat is limited and implies a naturally restricted distribution.

The extent of occurrence is approximately 600 km². A dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each population) was used to determine the area of occurrence. There are no data to indicate trends in extent of occurrence of this restricted species (WA CALM 2006).

There are insufficient data to calculate the actual area of occupancy, as one subpopulation did not have an area recorded. Six subpopulations occupied an area ranging from less than 1 ha to 5 ha. Based on this information, the area of occupancy for the seven subpopulations is estimated to be 0.15 km².

There are little data available to show trends in area of occupancy of Banksia pseudoplumosa as no historical records recorded this data. However, this species is highly susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi (a mould that causes root rot) (B. Shearer pers comm. cited in TSSC 2008aeu), which is present at subpopulation 3 and, potentially, subpopulation 1. It is predicted that these subpopulations will decline in the future (WA CALM 2006).

There are no translocated populations for this species. However, a limited amount of seed material has been collected and stored at the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's Threatened Flora Seed Centre (WA CALM 2006).

Banksia pseudoplumosa is considered to be fragmented as known subpopulations are scattered and disjunct. Although preferred habitat of this species is naturally restricted and localised, some patches of habitat occur as remnant vegetation on road verges and on private property in areas that have been cleared for agriculture (WA CALM 2006).

A number of targeted surveys for this species have been undertaken, including (WA CALM 2006):

  • Surveys of all known subpopulations of Banksia pseudoplumosa along the Salt River and Woogenilup Roads occurred in May 2000. Two subpopulations of about 850 and 100 plants were found.
  • A new subpopulation of B. pseudoplumosa was located on the southern boundary of the Stirling Range National Park in November 2000. Twenty mature and 100+ juvenile plants (plus about 1000 seedlings) were located in an area that had been burnt in 1996.
  • The herbarium collection "Pallinup River, near Chillinup" has not been re-located despite extensive threatened flora surveys in the area.
  • Since May 2000 the following areas have been surveyed for B. pseudoplumosa: the Bakers Spring ironstone area of Stirling Range National Park; laterite and granite areas in the Pallinup-Chillinup-Toompup, Nightwell Road area on road verges and private property; an extensive area on the south side of the Stirling Range in the Stirling Range National Park; and laterite ridges near Peniup Nature Reserve (which is east of its known distribution range).
  • The "South of Toompup" population was re-located in January 2002 (85 plants on road reserve and adjoining private property), adjoining land was surveyed without locating any additional populations.
  • In 2003 two new subpopulations were found in remnant vegetation on private property. Further surveys in 2004 and 2005 located further subpopulations in patches of remnant vegetation on one of the properties.

Banksia pseudoplumosa occurs over seven subpopulations with a total population size of approximately 3430 plants (WA CALM 2006).

The following table presents population numbers at subpopulations and the timing of the last survey (WA CALM 2006):

Subpopulation number Number of plants Date of last survey Land Tenure Area of occupancy (m²)
1 850 07/12/2001 National Park 15 000
2 100 20/08/2002 Shire road verge Not recorded
3 600+ 21/04/2004 National Park 50 000
4 10 30/01/2002 Private property 1500
5a 7 30/01/2002 Private property 5000
5b 60 25/09/2002 Shire road verge 5000
6 1000 20/02/2003 Private property 400
7a 200 20/02/2003 Private property 10 000
7b 500+ 20/06/2004 Private property 30 000
7c 100+ 02/09/2005 Private property 10 000

Banksia pseudoplumosa has shown a significant increase in the total population size. This is a result of recruitment after fire and the discovery of more subpopulations. Subpopulations 1 and 3 were burnt in 1996 and led to large scale recruitment and increases in the number of plants (WA CALM 2006). However, the risk of dieback caused by Phytophthora threatens the long-term stability of subpopulations and the predicted trend is decline (TSSC 2008aeu). After its initial regermination following fire, subpopulation 3 has exhibited population decreases as a result of Phytophthora dieback (TSSC 2008aeu).

In general, population fluctuations in Banksia pseudoplumosa occur in response to fire and depend on fire frequency and seasonality. Too frequent fire will cause localised extinction as recruitment occurs from canopy-stored seed and fire before a population reaches maturity will deplete the seed bank (WA CALM 2006).

The following table presents population figures over time (WA CALM 2006):

Subpopulation number Year Number of plants
1 2000
2001
150+
850
2 2000
2002
100+
100
3 2000
2002
2004
1120
600
600+
4 2002 10
5a 2002 7
5b 2002 60
6 2003 1000
7a 2003 200
7b 2004 500
7c 2005 100

All known subpopulations are important for the species recovery and long-term survival as Banksia psuedoplumosa has a naturally restricted distribution and is vulnerable to Phytophthora cinnamomi and inappropriate fire regimes (WA CALM 2006).

Subpopulations 1 and 3 occur within Stirling Range National Park (WA CALM 2006).

Banksia psuedoplumosa occurs in woodland over heath on flat to slightly sloping topography in orange gravelly clay loam over laterite. Associated species include Tallerack (Eucalyptus tetragona), Banksia armata, B. seneciifolia, B. nervosa, Chittick (Lambertia inermis), Hakea cucullata, Adenanthos spp. and sedges (Western Australian Herbarium 2006).

Banksia psuedoplumosa's primary juvenile period (before sexual maturity) occurs for approximately six years. Flowering occurs from November to December and little is known about its reproductive biology. The species is killed by fire and recruits by a canopy-stored seed bank (WA CALM 2006).

Additional surveys should be focused on known subpopulations and remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types during the flowering period (November to December).

Banksia pseudoplumosa is similar to B. plumosa but is distinguished by its distinctive columnar habit and larger flowers (WA CALM 2006).

The following table presents past, current and future threats to Banksia pseudoplumosa (WA CALM 2004):

Subpopulation Number Past Current Future
1–7 Land Clearing Increased Fire Frequency Climate change, Phytophthora cinnamomi
1 and 3   Phytophthora cinnamomi  
2 and 5b   Road Verge Activities  

Climate change and the associated processes such as sea level rise and altered weather patterns are expected to affect biodiversity in Western Australia during the next few decades. This threat is particularly threatening to rare species that occur as small, fragmented populations that rely on habitat with restricted range. If habitat conditions change, Banksia pseudoplumosa may contract in area of occupancy or population numbers (WA CALM 2004).

Banksia pseudoplumosa is an obligate seeder and is susceptible to increased fire frequency. The species is killed by fire and recruits by a canopy-stored seed bank. Fire before populations reach sexual maturity (approximately six years after germination) would deplete the seed bank and lead to localised extinction. Stirling Range National Park subpopulations (1 and 3) were burnt in 1996 and displayed successful re-establishment (WA CALM 2006).

Phytophthora cinnamomi is a current threat at subpopulations 1 and 3. The population decline at subpopulation 3, from 1120 plants to 600, is likely to be the result of Phytophthora dieback (TSSC 2008aeu). Road verge activities may present potential threats to subpopulations 2 and 5b, and these subpopulations are also at risk from inadvertent importation of Phytophthora dieback (WA CALM 2006).

Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision

Specific management actions are needed to address threats to Banksia pseudoplumosa. These includes possible translocations to establish new populations in areas free from dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. A recovery plan is considered necessary to implement and manage these actions.

Actions undertaken in the recovery of Banksia pseudoplumnosa include rare flora markers installed at subpopulations 1, 2, 3 and 5b, and an area of remnant vegetation at subpopulations 7a and 7b was fenced by the property owner (WA CALM 2006).

Recovery actions are outlined by the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC 2008aep) and include:

  • Develop and implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known sites from further outbreaks of dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi.
  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for Banksia pseudoplumosa.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations.

Management documentation relevant to Banksia pseudoplumosa include the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (TSSC 2008aep) and the Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (EA 2001l). The Stirling Range National Park Management Plan (WA CALM 1999) does not address Banksia pseudoplumosa specifically but indicates management options for threatened flora in general.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeu) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aep) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aep) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeu) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aep) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeu) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aeu) [Listing Advice].

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aep). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82760-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aeu). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia pseudoplumosa. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82760-listing-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (1999). Management Plan: Stirling Range National Park and Porongurup National Park 1999–2009.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2004). Towards a Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for Western Australia Discussion Paper. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australian Herbarium (2006). Florabase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia pseudoplumosa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 16:28:53 +1000.