Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bw) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, a recovery plan will have limited benefit for the species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time. The Threatened Species Scientific Committee notes that in 2007, the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation finalised a state managed Selena's Synaphea Interim Recovery Plan (10/12/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (89) (10/12/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Selena's Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm) Interim Recovery Plan 2007-2012. Interim Recovery Plan No. 236 (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2007a) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D.Papenfus 696) [82881]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author WA Herbarium
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696)

Common name: Selena's Synaphea

The species is conventionally accepted as Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (CHAH 2005).

The species is likely to be called Synaphea selenae when it is formally described (DEC 2009).

Selena's Synaphea is a dense, clumped sub-shrub 25–65 cm tall by 20–80 cm wide. Leaves are tripartite (leaves divided at the base, or close to, into three equal parts) to pinnatipartite (lobed approximately halfway to base), symmetrically divided with long narrow lobes, flat to folded along the mid-line. Silvery-hairy sheaths enclose the base of the straight peduncles. Inflorescences are erect axillary spikes 7–24 cm long. Flowers open narrowly, are yellow, hairy, openly spaced and are angled upwards in the spike. The stigma is transversely crescent-shaped with broad lobes. Fruits are egg-shaped and hairy with a short, erect, terminal beak and persistent enlarged apical hairs (WA Herbarium 2006; WA DEC 2007a). Flowering is observed from September to November (WA DEC 2007a).

Selena's Synaphea is endemic to the Pinjarra Plain of Western Australia (WA DEC 2007a). It is known from five subpopulations south of Perth from Serpentine to Dardanup (a range of approximately 120 km north to south), Western Australia (WA DEC 2009a). The five subpopulations are fragmented and exist within scattered patches of remnant vegetation, in areas which have been extensively cleared for agriculture (WA CALM 2006).

The species occurs within the Swan Coastal Plain Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia Bioregion and the South West Natural Resource Management region (TSSC 2009bv).

The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 950 km² and its area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km². The species occurs on road verges, rail reserves, private property and a nature reserve (WA DEC 2009a).

The population size of Selena's Synaphea is approximately 550 mature plants. This figure was calculated using actual counts from population surveys undertaken in 2003, 2007 and 2008 (WA DEC 2009a).

Selena's Synaphea occurs on grey, clayey sand with lateritic pebbles in low woodland areas near winter-wetflats (WA DEC 2007a).

Associated species include Running Postman (Kennedia prostrata), Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea preissii), Cone Flowers (Conostylis sp.) and Dwellingup Synaphea (Synaphea stenoloba). Two subpopulations occur in seasonally wet Swamp Teatree (Pericalymma ellipticum) dominated shrubland, with Teatrees (Leptospermum sp.), Blue Lechenaultia (Lechenaultia biloba), Semaphore Sedge (Mesomelaena tetragona), Adenanthos meisneri, White Myrtle (Hypocalymma angustifolium) and Dwarf Sheoak (Allocasuarina humilis) (WA DEC 2007a).

Very little is known about the biology and ecology of this species. The extent of fruit set, where fertilised flowers form fruit, seems relatively high in the species but, like many other species of Synaphea, Selena's Synaphea has a high level of seed abortion or failure (WA DEC 2007a). The generation length for this species is unknown (TSSC 2009bv).

Selena's Synaphea is similar to and is located in the same geographic area as Dwellingup Synaphea (Synaphea stenoloba), Club-leafed Synaphea (S. sp. Pinjarra (R. Davis 6578)), S. petiolaris, S. odocoileops, S. gracillima, S. spinulosa and S. sp. Pinjarra Plain (A.S. George 17182) (TSSC 2009bv).

Selena's Synaphea is distinguished from other Synaphea species by its flattened, nearly symmetrically divided tripartite, leaf lobes with short petioles relative to the leaf blade, short peduncles and straight flowering spikes. Flowers of Selena's Synaphea are larger than related species, hairy externally and held in a very upright position in the flowering spike and the stigma is shallowly emarginate with broad lateral lobes. Stems of this species are green, and the sheaths enclosing the bases of the spikes are usually pale coloured with appressed hairs (WA DEC 2007a).

The main identified threats to Selena's Synaphea are rail, road and fence maintenance works, competition from weeds, grazing and digging by Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), disease and recreational activities. Potential threats to the species include inappropriate fire regimes and dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (WA CALM 2006; WA DEC 2007a).

Habitat degradation
Rail, road, and fence maintenance works are a threat to Selena's Synaphea. Four of the five subpopulations of Selena's Synaphea are restricted to narrow bands of road and rail reserve, some occurring on either side of the road or railway line. The species is particularly vulnerable to activities such as grading road reserves, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels, and the mowing of roadside vegetation to improve visibility. Many of these actions also encourage weed invasion into adjacent habitat and damage plants of the species (WA CALM 2006; WA DEC 2007a).

Recreational activities are damaging individual plants and degrading the species' habitat. One subpopulation in a railway reserve and another in a nature reserve are threatened by disturbance and trampling from trail bike and horse riding activities (WA DEC 2007a).

Weeds
Competition from weeds is a current threat to this species, and Capeweed (Arctotheca calendula), Quaking Grass (Briza maxima), Perennial Veldt Grass (Ehrharta calycina), African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and Wild Watsonia (Watsonia bulbillifera) are present, with heavy weed infestation at some sites. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (WA CALM 2006; WA DEC 2007a).

Pests
Grazing and digging by Rabbits is a current threat to Selena's Synaphea and its habitat. Grazing of flower spikes reduces the species' reproductive output. Increased nutrient levels in the soil, as a result of droppings, are also likely and may serve to further degrade the species' habitat, introducing weed seeds and providing good germination conditions for weed growth (WA CALM 2006; WA DEC 2007a).

Pests are currently threatening the species. Two subpopulations are threatened by scale insect infestations (WA DEC 2007a).

Fire regime
Inappropriate fire regimes and dieback caused by P. cinnamomi may affect the long-term viability of Selena's Synaphea (WA CALM 2006; WA DEC 2007a).

Land clearing
A past threat to Selena's Synaphea was land clearing as the clearing of land for agriculture has led to fragmentation and reduced the amount of suitable habitat for the species (WA DEC 2007a).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary for this species as a recovery plan will have limited benefit for this species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time. The Minister notes that in 2007, the Western Australian Department of the Environment and Conservation finalised a state managed Selena's Synaphea Interim Recovery Plan.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (TSSC 2009bw) outlines the following research priorities:

  • Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
  • More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements, and the relevant impacts of threatening processes, including:
    • factors that trigger or influence seed production, germination and recruitment
    • factors that influence the levels of flower and fruit production for the species
    • the pollination biology of the species and the requirements of pollinators
    • longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
    • the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
    • the species' response to disturbance (e.g. fire regimes)
    • impacts of dieback caused by P. cinnamomi on Selena's Synaphea and its habitat
    • other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat during the September to November flowering period to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
  • Undertake seed germination trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.

In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (TSSC 2009bw) outlines the following priority actions:

  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
  • Identify subpopulations of high conservation priority.
  • Ensure there is no disturbance in areas where Selena's Synaphea occurs, excluding necessary actions to manage the conservation of the species.
  • Suitably control and manage access on private land and other land tenure.
  • Manage any changes to hydrology that may result in changes to water table levels and/or increased runoff and sedimentation.
  • Manage any disruptions to water flows.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control of Capeweed, Quaking Grass, Perennial Veldt Grass, African Lovegrass, and Wild Watsonia in the region.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on Selena's Synaphea.
  • Manage sites to prevent the introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Selena's Synaphea, using appropriate methods.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of Rabbits in the region.
  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the habitat of Selena's Synaphea.
  • Where appropriate, provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
  • Develop and implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known sites from further outbreaks of scale insect infestations, and dieback caused by P. cinnamomi.
  • If necessary, implement appropriate management actions to minimise the adverse impacts of existing scale insect infestations, and P. cinnamomi infestations.
  • Raise awareness of Selena's Synaphea within the local community through site visits, appropriate signage at roadsides (e.g. declared rare flora markers to help prevent disturbance at sites by the public and by roadworkers), and posters/information brochures to be distributed to local naturalist groups, relevant authorities (such as transport authorities) and volunteer organisations.
  • Frequently engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (TSSC 2009bw) provides a brief biological overview and management recommendations. In addition, the Selena's Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm) Interim Recovery Plan (WA DEC 2007a) and the Threat Abatement Plan for dieback caused by the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi (DEWHA 2009w) are available.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ehrharta calycina (Perennial Veldtgrass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza maxima (Quaking Grass, Blowfly Grass) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed, Cape Dandelion) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Road fencing Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bv) [Listing Advice].

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bv). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82881-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bw). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D. Papenfus 696) (Selena's Synaphea). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/82881-conservation-advice.pdf.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007a). Selena's Synaphea (Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm) Interim Recovery Plan 2007-2012. Interim Recovery Plan No. 236. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/syn_fairbridge_irp236.pdf.

Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.

Western Australian Herbarium (2006). Florabase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm (D.Papenfus 696) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 3 Oct 2014 02:14:04 +1000.