Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa (northern serrate dryandra) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013by) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, recovery of the species is not complex and the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (26/04/2013).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (144) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013i) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 28. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District (Patrick, S.J. & A.P. Brown, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa
Scientific name Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa [82767]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author (A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele
Reference Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 70 [comb. nov.]
Other names Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa [64566]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/32083

Scientific name: Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa

Common name: Northern Serrate Dryandra

Prior to 2007 the Northern Serrate Dryandra was listed as Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa. In 2007 phylogenetic analysis by Mast & Thiele (2007) resulted in Dryandra and Banksia being merged into one genera, resulting in Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa being re-named Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa. In 2009, the Declared Rare Flora list was amended to reflect this change.

There is one other subspecies known: Banksia serratuloides subsp. serratuloides which is known from the Gillingara-Mogumber area (currently listed as DRF and ranked as Vulnerable in Western Australia).

The Northern Serrate Dryandra is a low, compact shrub, growing to 1 m tall and 1.2 m in diameter, with crowded leaves on erect branches. The leaves, 19 cm long, are paler on the underside and divided almost to the midrib forming 20 to 33 long flat lobes which are quite rigid. The flower heads, held in the leaf axils, are axillary and surrounded by lanceolate bracts which are hairless on the back and with white woolly margins, which later become smooth. The yellow flowers, about 2.5 cm long, have a silky-hairy perianth. The long, hairless style has a narrow, furrowed, darker coloured stigmatic end (Brown et al. 1998; Patrick & Brown 2001).

Northern Serrate Dryandra occurs north of Badgingarra, from Alexander Morrison National Park South to Badgingarra and Boothendarra Hill, Western Australia (George 1996, 1999a). It is found over a 20 km range North of Badgingarra (Brown et al. 1998).

Locations at which the specimens have been collected include (George 1996, 1999a);

  • East of Brand Highway on Tootbardi Road
  • Marchagee Track
  • Alexander Morrison National Park
  • Boothendarra Hill.

Fragmented distribution

Northern Serrate Dryandra is known from sixteen subpopulations over three fragmented locations (DEC 2009b).

Extent of occurrence

The extent of occurrence is estimated to be approximately 57 km2. The data available does not suggest any past decline in extent of occurrence (DEC 2009b).

Area of occupancy

The area of occupancy is only available for seven of the sixteen subpopulations and is estimated to be less than 1 km2 (DEC 2009b).

The total mature plant population of the Northern Serrate Dryandra is estimated to be 2143 plants. The largest subpopulation is estimated to contain 500 mature individuals (DEC 2009b).

The number of plants within several subpopulations have exhibited varying trends of increases and declines, as detailed in the following table (DEC 2009b).

Sub-population Number of plants Date Surveyed
1 0
200
Abundant, no figure given.
07/12/87
29/04/92
03/01/01
2a 0
0
7
50
10
02/08/83
04/01/87
14/08/91
16/08/93
23/10/08
2b 0
33
15/08/87
14/08/91
2c 0
0
33
200
20/05/86
15/08/87
14/08/91
23/10/08
2d 33
60
14/08/91
23/10/08
2e 10
200
14/08/91
07/11/91
2f 25
20
07/11/91
20/11/02
2g 25
10
07/11/91
20/11/02
2h 700
500
07/11/91
23/10/08
2i 520 07/11/91
2j 20
80
20/11/02
23/10/08
3a 0
150
200
15/08/87
14/08/91
28/07/94
3b 10
0
Abundant, no figure given.
14/08/91
28/07/94
03/01/01
3c 100
0
14/08/91
28/07/94
3d 0 15/08/87
3e 0 15/08/87

All subpopulations are considered necessary for the species' long-term survival (DEC 2009b).

This subspecies favours areas of low dense heath but can also be found in low open woodland. Associated species include Eucalyptus wandoo, E. drummondii, Allocasuarina humilis and Banksia sp. (Brown et al.1998; Patrick & Brown 2001).

Northern Serrate Dryandra grows in lateritic gravel and brown loam on ridge tops and slopes or in red-brown sand on lower areas (Brown et al. 1998).

Flowering occurs from August to September (Brown et al. 1998).

This species can be distinguished from Banksia serratuloides subsp. serratuloides by its longer leaves with more lobes, longer inflorescence bracts, a later flowering time and a more northerly distribution (Brown et al. 1998; Patrick & Brown 2001).

The best time to conduct surveys is during flowering, from August to September (DEC 2009b).

Phytophthora

Disease is considered a major potential current and future threat to Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa as the species is presumed to be susceptible to Phytophthora cinnnamomi (DEC 2009b).

Roadwork

Roadwork and firebreak maintenance is considered a past and current threat as many plants occur on road verges or close to firebreaks. There has been evidence of pruning of plants and part of a subpopulation 'scraped' in the past during road maintenance activities. Therefore some subpopulations may become disturbed or destroyed by vehicles and also machines undertaking track maintenance in the future (DEC 2009b).

Weed invasion

Disturbance may also introduce and/or encourage weed invasion. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (DEC 2009b).

Fire

Inappropriate fire regimes are a potential future threat as the fire response to this species is currently unknown. Frequent fire would most likely destroy populations if it occurs before regenerating or juvenile plants have reached maturity, produced seed and replenished the soil seed bank. Conversely, infrequent fires may be required to germinate soil stored seed (DEC 2009b).

Potential threats

Potential threats include drought, mining, land clearing and gravel extraction.

The following management actions and research requirements were recommended for Northern Serrate Dryandra (Patrick and Brown 2001):

  • Ensure dieback hygiene procedure are carried out at all subpopulations.
  • Ensure that subpopulations are regularly monitored.
  • Maintain liaison with local government authorities and private landowners on whose land the subpopulations occur.
  • Ensure that all road reserve subpopulations are marked to prevent damage to known subpopulations during road maintenance activities.
  • Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the taxon.
  • Complete the collection of seed for storage in DEC's Threatened Flora Seed Centre.
  • Conduct further surveys, particularly in conservation areas.
  • Conduct research on the fire response of the taxon and susceptibility to Phytophthora.

Management documents for the Northern Serrate Dryandra include:

  • Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (EA 2001m).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dryandra serratuloides subsp. perissa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008na) [Conservation Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2009b). Records held in DEC's Declared Rare Flora Database and rare flora files. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia (DEC).

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

George, A.S. (1996). New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra R.Br. (Proteaceae: Grevilleoideae). Nuytsia. 10(3):313-408. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

George, A.S. (1999a). Dryandra. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S.Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:251-363. Canberra, ACT and Melbourne, Victoria: ABRS and CSIRO.

Mast, A.R. & K. Thiele (2007). The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 20:63-71.

Patrick, S.J. & A.P. Brown (2001). Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 28. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia serratuloides subsp. perissa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 23 Jul 2014 18:20:53 +1000.