Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2008 (Luu, R. & V. English, 2004) [Recovery Plan] as Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013) as Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea
Scientific name Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea [82769]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 70 [comb. nov.]
Other names Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea [64891]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/32046

Scientific name: Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea

Common name: Whicher Range Dryandra

Whicher Range Dryandra and many other Dryandra species were transferred to Banksia by Mast and Thiele (2007).

Whicher Range Dryandra is an erect, open, non-lignotuberous shrub, which grows 1.2–4 m high (George 1999a; Western Australian Herbarium 2005). It has 3–6 teeth on each side of the leaves, which are 5–9 mm wide (Luu & English 2004). It has yellow flowers in June–November and grows on winter-wet clay over ironstone in open to tall shrubland (George 1996).

Whicher Range Dryandra occurs on the coastal plain close to the western base of the Whicher Range, east of Busselton, Western Australia. It is known from 11 locations which are considered scattered and fragmented. All subpopulations occur in the South West Natural Resource Management Region (WA DEC 2007).

The Whicher Range Dryandra extent of occurrence is calculated to be 173.8 km². This was calculated using data from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (WA DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation). There is no data to indicate a past decline in extent of occurrence (WA DEC 2007).

The area of occupancy for the Whicher Range Dryandra is approximately 0.38 km² (or approximately 38.69 ha) according to on-ground area of occupancy estimates recorded for all subpopulations (WA DEC 2007). There is no data to indicate past declines or future trends in area of occupancy (WA DEC 2007), however, the vegetation type that this subspecies is typically associated has been cleared (Gibson et al. 1994).

A translocation proposal was approved in April 2005 to rehabilitate a gravel pit near subpopulation 14. It is not known whether this translocation took place or whether it was successful (WA DEC 2007).

Whicher Range Dryandra was first collected in 1973 near Tutunup. Extensive surveys for the subspecies were undertaken in 1994 (Gibson et al. 1994) and several new subpopulations were found (Brown et al. 1998). Opportunistic surveys have been undertaken (WA DEC 2007).

The total population size for the Whicher Range Dryandra is estimated to be 2876 mature plants. This is an estimate based on population monitoring (WA DEC 2007) The subpopulations have remained stable since the 1990s (WA DEC 2007).

The following table presents the survey history of the Whicher Range Dryandra (subpopulation 9 and 12 have been revised as another species and subpopulation 11 and 13 have been combined with subpopulation 1) (WA DEC 2007):

Subpopulation Location Tenure Survey history Number of plants recorded Condition Threats
1a South of Busselton State forest 21/07/1993
22/01/1996
23/07/1998
11/04/2001
20/11/2003
500
100
1000
95
1000
Moderate Dieback, firewood cutting, fire, rubbish dumping and road maintenance
1b South of Busselton Private property 2002
2003
100
100
Poor Dieback, grazing and gravel extraction
2a East of Busselton Shire road reserve 15/12/1995
02/12/1997
16/02/2000
19/11/2003
200 (includes 2a and 2b)
200
150
289
Moderate Dieback, weeds, drain maintenance and road maintenance
2b East of Busselton Rail reserve 15/12/1995
27/06/1997
19/11/2003


8
Moderate Dieback and weeds
3a East of Busselton Shire road reserve 27/06/1997
19/11/2003
50 (includes 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d)
60 (includes 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d)
Healthy Road maintenance, grazing, dieback and weeds
3b East of Busselton Rail reserve 27/06/1997
19/11/2003
  Healthy Firebreak maintenance, dieback and weeds
3c East of Busselton Nature reserve 02/01/1998
19/11/2003
100 Moderate/poor Dieback and weeds
3d East of Busselton Private property 23/01/1998
19/11/2003
100 Healthy Dieback and mining
4a East-south-east of Busselton State forest 19/11/2003 1 Moderate Mining and dieback
4b East-south-east of Busselton State forest 19/11/2003 49 Healthy Mining and dieback
5 East of Busselton Shire road reserve 1994
19/11/2003
1
0
Poor Dieback, road maintenance and weeds
6 South-west of Busselton Nature reserve 20/08/1997
11/04/2001
20/11/2003
100
284
665
Moderate Dieback, weeds, grazing, rabbits and rubbish dumping
7a South-west of Busselton Shire road reserve 20/11/2003 20 Moderate Dieback, road maintenance and rabbits
7b South-west of Busselton State forest 1997
2003
50
393
Moderate Dieback, weeds, rabbits and rubbish dumping
8a South-west of Busselton State forest 20/08/1997
20/11/2003
100
537
Healthy/disturbed Dieback, gravel extraction, rabbits, rubbish dumping and road and track maintenance
8b South-west of Busselton Private property 20/11/2003 186 Poor Dieback, rubbish dumping, rabbits, gravel extraction and grazing
10 East of Busselton Shire gravel reserve 29/09/1997
19/11/2003
3
63
Healthy Mining and dieback
14 East of Busselton Main Roads gravel reserve 24/08/2000
19/11/2003
150
875
Moderate Dieback, track maintenance and gravel extraction
15 East-south-east of Busselton Shire road reserve 02/01/1998
20/11/2003
14
14
Poor Weeds, dieback, track maintenance and mining

The Whicher Range Dryandra is known from 11 locations which can be considered to be subpopulations. Subpopulations are defined based upon differences in land tenure and management, as well as location (WA DEC 2007).

Whicher Range Dryandra plants are killed by fire, however, disturbance events (including fire) stimulate large-scale germination (Luu & English 2004). Seedling numbers decrease following germination events as seedlings compete for light, moisture and resources (WA DEC 2007).

Subpopulations 3c and 6 are located in nature reserves which are managed by WA DEC for the conservation of flora and fauna, but not specifically for the management of the Whicher Range Dryandra. The remaining subpopulations are located on either railway or road reserves, gravel reserves, state forest or private property. One subpopulation occurs on a mining lease (WA DEC 2007).

Whicher Range Dryandra occurs in winter-wet clay over ironstone in open to dense tall shrubland (George 1996, 1999a). This vegetation community is restricted and occurs as 14 occurrences over an area of 91 hectares (Gibson et al. 1994). The species also occurs on dry mid-slope ironstone gravel soils on the Whicher Scarp (WA DEC 2007).

All subpopulations of the Whicher Range Dryandra (except subpopulation 14) occur within the 'Busselton Ironstone Community' or 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' ecological community (Gibson et al. 1994; Luu & English, 2004). These locations also have other EPBC Act-listed flroa including: Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium papilio: Endangered), Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis: Endangered), Laterite Petrophile (Petrophile latericola: Endangered), Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa: Endangered), Abba Bell (Darwinia whicherensis: Endangered) and Royce's Waxflower (Chamelaucium roycei: Vulnerable), Grevillea elongata (Vulnerable) and Ironstone Brachyscias (Brachyscias verecundus: Critically Endangered) (WA DEC 2007).

Whicher Range Dryandra is killed by fire (Brown et al. 1998; Luu & English 2004) and germinates from seed following these (and other) disturbance events. After one fire, seedlings were observed approximately two months after the fire event. The subspecies lives for at least 20 years (WA DEC 2007).

Whicher Range Dryandra plants lack a lignotuber. The flowers are pale yellow and flowering occurs in June–November (George 1996, 1999a). There is extensive predation of the seeds by insects (Brown et al. 1998).

The Whicher Range Dryandra is distinguished from Banksia squarrosa subsp. squarrosa by its smaller perianth with a glabrous limb. The leaves are also usually smaller and more slender (George 1996). Banksia squarrosa subsp. squarrosa is found on lateritic gravel while the Whicher Range Dryandra occurs on clay (Luu & English 2004).

Surveys are best conducted when the plants are in flower in June–November (Brown et al. 1998).

The Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2009 (Luu & English 2004) list the main threats to the subspecies as: mineral exploration; dieback disease; mineral sand extraction; hydrological changes; grazing; trampling; inappropriate fire regimes; weed invasion; road, firebreak and track maintenance activities; drainage channel maintenance; rubbish dumping; gravel extraction; rabbits; and illegal firewood cutting.

Dieback disease
Dieback (Phytophthora spp.) is a threat to all subpopulations. The disease causes root rot and kills plants through dessication (Luu & English 2004).

Hydrological changes
Hydrological changes has the potential to disturb the wetland vegetation on the ironstone soils with which the subspecies is associated (Tille & Lantzke 1990). Extensive land clearing is likely to have increased surface runoff and recharge of the groundwater, potentially causing waterlogging and salinity. Hirschberg (1989 cited in Luu & English 2004) measured levels of salinity in the groundwater in the Blackwood area to have low salt levels.

Mining and associated hydrology change
Mineral exploration and extraction leases exist over the area of land in which subpopulations 3d, 4a and 4b, and subpopulations 10 and 15 occur (Luu & English 2004).

At subpopulation 4a and 4b, the adjacent mine site was being dewatered to enable mining in early March 2004. Subsequently, an artificial recharge system was established to maintain the groundwater level and prevent plant deaths. Plant stress has been observed at the site, however, health seems to respond positively at the site following good rains. The mine site has been completely backfilled, however, nearby vegetation is still exhibiting water stress (Luu & English 2004).

Grazing
Kangaroos and illegal cattle access are potential threats to subpopulations 1b, 3a, 6 and 8b. If boundary fences adjoining subpopulations are not maintained, cattle can damage vegetation. Kangaroo grazing could also potentially impact the establishment of young plants and limit natural recruitment. Grazing animals impact on the habitat by digging, trampling and breaking foliage when moving through the area. Increased nutrient levels in the soil from droppings is also likely and may result in increased weed invasion (Luu & English 2004).

Fire
The Whicher Range Dryandra is an obligate seeder and germinates following fire. The soil seed bank would rapidly deplete if fires recurred before regenerating or juvenile plants reached maturity and replenished the soil seed bank. Occasional fires, or other disturbances, are beneficial and encourage germination (Luu & English 2004).

Weed invasion
Infestations of Wild Gladiolus are present at subpopulation 7b and introduced grasses at subpopulation 15. Many subpopulations are, however, relatively weed free. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (Luu & English 2004).

Habitat degradation
Road, firebreak and track maintenance activities threaten subpopulations 1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, 5, 7a, 8a, 14 and 15. Threats include grading, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels and the mowing of roadside vegetation. Several of these actions also encourage weed invasion.

Drainage channel maintenance threatens subpopulation 2a. A Water Corporation Drain Reserve including a drainage channel and its maintenance track run parallel to the road reserve that contains the Whicher Range Dryandra. During maintenance scouring removed soil is mounded upon the maintenance track. This disturbs vegetation and exacerbates weed invasion into the adjacent narrow road reserve. There is potential to move the track to a site to reduce the impact on the subspecies (Luu & English 2004).

Rubbish dumping is a minor threat to subpopulations 1, 6, 7b, 8a and 8b. Apart from being visually unappealing, rubbish, in particular garden waste, introduces weed seeds into the bushland as well as creating a fire hazard (Luu & English 2004).

Gravel extraction is a threat to subpopulations 8a, 8b and 14. Gravel is no longer being extracted at Subpopulation 10 and the area is being rehabilitated (Luu & English 2004).

Rabbits
Rabbits have been observed at subpopulations 6, 7 and 8, and although there is no evidence that the Whicher Range Dryandra is being grazed, rabbits are impacting on the habitat by causing soil disturbance and increased nutrient levels. Grazing may have an impact on the establishment of young shoots thereby limiting natural recruitment (Luu & English 2004).

Illegal firewood cutting
Sporadic firewood collection is a minor threat to subpopulation 1 located in state forest. As well as disturbing the habitat, disease may be bought in to the area on contaminated shoes, vehicles and machinery (Luu & English 2004).

Existing recovery actions
Existing recovery actions are listed in the Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2009(Luu & English 2004).

Land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the Whicher Range Dryandra. Liaison is ongoing and potential threats associated with ongoing land management has been outlined (Luu & English 2004).

Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at subpopulation 15. These markers alert people working in the vicinity of the subspecies and outline the need to avoid work that may damage plants or their habitat. Dashboard stickers and posters describing the significance of DRF markers have been produced and distributed (Luu & English 2004).

Aerial spraying of phosphite has been undertaken in the Busselton ironstone ecological community, and some spraying occurs annually. Disease hygiene measures are implemented at all locations, including limiting vehicle access to tracks. Bollards were installed across the main access track into subpopulation 4 in 1999 to prevent vehicle access (Luu & English 2004).

Approximately 26 hectares of private property containing subpopulation 3c of the Whicher Range Dryandra was purchased with funding assistance from the Natural Heritage Trust National Reserve System Program in 1998/99 and is managed by WA DEC (Luu & English 2004)

The ironstone area containing subpopulation 3d has been fenced by the land owners to protect the habitat (Luu & English 2004).

A fire response strategy for areas that contain the Whicher Range Dryandra has been prepared and incorporated into the Blackwood District's Fire Control Working Plan (Luu & English 2004).

Implementation of the recovery actions outlined in the IRP for the community 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' has commenced and may benefit the Whicher Range Dryandra (Luu & English 2004).

There have been several collections of the Whicher Range Dryandra seed, which is held at the WA DEC Threatened Flora Centre and the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (Luu & English 2004).

Future recovery actions
Future management actions identified in the Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2009(Luu & English 2004) include:

  • coordination of recovery actions and continued liaison with land managers
  • mapping of critical habitat
  • installation of further DRF markers and promoting awareness
  • further surveys and monitoring of subpopulations
  • disease hygiene maintenance and continued application of phosphite
  • fencing of further locations
  • further access restriction and improved security of subpopulations
  • habitat rehabilitation
  • development and implementation of a fire management strategy, a drainage management strategy and a kangaroo management strategy
  • undertaking weed control
  • rabbit control
  • rubbish removal.

Research priorities
Research priorities identified in the Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2009(Luu & English 2004) include:

  • Soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various disturbances (including fire and grazing by kangaroos or other animals), competition, and rainfall, in germination and recruitment.
  • The pollination biology of the taxon and the requirements of pollinators.
  • The reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the taxon.
  • The population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size.
  • The impact of increased water logging and salinity on the Whicher Range Dryandra and its habitat.
  • Investigation of the impacts of dieback disease and control techniques on the Whicher Range Dryandra and its habitat.

Key management documents include the Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004–2008 (Luu & English, 2004) and the Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region (Williams et al. 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2008 (Luu, R. & V. English, 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2008 (Luu, R. & V. English, 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2008 (Luu, R. & V. English, 2004) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Vegetation and habitat mortality caused by dieback Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

George, A.S. (1996). New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra R.Br. (Proteaceae: Grevilleoideae). Nuytsia. 10(3):313-408. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

George, A.S. (1999a). Dryandra. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S.Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:251-363. Canberra, ACT and Melbourne, Victoria: ABRS and CSIRO.

Gibson, N., B.J. Keighery, G.J. Keighery, A.H. Burbidge & M.N. Lyons (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission. Prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).

Luu, R. & V. English (2004). Whicher Range Dryandra (Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2008. [Online]. Wanneroo, Western Australia: Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/d-squarrosa/index.html.

Mast, A.R. & K. Thiele (2007). The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 20:63-71.

Tille, P.J. & N.C. Lantzke (1990). Busselton-Margaret River-Augusta land capability study. Land Resources Series No 5. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Agriculture.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 17:48:06 +1000.