Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bz) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, recovery plan will have limited benefit for the species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time (10/12/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (89) (10/12/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Club-leafed Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Pinjarra) Interim Recovery Plan No. 118 (Stack, S., R. Evans & V. English, 2002) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) [82880]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author WA Herbarium
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R. Davis 6578)

Common name: Club-leafed Synaphea

Other common name: Club-leaved Synaphea

The species is conventionally accepted as Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R. Davis 6578) (CHAH 2005).

Club-leafed Synaphea is a small compact shrub that can grow to 50 cm high and 50–70 cm wide, with a few dark and smooth stems up to 10 cm long. The leaves are hairless, blue-green in colour, three lobed to irregularly lobed, 2.5–9 cm long, and 3–10 cm wide. The inflorescence spike is up to 24 cm long, extending well past the leaves, and has fairly crowded, small bright yellow flowers at the end of a long red, occasionally green, peduncle. Flowering has been observed from September to October, and fruiting in October (Stack et al. 2002; Western Australian Herbarium 2006).

Club-leafed Synaphea is endemic to the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia. It is known from four subpopulations approximately 13 km south of Keysbrook, which is approximately 70 km south of Perth, Western Australia (WA CALM 2006). The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 2 km². The species' area of occupancy is unknown, but it is less than the extent of occurrence (WA CALM 2006).

The species occurs within the Swan Coastal Plain Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia Bioregion and the South West Natural Resource Management Region (TSSC 2009by).

The geographic distribution of Club-leafed Synaphea is not considered severely fragmented, as the species is known from four subpopulations that are in close proximity to each other. However, the species is considered restricted as the four subpopulations occur on Crown Land rail reserves, adjacent to areas that have been extensively cleared for agriculture (TSSC 2009by).

The species occurs on Crown Land rail reserves and does not occur on protected or reserved land (WA CALM 2006).

The total population size of Club-leafed Synaphea is approximately 2700 mature plants. This figure was calculated using actual counts from population surveys undertaken in 2003 (WA DEC 2009a).

Club-leafed Synaphea grows in white grey clayey sand on the edges of seasonally inundated low lying or swamp areas in dense wetland heath and shrubland of Swamp Teatree (Pericalymma ellipticum), Tea tree (Leptospermum sp.) and Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea preissii) edged by Marri (Corymbia calophylla) and Sheoak (Allocasuarina sp.) open woodland (Stack et al. 2002).

Little is known about the biology and ecology of the Club-leafed Synaphea. Adult plants of Synaphea species are known to resprout after fire or mild mechanical disturbance, but are also known to regenerate from seed following disturbance (Stack et al. 2002). The generation length for this species is unknown (TSSC 2009by).

The species can be distinguished by the shape of its young leaves, which resemble 'clubs' from a deck of cards, and by its red petioles. The flowers are also smaller than those of Synaphea odocoileops, S. petiolaris, S. stenoloba and other unnamed Synaphea species, which share similar habitat preferences (Stack et al. 2002).

The main identified threats to Club-leafed Synaphea are rail, track and fence maintenance works and competition from weeds. Potential threats to the species include habitat degradation by Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), inappropriate fire regimes and dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Stack et al. 2002; WA CALM 2006).

Habitat degradation
Rail, track and fence maintenance is a major threat to Club-leafed Synaphea. The species is particularly vulnerable to grading, clearing, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels and vegetation mowing/slashing. Many of these actions also encourage weed invasion (Stack et al. 2002).

Weeds
Competition from weeds is a current threat to this species, and African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) is one of the major weed species present at the site where Club-leafed Synaphea occurs. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (Stack et al. 2002).

Pest
Grazing and digging by Rabbits can directly damage individual Club-leafed Synaphea plants, and also serve to degrade the species' habitat, introducing weed seeds and providing good germination conditions for weed growth (Stack et al. 2002).

Fire regime and dieback
Inappropriate fire regimes and dieback caused by P. cinnamomi may affect the long-term viability of Club-leafed Synaphea (Stack et al. 2002).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary for this species as a recovery plan will have limited benefit for this species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (TSSC 2009bz) outlines the following research priorities:

  • Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
  • More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements, and the relevant impacts of threatening processes, including:
    • factors that trigger or influence seed production, germination and recruitment
    • factors that influence the level of flowering for the species
    • the pollination biology of the species and the requirements of pollinators
    • longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
    • the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
    • the species' response to disturbance (e.g. fire and slashing)
    • impacts of dieback caused by P. cinnamomi on Club-leafed Synaphea and its habitat
    • other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat during the September to October flowering period to locate any additional of the species.
  • Undertake seed germination trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.
  • Undertake genetic analyses to 1/ assess current gene flow (using markers and analyses capable of distinguishing population divergence on an evolutionary timescale, from that which might be due to more recent impacts), and 2/ identify populations with low genetic diversity that might benefit from artificial introduction of genetic material from other populations from which they have relatively recently diverged.

In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (TSSC 2009bz) outlines the following priority actions:

  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Ensure there is no disturbance in areas where Club-leafed Synaphea occurs, excluding necessary actions to manage the conservation of the species.
  • Control access routes to suitably constrain public access to known sites on public land.
  • Manage any disruptions to water flows.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control of African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) in the area.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on Club-leafed Synaphea.
  • Manage sites to prevent the introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Club-leafed Synaphea, using appropriate methods.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of rabbits in the region.
  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the habitat of Club-leafed Synaphea.
  • Where appropriate, provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
  • Develop and implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known sites from further outbreaks of dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi.
  • If necessary, implement appropriate management actions to minimise the adverse impacts of existing Phytophthora cinnamomi infestations.
  • Raise awareness of Club-leafed Synaphea within the local community through site visits, signage (e.g. declared rare flora markers to help prevent disturbance at sites), and posters/information brochures to be distributed to local naturalist groups, relevant authorities and volunteer organisations.
  • Frequently engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur and encourage them to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

The Club-leafed Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Pinjarra) Interim Recovery Plan No. 118 (Stack et al. 2002) outlines the following recovery actions:

  • coordinate recovery actions
  • formally notify adjacent land managers
  • collect seed and cutting material
  • implement track closure if feasible
  • implement disease hygiene procedures
  • undertake weed control
  • stimulate germination of soil-stored seed
  • conduct further surveys
  • monitor the population
  • liaise with land managers
  • develop and implement a fire management strategy
  • obtain biological and ecological information
  • promote awareness
  • rehabilitate habitat
  • undertake translocation, if feasible
  • review the need for a full Recovery Plan

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (TSSC 2009bz) and the Club-leafed Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Pinjarra) Interim Recovery Plan No. 118 (Stack et al. 2002) provide brief biological overviews and management recommendations.

In addition, the following management documents are available:

  • The Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (EA 2001l)
  • The Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (DEWHA 2008adh)

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Road construction Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Road fencing Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009by) [Listing Advice].

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008adh). Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Stack, S., R. Evans & V. English (2002). Club-leafed Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Pinjarra) Interim Recovery Plan No. 118. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/syn_pin_irp118.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009by). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82880-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bz). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) (Club-leafed Synaphea). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82880-conservation-advice.pdf.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.

Western Australian Herbarium (2006). Florabase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Synaphea sp. Pinjarra (R.Davis 6578) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 15 Jul 2014 01:37:01 +1000.