Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Caladenia intuta
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, "the Ghost Spider-orchid is known from four populations on the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, with one population occurring within a small cemetery reserve and adjacent private property and the other three all occurring on private property. The Ghost Spider-orchid is currently threatened by weed invasion, cattle and sheep grazing, human impacts, habitat loss, fragmentation and population isolation, and illegal collection. A recovery plan is considered necessary for the Ghost Spider-orchid, and it is noted that the species is included in a draft multi-species recovery plan which provides recovery objectives and recovery actions for the species (19/12/2008)".
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia intuta.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (70) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008i) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510).
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (101) (12/04/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010j) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia intuta.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011) as Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510)
Scientific name Caladenia intuta [82821]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (D.L.Jones) R.J.Bates
Infraspecies author  
Reference Barker, R.M. & Bates, R.J. (2008) J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 22: 102 [comb. nov.]
Other names Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) [81972]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific Name: Caladenia intuta

Common Name: Ghost Spider-orchid

The Ghost Spider-orchid was first recognised as a distinct species in the mid 1990s, and was described and published as Arachnorchis intuta in 2005 (Jones 2005). The genus Arachnorchis is not currently accepted by the Australian systematics community (TSSC 2008afd), and Arachnorchis intuta is considered to be a basionym to Caladenia intuta (CHAH 2009).

Jones (2005) describes the Ghost Spider-orchid as being closely related to Caladenia brumalis but is differentiated by its smaller white flowers, stiffly spreading segments, and relatively short, less glandular osmophores. It is also similar to the White Spider-orchid (Caladenia rigida) but this species has thickened, densely glandular sepaline clubs (Jones 2005).

The Ghost Spider-orchid is an annual, terrestrial spider orchid, which flowers in August to September, with one or two white, stiffly spreading flowers, with dark glandular tips on the tepals. The flowers are not fragrant (Quarmby 2006a).

The Ghost Spider-orchid has a single, narrow, lanceolate leaf (5 cm long), which is hairy with purple blotches at the base. It has a wiry, hairy stem 10–35 cm long. It produces one or two flowers, 4.5–6.5 cm across, white, sometimes with faint reddish medial lines. The labellum is white, ovate-lanceolate, 13–16 mm long and 7–11 mm wide, with a recurved tip. Labellum margins are lined with short, blunt, white or reddish teeth. Calli are in four rows, white or reddish, hockey stick shaped, and predominantly stalked. The sepals are 32–40 mm long, 2.5–3 mm wide, lanceolate, tapering to short, blackish, glandular caudae, sometimes with obscure osmophores. The petals are 27–35 mm long, 2–3 mm wide, lanceolate, tapering to short, blackish, glandular caudae. The dorsal sepal is erect, the lateral sepals are widely divergent and stiffly spreading, the petals are also stiffly spreading (Bates 2007; Jones 2005; Quarmby 2006a).

Spider-orchids are generally colonising species, preferring open or recently disturbed habitats. They usually form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal soil fungi, but the mycorrhizas appear to be a non-mutualistic symbiosis in favour of the orchids (Quarmby 2006a). The Ghost Spider-orchid is pollinated by native bees (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Ghost Spider-orchid is endemic to South Australia, where it is confined to the mid Yorke Peninsula. It has only been collected from one site 6 km east of Hardwicke Bay (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007b). However, the Ghost Spider-orchid has recently (2007) been discovered in another three sites as a result of targeted surveys. These include private properties 3 km south east of Brentwood, 6 km north west of Stansbury, and 8 km north of Yorketown (SA DEH 2007a). The Ghost Spider-orchid occurs in the Yorke Peninsula herbarium region (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007a).

The current extent of occurrence is estimated to be 86 km², based on the available data in Quarmby (2006a), SA DEH (2007), SA DEH (2007a), and State Herbarium of South Australia (2007a). The extent of occurrence was calculated using a minimum convex polygon containing all the sites of occurrence, in which no internal angles exceed 180° (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The current area of occupancy of the Ghost Spider-orchid is estimated to be 0.1 km². This was calculated using survey data collected from 2005 until 2007 (SA DEH 2007a), which involved mapping the spatial extent of all subpopulations using GPS. A 50 m diameter buffer was then added to each subpopulation in GIS, to allow for non-flowering plants (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

There are no historical records of the Ghost Spider-orchid due to its relatively recent discovery (in the mid 1990s), and there is insufficient data to indicate whether there has been a decline in the area of occupancy of known subpopulations in the past ten years (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007b). It is assumed that its distribution and area of occupancy has declined due to broad-scale vegetation clearance, weed invasion, grazing and other threats over the last 50 to 100 years. Areas of suitable habitat within the known range are severely limited and fragmented, and are generally small and degraded (Quarmby 2006a). There is insufficient data to indicate future changes in the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, however considering that all known sub-populations occupy relatively small areas and are under high levels of threat, it is projected that a decline in the extent of occurrence is likely if no immediate recovery action is taken (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Ghost Spider-orchid is known to occur in four locations. These include a small cemetery and adjacent native vegetation on private land 6 km east of Hardwicke Bay; a relatively large remnant of native vegetation on private property 3 km south-east of Brentwood; a relatively large remnant of vegetation 6 km north-west of Stansbury; and a small remnant of native vegetation 8 km north of Yorketown (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2007a). All of these locations are surrounded by large areas of cleared agricultural land and are separated by large distances. The Hardwicke Bay location and the Brentwood location are the closest two locations, being separated by approximately 500 m of cleared land. The Yorketown location is approximately 8 km south-east of the Hardwicke Bay location, and the Stansbury location is approximately 21 km north-east of the Yorketown location, both of which have predominantly cleared land separating them (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2007a).

There are no propagated populations of the Ghost Spider-orchid, and there is currently no proposal for translocations. Seed and mycorrhizal fungi have been collected, and ex situ germination trials will be undertaken to determine the viability of the seed, and to develop propagation techniques (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The distribution of the Ghost Spider-orchid is considered to be severely fragmented. All of the known locations of the Ghost Spider-orchid are separated by large distances of cleared agricultural land and unsuitable habitat. The Stansbury and Yorketown locations in particular are very disjunct from the largest populations near Brentwood and Hardwicke Bay; approximately 25 km and 9 km respectively. The majority of remaining Eucalyptus porosa, Allocasuarina verticillata woodland in the region occurs in very small, isolated, and highly degraded remnants that are unlikely to be suitable for the Ghost Spider-orchid (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2007a).

There have been comprehensive surveys for the Ghost Spider-orchid in the Hardwicke Bay and Stansbury locations annually from 2004 to 2007 (SA DEH 2007a), involving annual counts of the number of flowering plants. The Brentwood and Yorketown locations were discovered during targeted surveys for the Ghost Spider-orchid in August 2007 (SA DEH 2007a). Both areas were thoroughly searched and the numbers of flowering plants were accurately counted. There were no surveys for the Ghost Spider-orchid conducted prior to 2004 (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2007a).

The Ghost Spider-orchid is part of the Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project, which includes an annual monitoring program for the species. This program has been monitoring the Ghost Spider-orchid since 2004 and is on-going, subject to funding (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The current population size is estimated to be 2580 mature individuals, based on survey data of all locations in 2004, 2005 and 2007 (Quarmby 2006a, SA DEH 2007a). The Brentwood and Yorketown locations were discovered recently (in 2007) and as such the data available for these populations are limited. Surveys of the Hardwicke Bay and Stansbury locations have found that the number of flowering plants fluctuates depending on the amount of rainfall between May and September, with less rainfall resulting in fewer flowers (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2007a).

There are four recognised sub-populations of the Ghost Spider-orchid (defined by being separated by > 500 m, between which there is unlikely to be genetic exchange). The Brentwood subpopulation occurs within a relatively large area of remnant vegetation on private land, approximately 3 km south-west of Brentwood. This is the largest known subpopulation comprising 2110 flowering plants in 2007 (SA DEH 2007a). The Hardwicke Bay subpopulation occurs within a small cemetery reserve managed by the District Council of Yorke Peninsula, and adjacent native vegetation on private land 6 km east of Hardwicke Bay. This subpopulation comprises an average of 380 flowering plants per year (SA DEH 2007a) and has fluctuated in size between 2004 and 2007. The Stansbury subpopulation occurs within a relatively large remnant of vegetation on private land 6 km north-west of Stansbury. This subpopulation comprises an average of 80 flowering plants per year (SA DEH 2007a) and has fluctuated in size between 2004 and 2007. The Yorketown subpopulation occurs within a small remnant of native vegetation on private land 8 km north of Yorketown (SA DEH 2007a). This is the smallest known subpopulation comprising seven flowering plants in 2007 (SA DEH 2007a).

There is insufficient data to indicate a past decline in population size. However, it is presumed that the population size has declined over the last 50 to 100 years due to weed invasion, grazing, vegetation clearance and other threats (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The numbers of flowering plants in the Hardwicke Bay and Stansbury subpopulations are known to fluctuate on an annual basis depending on seasonal rainfall (SA DEH 2007a). However, this is unlikely to affect extent of occurrence or area of occupancy (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The generation length of the Ghost Spider-orchid is unknown. However, studies of other Caladenia species indicate that a life span of more than 15 years is likely (Quarmby 2006a).

All known subpopulations of the Ghost Spider-orchid are considered to be important for the species long-term survival and recovery. The Brentwood subpopulation is particularly important due to its relatively large size, comprising 79% of the total population size of the species. The Stansbury and Yorketown subpopulations are also important due to their disjunct distribution and likelihood of containing genetic diversity not found in the larger subpopulations (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

There are no populations of the Ghost Spider-orchid within the reserve system. The Hardwicke Bay subpopulation occurs partially within a cemetery reserve managed by the District Council of Yorke Peninsula and partially within unreserved private land. All of the other subpopulations occur within unreserved private land (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Ghost Spider-orchid grows in Mallee Box (Eucalyptus porosa)-Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) woodland, with an understorey of sparse shrubs such as Weeping Pittosporum (Pittosporum phylliraeoides), Dryland Teatree (Melaleuca lanceolata) and a dense ground cover of sedges including Gahnia lanigera and Lepidosperma sp. It grows in sandy loam soils, preferably white sandy loam, on calcrete rises (Bates 2007; Jones 2005; Quarmby 2006a).

The extent and quality of the Ghost Spider-orchid is in decline due to vegetation clearance, weed invasion, grazing, and human impacts. All known subpopulations of the Ghost Spider-orchid occur in relatively small remnants (< 10 ha) that are separated by large areas of cleared agricultural land that would have once supported larger areas of Mallee Box (Eucalyptus porosa)-Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) woodland (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Ghost Spider-orchid co-exists with the nationally threatened orchid Arachnorchis brumalis at the Stansbury subpopulation (SA DEH 2007a).

The age at which the Ghost Spider-orchid becomes sexually mature is unknown, however other similar species are known to take 3–5 years before flowering (Bates 2007). The life expectancy and natural mortality of the Ghost Spider-orchid is also unknown, but a life span of more than 15 years is likely based on studies of other similar species (Quarmby 2006a). Mature plants can remain dormant for several consecutive years like most other terrestrial orchids (Jones 2005; SA DEH 2007a).

The Ghost Spider-orchid flowers and sets seed in August to September. The flowers are pollinated by native bees, which have yet to be identified (Quarmby 2006a). The Ghost Spider-orchid reproduces only by seed and successful germination is thought to depend on infection by a suitable mycorrhizal fungus. The Ghost Spider-orchid does not require fire or other disturbance to flower or set seed and it is unknown whether disturbance would enhance recruitment (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Ghost Spider-orchid is similar to Caladenia brumalis, but is easily distinguished by its white, stiffly spreading flowers and dark glandular tips on the tepals. It is relatively easy to detect because of its white colour and preference for open understorey (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Searches for the Ghost Spider-orchid should be undertaken during late August and September. There is no preferred method of survey, but ramble survey would suffice (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Weed Invaion

Weed invasion is a serious threat to the Ghost Spider-orchid. It is suspected that weed invasion has caused decline in Ghost Spider-orchids, especially in the Hardwicke Bay subpopulation where extinction is a possibility if no further control measures are undertaken (J. Quarmby pers comm. 2007). The Hardwicke Bay subpopulation in particular is infested with weeds such as Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), Box Thorn (Lycium sp.), Freesia (Freesia hybrid) and annual grasses such as Bearded Oat (Avena barbata), Quaking Grass (Briza sp.) and Hares Tail Grass (Lagurus ovatus). All of the other subpopulations are less weed infested than the Hardwicke Bay subpopulation, however all sites could rapidly deteriorate unless weed control is undertaken. Cape Weed (Cryptostemma calendula) is also a threat to the Brentwood subpopulation (Quarmby 2006a, J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Grazing

The Brentwood subpopulation is currently being grazed by cattle and it is suspected that grazing may have caused decline in this subpopulation, but there is insufficient data to indicate trends (J. Quarmby pers. comm. 2007). The portion of the Hardwicke Bay subpopulation on private land is also currently being grazed by sheep. Stocking rates appear to be relatively low on both properties. However, the cattle and sheep are eating and trampling the flowers and leaves of the Ghost Spider-orchid subpopulation during the orchids' active period of growth. The Cattle are also spreading Cape Weed (Cryptostemma calendula) and other pastoral weeds through the site (J. Quarmby pers. comm. 2007).

It is suspected that continued grazing of the Brentwood and Hardwicke Bay subpopulations would cause a gradual decline in the number of flowering plants of the Ghost Spider-orchid. It is also suspected that the cattle would increase the rate of weed incursion in the Brentwood subpopulation (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Human Impacts

The Hardwicke Bay subpopulation occurs within a historical cemetery that is regularly visited by locals, tourists and orchid enthusiasts. Locals have been clearing native vegetation within the cemetery, particularly around gravesites, and intend to continue this activity. Prunings have been dumped throughout the cemetery, including on the Ghost Spider-orchid plants. Groups of tourists regularly visit the cemetery, not only for the gravesites but also to view the Freesia sp. The Ghost Spider-orchid plants are regularly trampled by tourists, as well as visiting orchid enthusiasts. A multitude of footpaths occur throughout the orchid population (Quarmby 2006a).

The dumping of vegetation prunings in the Hardwicke Bay subpopulation may have caused a reduction in the number of Ghost Spider-orchids. Trampling has caused damage to the Ghost Spider-orchid flowers and limited seed set (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.). It is suspected that continued vegetation clearance would significantly alter habitat (for example by reducing recruitment of Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) and Mallee Box (Eucalyptus porosa)) and increase wind speeds through the habitat.

Habitat Loss, Fragmentation and Population Isolation

Native vegetation, especially Mallee Box (Eucalyptus porosa)-Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) woodland has been extensively cleared for agriculture on Yorke Peninsula since European settlement. According to Wigan and Malcolm (1989), 94% of native vegetation on Yorke Peninsula has been cleared. All extant subpopulations of the Ghost Spider-orchid are surrounded by large areas of cleared land, and there are very few other areas of Mallee Box-Drooping Sheoak woodland within the known extent of occurrence of the species. This habitat fragmentation is likely to prevent gene flow between subpopulations, and therefore genetic diversity may be limited, and inbreeding depression is likely to occur (Quarmby 2006a). It is highly likely that other subpopulations of the Ghost Spider-orchid existed prior to broadscale vegetation clearance, but there are no herbarium collections to verify this (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007b).

It is suspected that genetic diversity of the Ghost Spider-orchid may have been reduced as a result of habitat loss, fragmentation and population isolation. Inbreeding depression is considered to be likely in the future, especially in the Yorketown subpopulation. It is also possible that habitat fragmentation may lead to a decline in pollinator species in the future (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Catastrophic Threats

Disease is potentially catastrophic for the Ghost Spider-orchid, especially in the Brentwood and Hardwicke Bay subpopulations. Drought could also be catastrophic for the Ghost Spider-orchid. Monitoring suggests that flowering is severely reduced if winter and spring rainfall is limited. Years of drought could effect recruitment, and therefore cause population decline (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

The Ghost Spider-orchid is thought to be pollinated by a specific species of native bee (species yet to be determined). Current levels of pollination are relatively high compared with other spider-orchids, however if there were a decline of this native bee then the Ghost Spider-orchid would be affected (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision

The Ghost Spider-orchid is known from four populations on the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, with one population occurring within a small cemetery reserve and adjacent private property and the other three all occurring on private property. The Ghost Spider-orchid is currently threatened by weed invasion, cattle and sheep grazing, human impacts, habitat loss, fragmentation and population isolation, and illegal collection. A recovery plan is considered necessary for the Ghost Spider-orchid, and it is noted that the species is included in a draft multi-species recovery plan which provides recovery objectives and recovery actions for the species.

Weed Control

Bridal Creeper rust was released in the Hardwicke Bay location in 2004, and has infested the majority of the Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) in this site. Control programs for Box Thorn (Lycium sp.), Bridal Creeper and Freesia sp. were also initiated in the Hardwicke Bay location in 2006, using minimal disturbance 'bush care' techniques. The local community was involved in this work (J. Quarmby pers comm. 2007). Weed control at all locations will need to be undertaken in accordance with best practice 'bush care' techniques (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Fencing

It is planned to fence the portion of the Hardwicke Bay subpopulation on private land to protect the Ghost Spider-orchid habitat from sheep grazing. This will most likely occur through the NRM On-ground Works Program (J. Quarmby pers. comm. 2007). It is recommended that the main area of occupancy of the Brentwood sub-population (0.5 ha) is fenced to exclude cattle (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Managing Human Impacts

In 2004 the District Council of Yorke Peninsula installed a sign within the Hardwicke Bay subpopulation informing the public that the cemetery contains threatened species, and to keep to established tracks. A public meeting was held in Brentwood in 2006 to discuss the management of the cemetery, especially with regard to clearing vegetation around gravesites (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.). In 2007 a fence was erected within the cemetery to prevent people from trampling the Ghost Spider-orchid subpopulation. Further discussions with the local community are needed to restrict the clearance and dumping of vegetation prunings within the cemetery (J. Quarmby 2007, pers. comm.).

Priority recovery and threat abatement actions identified by the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008afh) that would support the recovery of the Ghost Spider-orchid include:

  • Undertaking survey work in suitable habitat or potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
  • Undertaking seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the need for successful establishment, including mycorrhizal association trials.
  • Monitoring known populations to identify key threats.
  • Monitoring the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Control known sites in public areas to prevent trampling of plants.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from changed land use at known sites.
  • Identify and undertake weed management of known sites to reduce or remove weeds using appropriate methods. Specific control method should be pulling out by hand or spraying.
  • Manage known sites on private property to ensure cattle and sheep grazing regimes are conducted outside the growing season (when plants are not fertile).
  • Undertaking appropriate seed and mycorrhizal fungi collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.

  • The taxonomy, distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Ghost Spider-orchid is described in Jones (2005).

    The Ghost Spider-orchid is included in the Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia 2007-2012 (Quarmby 2006a). This provides comprehensive information on the conservation status, distribution, population size, habitat, ecology, and threats of the species. It also provides recovery objectives and recovery actions for the species.

    The approved Conservation Advice outlines the threats to the Ghost Spider-orchid and provides priority recovery and threat abatement actions that would support the recovery of the Ghost Spider-orchid (TSSC 2008afh).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena barbata (Bearded Oats) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lagurus ovatus (Hare's-tail Grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza maxima (Quaking Grass, Blowfly Grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed, Cape Dandelion) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afh) [Conservation Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation caused by Freesia sp. Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Slashing and herbicide application for weed control Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afd) [Listing Advice].

    Bates, R.J., ed. (2007). South Australian native orchids. Electronic version, October 2007. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

    Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2009). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

    Jones (2005). Arachnorchis intuta (Orchidaceae) a critically endangered new species from South Australia. The Orchadian. 14 No. 12:560-562.

    Quarmby, J. (2007). Personal communication Nov 2007. South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage.

    Quarmby, J.P. (2006a). Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia 2007-2012. [Online]. South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://botanicgardens.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/threat_orchid_recovery_plan.pdf.

    South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2007). Biological Databases of South Australia. Viewed Nov. 2007.

    South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2007a). Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project database. Unpublished. Viewed November 2007.

    State Herbarium of South Australia (2007a). Census of South Australian vascular plants, algae and fungi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/census.html.

    State Herbarium of South Australia (2007b). Adelaide Herbarium (ADHERB) database. Extracted May 2007.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afd). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81972-listing-advice.pdf.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afh). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Caladenia sp. Brentwood (R.J.Bates 53510). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/81972-conservation-advice.pdf.

    Wigan, A. & I. Malcolm (1989). Roadside vegetation management plan for Yorke Peninsula. Report to the Yorke Peninsula roadside vegetation steering group. South Australia.

    EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia intuta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 01:57:36 +1000.