Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan] as Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa
Scientific name Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa [82766]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 68 [comb. nov.]
Other names Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa [64670]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/32204

The current conservation status of Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa

Common name: Swamp Honeypot

Swamp Honeypot has subpopulations in two disjunct areas: Beenup and Busselton, Western Australia. DNA analysis found a significant level of genetic difference between the Busselton and Beenup populations, warranting possible taxonomic separation of plants from the two regions (Krauss & Alacs 2003).

Swamp Honeypot grows as a mounded shrub up to 1.5 m tall and 1.5 m across (Brown et al. 1998; George 1996, 1999a). It has long leaves similar to Dryandra nivea and the flowers, which may vary in colour within a population, are well hidden within the bush. Flowers are yellowish-brown (Brown et al. 1998; Western Australian Herbarium 2007).

Swamp Honeypot is found to the east of Busselton at the base of the Whicher Range and on the Scott River Plain in Western Australia (Brown et al. 1998; George 1996, 1999a). It occurs in the South West Natural Resource Management Region.

The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 1160 km². A dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area of the polygon. There is no data to indicate past declines in extent of occurrence of this subspecies (WA DEC 2007).

The area of occupancy is calculated to be approximately 40 hectares (0.4 km²). This has been approximated from field monitoring of the known subpopulations (WA DEC 2007). Where there was no approximation, an average was used. There is some data to indicate a past decline in the area of occupancy, as subpopulation 7a is now presumed extinct as a result of a land clearing event in 1994–1995. Populations 1 and 2 have not been re-located. There is no data to indicate future trends in area of occupancy (WA DEC 2007).

Swamp Honeypot is known from 18 locations (WA DEC 2007).

In 2006, the Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA) had 167 plants from four clones of Swamp Honeypot. Six collections of 400–3700 seeds were made from different populations in 1995–1998 (WA DEC 2006b).

In 2003, a translocation was undertaken by the BGPA and BHP Billiton to reintroduce Swamp Honeypot to a disused mineral sands minesite at Beenup (BGPA 2007). The plants were healthy and flowering when monitored in 2006 (WA DEC 2007).

Swamp Honeypot was first collected in 1957. Further surveys for this species were undertaken in Whicher Range during 1990 and the Coastal Warren survey in 1989–1992. Further collections were made at Ruabon Nature Reserve in 1996 (this has not been re-located) (Keighery et al. 1996) and Wearn Nature Reserve in 1984 (this was tentatively described as Swamp Honeypot in 1995, however 2003 collections did not verify the taxonomy of this population) (WA DEC 2007).

In July 2003, the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation staff surveyed most of the known subpopulations. Numerous surveys on the Scott River Plain have been undertaken by botanists and staff from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (Gibson et al. 2000; Keighery et al. 1996; Keighery & Robinson 1992; Robinson & Keighery 1997). Further populations are only likely to occur in unsurveyed remnant vegetation on private land (WA DEC 2007).

The following table presents survey histories of known populations and subpopulations (WA DEC 2007):

Population/Subpopulation Survey History Number of Plants Recorded Area
1 17/09/1990 Collection only Not recorded
2 21/07/1994
21/06/2000
Unknown
0
Unknown
Not recorded
3a 13/02/1995
19/10/1995
27/06/1996
< 20
300 (includes 3b)
100+ (includes 3b)
Not recorded
4 ha (includes 3b)
Not recorded
3b 19/10/1995
27/06/1997
See 3a
See 3a
See 3a
Not recorded
3c 23/05/2000
09/11/2000
6
20 seedlings
Not recorded
Not recorded
4 15/12/1994
18/10/1995
12/12/1995
19/11/1996
26/08/2002
20+
100+
20+
100+
100+
Not recorded
2 ha
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
5 17/10/1995
20/11/1996
19/02/1997
11/10/2000
23/07/2003
150
100+
100+
6
300+
0.4 ha
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
6a 17/10/1995
20/08/1997
07/11/2006
10+
100+
100+
5 ha
Not recorded
6 ha
6b 15/04/1997
20/08/1997
24/07/2003
07/11/2006
10
Unknown
10
30+
Unknown
Unknown
Not recorded
0.2ha
7a Prior to 1994
18/10/1995
24/07/2003
< 20
0
0
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
7b 15/11/1996
24/07/2003
0
10
Not recorded
Not recorded
8a 18/10/1995
15/11/1996
20/02/1997
23/07/1998
24/07/2003
200+
100+
10+ (many seedlings)
100s
Not recorded
3.0 ha
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
8b 04/07/1997 Not recorded Not recorded
8c 04/06/1997 Not recorded Not recorded
9a 19/10/1995
27/06/1997
200+ (includes 9b, 9c, 9d)
100+ (includes 9b)
3.8ha
Not recorded
9b 19/10/1995
27/06/1997
See 9a
see 9a
Not recorded
Not recorded
9c 19/10/1995
03/02/1998
See 9a
50
Not recorded
Not recorded
9d 19/10/1995
03/02/1998
See 9a
Unknown
Not recorded
Unknown
10 03/01/1996
08/07/1996
29/08/1997
13/08/2003
6
6
6
6
140 m²
50 m²
Not recorded
Not recorded
11 19/01/1996
19/02/1997
22/07/2003
100
100+
95
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
12 08/07/1996
21/06/2000
13/08/2003
3
2
Not recorded
100 m²
Not recorded
Not recorded
13 20/08/1997
05/10/2000
24/07/2003
15
10+
37
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
14 30/04/1998 0 (50+ seedlings) Not recorded
15 17/05/2000 2 Not recorded
16a 22/10/1999
17/05/2000
06/02/2001
14
14
14
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
16b 28/08/2002 5 Not recorded
17a 25/06/2002
24/07/2003
40+
79
0.09 ha
Not recorded
17b 24/07/2003 2 Not recorded
18 24/07/2003 25+ Not recorded

The total population size of Swamp Honeypot is estimated to be approximately 1055 mature plants. This is an estimated count from population monitoring (WA DEC 2007). This subspecies is known from 18 locations which represents 18 populations. Some of the populations have been split into subpopulations, based upon differences in land tenure and management, as well as location. There were no plants found at some locations as at the last survey; in some cases, the species is considered to be extinct, but in others, it is uncertain if the species persists or is locally extinct.

The population trend for Swamp Honeypot appears to be in decline. Although this subspecies occurs as 18 populations, many of these sites face considerable threats and associated habitat quality has declined since 1990. For example, subpopulation 8a and population 10 occur in heavily weed infested road verges. Their condition was recorded as healthy in 1996 and moderate in 2003 (subpopulation 8a), and moderate in 1997 and poor in 2003 (population 10). Population 5 was regarded as healthy in 1996 and very disturbed in 2003 despite an increase in plant numbers (WA DEC 2007).

Swamp Honeypot is killed by fire and regenerates from seed remaining on the bush and soil stored seed. Such events alter population numbers but, over time, the species should maintain area of occupancy and area of occurence (WA DEC 2007).

Swamp Honeypot is known from 18 locations and it is considered that all sites are essential to the species' survival. Many of the populations are threatened and habitat quality has declined in recent times (WA DEC 2007).

No cross-breeding has been recorded for this subspecies (WA DEC 2007).

Populations 1 and 2 and subpopulation 6a are located in conservation reserves (national parks or nature reserves) which are managed by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation for the conservation of flora and fauna, but not specifically for the conservation of Swamp Honeypot. The remaining subpopulations occur on state forest, shire road verges, railway reserves, private property or vacant crown land (WA DEC 2007).

Swamp Honeypot is confined to orange clay loam over laterite and sandy areas within winter-wet southern ironstones (WA DEC 2007). These ironstone soils are highly restricted in distribution. Associated vegetation includes dense shrubland of Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea), Swamp Kunzea (Kunzea recurva), grass trees (Xanthorrhoea sp.) and Whicher Range Dryandra (Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea) over sedge (Brown et al. 1998; George 1996, 1999a).

At populations 4 and 13, and subpopulations 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 8c and 17a, Swamp Honeypot is located within the Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain ironstones ecological community, which is listed as endangered under the EPBC Act.

Swamp Honeypot is associated with EPBC Act listed flora including the endangered Scott River Darwinia (Darwinia sp. Scott River (G.J.Keighery 3582) WA Herbarium), Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium papilio), McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii), Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Roundleaf Honeysuckle (Lambertia orbifolia) and the vulnerable Whicher Range Dryandra (Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea), Royce's Waxflower (Chamelaucium sp. C Coast Plain (R.D.Royce 4872)), Grevillea brachystylis subsp. australis, Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) and Laterite Petrophile (Petrophile sp. Whicher Range (G.J.Keighery 11790) WA Herbarium) (Gibson et al. 2000; WA DEC 2007).

Swamp Honeypot plants lack a lignotuber (George 1996). The flowers, which may vary in colour within a population, are well hidden within the bush (Brown et al. 1998). Flowers are white (George 1996) or yellowish-brown (Brown et al. 1998). Flowering occurs July to September (Brown et al. 1998). Insect predation on its fruit is often common (Brown et al. 1998).

Seed remains on the bush for long periods allowing for year-round seed collection, although some follicles open to periodically release seed. When plants die (during fire events or otherwise) all mature follicles open and release seed leading to mass seedling recruitment (Dixon et al. 2002). This process depends more on plant stored seed, rather than soil stored seed, and if mortality events are regular localised extinction may occur.

Swamp Honeypot has been successfully germinated by the Western Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre (Cochrane et al. 2002). A study in germination response of a number of threatened Banksia species found that there was an increase in the germination percent of Swamp Honeypot seed after storage for one year at -20 ºC and at moisture content of 5±1%. This indicates that ex situ seed storage under low moisture and temperature conditions is a possible means of long term seed maintenance of threatened Banksia species (Cochrane et al. 2002).

Swamp Honeypot is similar in appearance to Honeypot Dryandra (Banksia nivea), with which it can be easily confused. Swamp Honeypot is distinguished from Couch Dryandra (Banksia nivea subsp. nivea) by its larger size, mounded growth habit and longer leaves. Couch Dryandra is usually a sprawling, small shrub less than 1 m tall (Brown et al. 1998).

The following is a summary of the past, current and future threats to this subspecies (WA DEC 2007):

Subpopulation Number Current Condition Past Present Potential Future
1        
2        
3a        
3b        
3c Disturbed Prescribed burn Weeds (Arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), Watsonia spp., Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) Disease, firebreak maintenance, recreational activities, weeds
4 Healthy Phytophthora dieback Weeds Firebreak maintenance
5 Disturbed Stock movement along road, plant deaths (possible due to Phytophthora dieback ) Cattle trampling, weeds (Watsonia spp.), powerline maintenance Roadworks, grazing, weeds, Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning, hydrological changes, power line maintenance, cattle trampling
6a Moderate   Kangaroo damage (trampling and grazing), rabbits Firebreak maintenance, roadworks, grazing, weeds
6b Moderate   Kangaroo damage (trampling and grazing) Firebreak maintenance, roadworks, grazing, weeds
7a Healthy     Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning, hydrological changes
7b Moderate Firebreak construction Grazing by kangaroos or rabbits Firebreak maintenance, grazing, Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning, hydrological changes
8a Moderate   Rubbish dumping, firewood cutting, Phytophthora dieback Recreation, Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning
8b        
8c        
9a Healthy     Recreational activities, roadworks, fire
9b Healthy     Recreational activities, roadworks, fire
9c        
9d        
10 Poor   Weeds Roadworks, Phytophthora dieback, weeds, prescribed burning
11 Moderate   Kangaroo grazing, possible Phytophthora dieback, weeds Firebreak maintenance, mining, grazing, weeds, Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning, hydrological changes
12 Poor     Roadworks, Phytophthora dieback, weeds
13 Moderate-Poor Degradation by cattle, road maintenance (grading) Trampling from cattle, heavily weed invaded Grazing, weeds, Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning, stock trampling, hydrological changes
14 Moderate Gravel removal, rubbish dumping   Recreational activities, Phytophthora dieback
15 Healthy Prescribed burning (burnt in 1999)   Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning
16a Healthy Prescribed burning    
16b        
17a Moderate   Road maintenance, weeds (Watsonia spp.), Harlequin Flower (Sparaxis bulbifera), Veldt Grass (Ehrharta erecta) Road maintenance, weeds, Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning, hydrological changes
17b Healthy     Phytophthora dieback, prescribed burning
18 Moderate   Weeds Road maintenance, Phytophthora dieback

The Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC 2006b) lists the main threats as land clearing, mineral exploration, changes to hydrology, Phytophthora dieback, grazing, trampling, weed invasion, road, track and firebreak maintenance, inappropriate fire regimes, powerline maintenance, recreational activities, gravel extraction and rubbish dumping.

Land clearing
Habitat associated with Swamp Honeypot has been heavily cleared (George 1996). Gibson and colleagues (2000) determined that 82% of the ironstone community in the Scott River area (population 11) has been cleared with 325 hectares remaining. Similarly, the Busselton ironstone community (where populations 4 and 13, and subpopulations 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 8c and 17a occur) was orginally 1200 hectares with only 90 hectares remaining uncleared (Meissner & English 2005). Subpopulation 7a was completely cleared in 1994–1995 and is now presumed extinct (WA DEC 2006b).

Mineral exploration
Exploration and extraction leases occur at population 4, 11, 14 and 15, and subpopulation 8a and 16a. If these were activated, these populations could be completely destroyed or significantly affected by soil disturbance or hydrological change (WA DEC 2006b).

Changes to hydrology
This may become a threat to all subpopulations as ground water extraction lower the water table. Adjacent mining activity may potentially alter hydrology and threaten subpopulations (WA DEC 2006b).

Phytophthora dieback
Plants infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi die due to dessication caused by root rot. This disease threatens all populations as the ironstone habitat harbours the mould. Dieback deaths have been confirmed at populations 4 and 11 and subpopulations 16a and 16b (WA DEC 2006b).

Grazing and trampling
Cattle, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and kangaroos are a threat to populations 5, 11 and 13 and subpopulations 6a, 7b and 8b. Damage to Swamp Honeypot includes browsing, digging, recruitment suppression, trampling, soil nutrient increases (from dung) and the potential spread of dieback and weeds (WA DEC 2006b).

Weed invasion
Weeds threaten most subpopulations. The major weeds include Babiana angustifolia, Watsonia (Watsonia spp.), African lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), Victorian tea-tree (Leptospermum laevigatum), Arum Lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), Veldt Grass (Ehrharta erecta) and Harlequin Flower (Sparaxis bulbifera). Subpopulation 8a and population 10 occur in heavily weed infested road verges (WA DEC 2006b).

Road, track, firebreak and powerline maintenance
These activities threaten most subpopulations. Threats include grading, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels and the mowing of roadside vegetation. Several of these actions encourage weed invasion. Subpopulation 7b regenerated after it was bulldozed for firebreak construction in 1996 (WA DEC 2006b).

Inappropriate fire regimes
Swamp Honeypot is likely to germinate from seed following fire. The soil seed bank would deplete if fires were too frequent and recurred before plants reached sexual maturity (and produced seeds). Occasional fire or other disturbances are important mechanisms for regeneration. Subpopulations 3c and 16a showed signs of regeneration following burns in May 2000 and October 1999 respectively (WA DEC 2006b).

Recreational activities and rubbish dumping
Activities such as illegal firewood collection (population 14 and subpopulation 8a) and recreational off-road vehicle use (population 14) threaten Swamp Honeypot. These activities damage habitat and spread Phytophthora through the area. The Western Australia Department of Planning and Infrastructure and the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation are investigating ways to reduce access to population 14, to prevent further impacts from recreational use (WA DEC 2006b).

Other threats
Gravel extraction is a threat to population 14 and during this process plants may be damaged or completely removed and Phytophthora may be spread. Insect seed predation was observed at populations 3, 4, 9 and 11 in 1995, 1997 and 1998 (WA DEC 2006b).

The Draft Interim Recovery Plan (WA DEC 2006b) describes the following existing and proposed recovery actions:

Existing recovery actions

Land manager notification
The Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation has formally notified relevant land managers of the presence and significance of Swamp Honeypot and the associated legal responsibilities. Declared Rare Flora markers have been installed at populations 10 and 12 and relevant powerline poles. These serve to alert people working in the vicinity to the presence of the plant and the need to avoid damage to plants or associated habitat (WA DEC 2006b).

Land acquisition
Approximately 9.9 hectares of land containing subpopulation 6a was purchased by the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation in 1999. This land has been fenced and is under the care, control and management of the Conservation Commission of Western Australia (WA DEC 2006b). Subpopulation 8c was fenced by a landowner to prevent unintentional damage during gravel extraction works (WA DEC 2006b). One plant in population 12 is located in an enclosure. This was built to protect other species of Declared Rare Flora against damage from roadworks. Another plant is located outside the enclosure (WA DEC 2006b).

Phytophthora mitigation
The application of phosphite to Phytophthora affected areas is a key mitigation technique. In 1998 and 2000 the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation undertook aerial spraying of phosphite over 11 hectares of the southern ironstone community that contains subpopulation 8a. In March 2002 population 4 was also sprayed. An aerial spraying program of a number of subpopulations of the subspecies was undertaken between March 2002 and March 2005, with most sites sprayed every two years (WA DEC 2006b).

Fire management
A fire response plan has been produced for the reserve containing population 11 by staff from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's Blackwood District (WA DEC 2006b).

Research
Swamp Honeypot is one of four species researched in the project "Assessing the long term viability of the locally endemic flora occurring in a Threatened Ecological Community near Busselton" undertaken by Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation staff (WA DEC 2006b).

Future recovery actions

Coordinate recovery actions
The South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team will coordinate recovery actions for Swamp Honeypot and other Declared Rare Flora and threatened ecological communities in their region (WA DEC 2006b).

Undertake weed control
Weed control will be undertaken in consultation with the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation land managers. This may include hand weeding or localised application of herbicide. All weed control should be followed with a report on the method, timing and success of the treatment against weeds, and the effect on Swamp Honeypot and associated native plant species (WA DEC 2006b).

Fencing of populations
Assess if fencing is required for subpopulation 17b including a buffer of surrounding habitat to protect Swamp Honeypot from potential grazing and other disturbances. Assess if gates are needed at entry points into State Forest containing subpopulation 8a (WA DEC 2006b).

Habitat modification
Population 14 should be deep ripped to allow natural regeneration. Dumped rubbish should be removed from this site (WA DEC 2006b).

Conduct further surveys
Further surveys by Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation staff and community volunteers will be conducted during the flowering period of this subspecies (September) and the species' presence (and absence) will be logged with appropriate databases (WA DEC 2006b).

Develop and implement a fire management strategy
A fire management strategy should be developed that outlines preferred fire frequency, intensity, season and control measures (WA DEC 2006b).

Maintain disease hygiene
Dieback hygiene should be followed for activities such as maintenance of firebreaks and access to populations during wet soil conditions. Purpose built signs advising of the dieback risk and high conservation values of the sites should be installed where required (WA DEC 2006b). Phosphite should be applied and monitored where dieback is present and threatening Swamp Honeypot (WA DEC 2006b).

Develop a kangaroo management strategy
A management strategy should be developed in areas where kangaroos are trampling Swamp Honeypot subpopulations. The strategy should include a survey to determine kangaroo density, monitoring of impacts and recommendations to reduce the impact (WA DEC 2006b).

Monitor subpopulations
Annual monitoring is essential and should include habitat degradation (including weed invasion and plant diseases), subpopulation stability (expansion or decline), pollinator activity, grazing, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation. All subpopulations should be inspected annually with special attention given to adverse impacts associated with hydrological change (WA DEC 2006b).

Long-term protection of habitat
Investigate conservation covenants on private land or registration through the Western Australia Land for Wildlife Scheme (WA DEC 2006b).

Promote awareness
Swamp Honeypot should be promoted to the community through poster displays and local media. An information sheet should be produced and include a description of the plant, its habitat, threats, recovery actions and photos (WA DEC 2006b).

Obtain biological and ecological information
The knowledge of the biology and ecology of Swamp Honeypot should be improved to assist the management of wild populations. The following aspects should be investigated (WA DEC 2006b):

  • reproductive strategies, phenology, seasonal growth, polliinator requirements, pollination biology and soil seed bank dynamics, including seed bank location and viability
  • the role of various disturbances (including fire), competition, rainfall and grazing in germination and recruitment
  • subpopulation genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable subpopulation size
  • investigation of the impacts of dieback disease and control techniques on Swamp Honeypot and its habitat.

Conduct additional genetic and taxonomic studies
Rapid DNA analysis of Swamp Honeypot shows that a significant level of genetic differentiation exists between the Busselton and Beenup subpopulations (Krauss & Alacs 2003). Additional genetic and taxonomic studies are required (WA DEC 2006b).

Research proposal
In 2002, a research proposal for the rescue of four rare and endangered species, including Swamp Honeypot, at the BHP Beenup Mine site was developed by the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (Dixon et al. 2002). This proposal was a pilot study and aimed to:

  • contribute to a better understanding of post-mining rehabilitation
  • increase biodiversity within the site
  • contribute to the knowledge base of rare and endangered species through genetic analysis, propagation research and cultural techniques
  • improve understanding of the biology and plants
  • reduce the threat of extinction by learning how to establish new subpopulations in post-mining situations or pre-mined areas.

As part of this research project, a genetic study was also undertaken by the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority in 2002. Several subpopulations from both the southern ironstone and Scott River ironstone areas were sampled and DNA-fingerprinting was performed (Krauss & Alacs 2003).

Seed storage and germination response was examined by Cochrane and colleagues (2002).

An interim recovery plan is currently in preparation by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC 2006b) and recovery actions are also described in Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region (Williams et al. 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Banksia nivea subsp. Uliginosain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006by) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Zantedeschia aethiopica (Arum Lily, Calla Lily, White Arum Lily, Lily of the Nile, Egyptian Lily, Jack in the Pulpit, Florist's Calla, Garden Calla, Pig Lily, Trumpet Lily, St Joseph's Arum Lily, Funeral Flowe, Death Lily) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Sparaxis bulbifera (Harlequin Flower) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ehrharta erecta (Panic Veldtgrass) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Babiana angustifolia (Babiana) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Banksia nivea subsp. Uliginosain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006by) [Internet].
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Leptospermum laevigatum (Coastal Tea-tree, Victorian Tea-tree) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Stress caused by water table reduction National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009g) [Recovery Plan].

Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) (2007). Ironing out the problems. For people and plants: Friends of Kings Park magazine. Autumn:19-20. Perth, Western Australia: Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority.

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Cochrane, A., K. Brown & A. Kelly (2002). Low temperature and low moisture storage of seed of rare and threatened taxa in the endemic Western Australian genus Dryandra (R. Br.) (Proteaceae). Conservation Science Western Australia. 4(1):1-12.

Dixon, K., B. Dixon & S. Krauss (2002). Kings Park and Botanic Gardens (BGPA) Science Directorate Research Proposal for the Recovery of Four Rare and Endangered Species at BHP Beenup Minesite, 2002. Page(s) 2002. Unknown publisher.

George, A.S. (1996). New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra R.Br. (Proteaceae: Grevilleoideae). Nuytsia. 10(3):313-408. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

George, A.S. (1999a). Dryandra. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S.Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:251-363. Canberra, ACT and Melbourne, Victoria: ABRS and CSIRO.

Gibson, N., G. Keighery & B. Keighery (2000). Threatened plant communities of Western Australia: 1. The ironstone communities of the Swan and Scott Coastal Plains. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 83:1-11.

Keighery, G. & C. Robinson (1992). A survey of declared rare flora and other plants in need of special protection of the Scott Plains. A report to the Australia National Parks and Wildlife Service. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Keighery, G.J., B.J. Keighery & N. Gibson (1996). Floristics of Reserves and Bushalnd Areas of the Busselton Area (System I), Part III: Floristics of Ruabon Nature Reserve. Nedlands: WA Wildflower Society.

Krauss, S. & E. Alacs (2003). Population genetic analysis of the DRF Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa and Grevillea brachystylis subsp. australis. BGPA Genetics Laboratory report No. 16.

Meissner, R. & V. English (2005). Shrubland association on southern swan coastal plain ironstone (Busselton area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim Recovery Plan No. 215 2005-2010. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Robinson, C. & G. Keighery (1997). Vegetation and flora of Scott National Park and adjacent recreation reserves. The Western Australian Naturalist. 21(4):213-233.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2006b). Swamp Honeypot (Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa) DRAFT Interim Recovery Plan 2006-2011. Perth: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Western Australian Herbarium (2007). FloraBase: The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/. [Accessed: 05-Apr-2007].

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 22:38:48 +1000.