In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered as Banksia aurantia|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra aurantia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mz) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia aurantia (orange dryandra) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013bx) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (26/04/2013).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Dryandra aurantia.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia aurantia.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (144) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013i) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia aurantia.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Banksia aurantia |
|Species author||(A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele|
|Reference||Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 66 [comb. nov.]|
|Other names||Dryandra aurantia |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Banksia aurantia
Common name: Orange Dryandra
Prior to 2007 this species was known as Dryandra aurantia. Phylogenetic analysis by Mast & Thiele (2007) resulted in the genus Dryandra being merged into Banksia.
Orange Dryandra grows in multi-stemmed clumps with usually more than 10 clumps growing side by side to form a large clump more then 2 m across. Eighty pale orange flowers, 810mm long, are within each terminal head (Brown et al. 1998).
Orange Dryandra has multiple underground stems, covered with pale rust bracts. Leaf lobes are broadly triangular (DEC 2010).
The distribution of the Orange Dryandra is limited to the Wandoo National Park, near Mundaring in Western Australia (DEC 2010).
The Orange Dryandra is believed to be naturally rare due to its specific habitat requirements (DEC 2010).
Extent of occurrence
The extent of occurrence is estimated to be approximately 4.5 km2. There is no evidence to suggest a decline in the extent of occurrence. Subpopulation 4 which is now considered extinct occurs within the known extent of occurrence (DEC 2010).
Area of occupancy
The area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 0.1 km2 and was estimated during surveys of the individual subpopulations. As one subpopulation is now thought to be extinct the species has suffered a past decline in area of occupancy. It is thought that this small subpopulation has declined due to a lack of fire to stimulate regeneration, however monitoring in 2008 (two years after a prescribed burn) failed to locate this subpopulation (DEC 2010).
The following is an overview of surveys that have been carried out for the Orange Dryandra (DEC 2010):
- The species was first collected in 1994 in Wandoo National Park.
- The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) botanists surveyed the known subpopulation in 1996 and spent two days searching for Orange Dryandra in other similar areas of the National Park. A new subpopulation of approximately 500 plants was found north of the known subpopulation. The search continued throughout the winter in 1996, where another 10 days were spent searching the park. This resulted in one additional subpopulation being located.
- It was concluded that the distribution of this species appears to be restricted, probably due to specific ecological requirements, as all known populations occur in low-lying, seasonally moist areas.
- In 1997 a fourth subpopulation was located in the area by seed collectors working for the DEC.
- The fifth known subpopulation was located by DEC conservation officers in 2000, again in the Wandoo Conservation Park.
- Two other new subpopulations were thought to be located outside the Wandoo National Park however they were later re-identified as a different species.
- All the known subpopulations continue to be surveyed as part of DEC's management of the species.
The total population size of Orange Dryandra is estimated to be 1888 mature plants in four extant subpopulations. This figure is based on the last population estimate of each subpopulation. However this may be an over-estimation due to the potential colonal nature of these clumps (DEC 2010).
It has been noted that it is quite difficult to accurately count the number of plants at each subpopulation as this species grows in multi-stemmed clumps close together (individuals are counted as the number of "clumps" seen). It is therefore difficult to determine any trends in the data as counts may vary widely depending on the individual who conducted the survey. In addition to this, field evidence suggests the species regenerates vigorously after autumn fire from an extensive network of underground rhizomes. A prescribed burn was undertaken in autumn 2006 which may have lead to an increase in overall plant numbers (DEC 2010).
All subpopulations are crucial to the species' long-term survival and recovery (DEC 2010).
All four extant subpopulations are within Wandoo National Park (DEC 2010).
Orange Dryandra inhabits low lying seasonally moist areas of grey to white sands (DEC 2010).
Associated vegetation includes an open low heathland of Holly Pea (Jacksonia floribunda) and Melaleuca species, to very open Banksia woodland (Brown et al. 1998; DEC 2010).
Orange Dryandra flowers in April (Brown et al. 1998).
The Orange Dryandra can regenerate from underground rhizomes, with little evidence of regeneration from seed (DEC 2010). Examination of underground rhizomes indicate that subpopulations are clonal and may only consist of two to three 'individuals' (DEC 2010).
This species is distinguished by multiple underground stems, covered with pale rust bracts, its broadly triangular leaf lobes and small flowers (DEC 2010).
Surveys should be conducted when the species is flowering in April (DEC 2010).
Inappropriate fire regimes
Field evidence suggests the species regenerates vigorously after autumn fire from an extensive network of underground rhizomes, with little evidence of regeneration of seed. As little is known about the population dynamics (clonality) and fire response of the species, frequent fire (more than every ten years) should be prevented from occurring (DEC 2010).
Some subpopulations occur close to tracks within the National Park and hence may become disturbed or destroyed by vehicles and also machines undertaking track maintenance. Past evidence suggest the species does not recolonise after being damaged during track maintenance (DEC 2010).
Disturbance from track maintenance may also introduce and/or encourage weed invasion (DEC 2010).
This species is susceptible to dieback disease. Dieback disease (Phytopthora cinnamomi) invades the plants roots and stem to obtain nutrients for growth and reproduction. This kills the plants cell and reduces its ability to transport water are nutrients. As the species occurs in low-lying vulnerable habitat, strict hygiene procedures should be implemented to prevent the introduction of the disease (DEC 2010).
The following management actions and research requirements have been carried out for Orange Dryandra (DEC 2010):
Existing recovery actions
- Department of Environment and Conservation's (DEC) Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) has collected seed of Orange Dryandra and initial germination tests indicated 40% viability.
- Experimental burns have been undertaken which indicated the species is a resprouter.
- Extensive surveys have been conducted in and around the Wandoo National Park.
- The installation of Declared Rare Fauna (DRF) markers has been carried out.
- Monitoring has been undertaken for known populations.
Proposed Recovery Actions
- Determine and implement hygiene procedures.
- Continue to collect seed.
- Restrict vehicle access and rehabilitate track verge.
- Developed a fire management strategy in conjunction with the Wandoo National Park.
Future Management Plan
- Investigate a uniform measure to determine plant numbers.
- Conduct further surveys.
- Obtain biological and ecological information on the species.
Management documentation for the Orange Dryandra includes:
- Approved Conservation Advice for Banksia Aurantia (Orange Dryandra) (TSSC 2008mz).
- Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi (EA 2001m).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra aurantia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mz) [Conservation Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra aurantia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mz) [Conservation Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra aurantia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mz) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra aurantia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mz) [Conservation Advice].
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2010). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. (Department of Environment and Conservation: Perth).
Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.
Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.
Mast, A.R. & K. Thiele (2007). The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 20:63-71.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008mz). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra aurantia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64889-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia aurantia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:02:44 +1000.