In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bo) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bp) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (17/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (86) (17/11/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009f) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Banksia fuscobractea |
|Species author||(A.S.George) A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele|
|Reference||Mast, A.R. & Thiele, K. (2007) The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(1): 68|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Banksia fuscobractea
Common name: Dark-bract Banksia
The species is conventionally accepted as Banksia fuscobractea (Mast & Thiele 2007).
Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) was previously known as Dryandra fuscobractea (Dark-bract Dryandra) (George 1996).
The Dark-bract Banksia is an erect, prickly, non-lignotuberous shrub growing to one metre high with wedge-shaped, pungently serrate (prickly) leaves four to seven centimetres long, each with four to nine teeth on each side. The flower head is four to five centimetres in diameter with pale yellow and mauve flowers. There are between 180 and 190 flowers on each head, which appear between July and August. The stems are covered with a thick mat of hairs (WA DEC 2008a).
The Dark-bract Banksia is endemic to Western Australia, and is known from two roadside populations south-east of Gillingarra, approximately 125 km north-east of Perth. The species' estimated extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are less than 1 km² (WA CALM 2006). The species occurs on shire road reserves and private property (TSSC 2009bo).
The species is located within the Swan Coastal Plain Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia Bioregion and the Northern Agricultural Natural Resource Management region (WA CALM 2006).
The geographic distribution of Dark-bract Banksia is not considered severely fragmented, as the species is known from two subpopulations that are in close proximity to each other, approximately two kilometres apart. However, the species is known to exist at limited locations as the two subpopulations occur in patches of remnant vegetation next to private property that has been cleared by agriculture. This lack of suitable habitat surrounding the species' known area of occupancy limits the geographic distribution of the species (TSSC 2009bo).
The population size of Dark-bract Banksia is approximately 55 mature plants. This figure was calculated using actual counts from population surveys undertaken in 2008 (WA DEC 2009a).
A survey of one of the subpopulations conducted in 1995 identified 50 individuals (WA CALM 2006). This subpopulation was partly destroyed by gravel extraction and was recorded as having 25 mature plants in 1999. New seedlings have since been established (TSSC 2009bo).
In September 2004, both subpopulations were surveyed (WA CALM 2006). The population size of Dark-bract Banksia following a 2004 survey was approximately 110 mature plants (WA CALM 2006). Therefore, between 200408, there has been an observed population size reduction of 50%, from 110 mature plants in 2004 to 55 mature plants in 2008 (TSSC 2009bo).
The Dark-bract Banksia grows in lateritic gravel and also in sand over laterite in low dense heath (WA DEC 2008a).
Associated species include Dwarf Sheoak (Allocasuarina humilis), Banksia kippistiana, Marble Hakea (Hakea incrassata), Hakea scoparia, Silky-leaved Blood Flower (Calothamnus sanguineus), Narrow Winged Wattle (Acacia stenoptera) and Common Woollybush (Adenanthos cygnorum) (WA DEC 2008a).
The species is most closely related to the Wedge-leaved Banksia (Banksia cuneata) but is distinguished by the conspicuous dark brown bracts at the base of each inflorescence and the more numerous, smaller flowers within each inflorescence. The flowers also have darker coloured pollen presenters (WA DEC 2008a).
The main identified threats to Dark-bract Banksia are road maintenance works, fence or firebreak maintenance, gravel extraction, weed invasion and grazing (WA CALM 2006; WA DEC 2008a).
The species' two subpopulations occur on shire road reserves and are vulnerable to road maintenance works, such as grading, construction of drainage channels, soil compaction by vehicle movement, and removal of roadside vegetation (WA DEC 2008a).
Fence or fire break maintenance
Part of subpopulation two occurs on a firebreak and extends into remnant vegetation on private property. Plants on the firebreak have the potential to be destroyed during firebreak or fence maintenance works (WA CALM 2006).
The species grows on lateritic gravel ridges making it vulnerable to gravel extraction. This is an actual threat as plants from subpopulation one have been destroyed in the past (WA CALM 2006).
Weeds can compete with Dark-bract Banksia, particularly seedlings, for resources. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. Any disturbance of the soil creates bare patches that can quickly be colonised by weeds (WA DEC 2008a).
The subpopulation that partly occurs on private property is potentially under threat from grazing by stock (WA CALM 2006). This can be due to lack of fencing, inadequate fencing or instances where stock is given access to sites where they may graze or trample on seedlings (TSSC 2009bo).
A past threat to Dark-bract Banksia is land clearing. The clearing of land for agriculture has reduced the amount of suitable habitat for the species (WA CALM 2006).
Minister's reason for recovery plan decision:
The approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats. Therefore, a recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (TSSC 2009bp) outlines the following research priorities:
- Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
- More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements and demographic information, including;
- factors that trigger or influence germination and recruitment
- seed viability
- longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
- the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
- the species' response to disturbance
- other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
- factors that trigger or influence germination and recruitment
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional subpopulations of Dark-bract Banksia. Surveys should ideally be undertaken during the species' main flowering period (July and August).
- Undertake seed germination and seedling establishment trials to determine the requirement for successful establishment.
In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (TSSC 2009bp) outlines the following priority actions:
- Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
- Ensure road maintenance activities and fence or firebreak maintenance works (or other infrastructure or development activities such as gravel extraction), involving substrate or vegetation disturbance in areas where Dark-bract Banksia occurs, do not adversely impact on the known subpopulations.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
- Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to Dark-bract Banksia, using appropriate methods.
- Manage sites to prevent the introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Dark-bract Banksia, using appropriate methods.
- Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on Dark-bract Banksia.
- If livestock grazing occurs in the area, ensure land owners/managers use an appropriate management regime and density that does not detrimentally affect this species.
- Where appropriate, manage total grazing pressure at important/significant sites through exclusion fencing or other barriers.
- Raise awareness of Dark-bract Banksia within the local community through site visits, signage (e.g. declared rare flora markers to help prevent disturbance at sites), local print and electronic media, and fact sheets/information brochures.
- Maintain liaison with private landholders and land managers of land on which populations occur.
- Continue to undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
- Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
The Endangered Flora of Western Australia: Dark-bract Banksia (WA DEC 2008a) includes the following recovery actions that have been, and will be, progressively implemented to protect the species:
- Undertake control of weed invasion along road sides.
- Conduct regular monitoring of the health of known populations.
- Conduct further surveys for this plant in similar habitat.
- Collect and store seed at the Department of Environment and Conservation's (DEC) Threatened Flora Seed Centre.
- Maintain live plants away from the wild (such as botanical gardens).
- Research the biology and ecology of Dark-bract Banksia.
- Enhance plant numbers by direct propagation and translocation.
- Ensure that relevant authorities, landowners and DEC staff are aware of its presence and the need to protect it.
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (TSSC 2009bp) and the Endangered Flora of Western Australia: Dark-bract Banksia (WA DEC 2008a) provide brief biological overviews and management recommendations.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Habitat modification and disturbance due to fencing||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bo) [Listing Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bo) [Listing Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bo) [Listing Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
George, A.S. (1996). New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra R.Br. (Proteaceae: Grevilleoideae). Nuytsia. 10(3):313-408. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Mast, A.R. & K. Thiele (2007). The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 20:63-71.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bo). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/83059-listing-advice.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bp). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia fuscobractea (Dark-bract Banksia). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/83059-conservation-advice.pdf.
Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008a). Endangered Flora of Western Australia: Dark-bract Banksia. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/component/optioncom_docman/Itemid,1/gid,3041/task,doc_download/. [Accessed: 19-Dec-2008].
Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia fuscobractea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 2 Oct 2014 10:00:52 +1000.