Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Banksia verticillata
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia verticillata (Granite Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008au) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia verticillata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Warren Region, Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No 40 (Hearn, R.W., R. Meissner, A.P. Brown, T.D. Macfarlane & T.R. Annels, 2006) [Management Plan].
WA:Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20 (Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates, 1995) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013) as Banksia verticillata
Scientific name Banksia verticillata [8333]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Br.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 10: 207 (8 Mar. 1810).
Other names Sirmuellera verticillata [37401]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

The Granite Banksia is a large bushy shrub or occasionally a small tree growing to 5 m with pale golden flowers (George 1981; Hopper et al. 1990; Brown et al. 1998; George 1999). In coastal sites where it is exposed to strong wind, it may become prostrate (Atkins 1998).

This species occurs in disjunct population groups from west of Walpole to Cheyne Beach, east of Albany in south-western WA. All but one of the populations are located within 2 km the coast; the exception occurs about 10 km inland (Kelly & Coates 1995).

Population details as in Robinson & Coates (1995) with information from Kelly & Coates (1995) shown in parentheses:

Population [as numbered by
WA CALM]
LocationLand StatusYear of
survey/number
of plants
Condition
1Mt ManypeaksManypeaks NP1989 - 2(Dieback)
2Mt ManypeaksManypeaks NP1989 - 6(Dieback)
3Stony Hill SummitTorndirrup NP1992 - 100+
(400-500)
Good
4Bald HeadTorndirrup NP1993 - 70Undisturbed
5Two Peoples BayTwo Peoples Bay NR1993 - 1
(2)
Poor, (dead)
6Mt HopkinsWalpole-Nornalup NP1984 - 300(Good)
7 & 18Waychinicup (Cheyne Beach)Waychinicup NP1993 - 2000+Undisturbed
8Waychinicup (Cheyne Beach)Waychinicup NP1993 - 7 & 15Fair
9GapTorndirrup NP1985/6 - 35 
10Peak HeadTorndirrup NP1993 - 180+(Generally good, small Armillaria infection)
11Mt Manypeaks (Normans Beach)Manypeaks NP1984 - 5
(0)
(Dead)
12Salmon Holes (Isthmus Hill)Torndirrup NP1987 - 50
(100+)
 
13Stony Hill EastTorndirrup NP1987 - 200+
(0)
Fair
15Woolbale HillsState Forest1989 - 600
(400)
(Dieback)
16 &17Mt ManypeaksManypeaks NP1979 - 19
(<10)
(Dieback)
19NewhillsTorndirrup NP1992 - 128Canker
20Aldridge CoveNP1982 - 200 
21Thompson CoveNP1982 - 400 
22Mt ManypeaksManypeaks NP1985 - (<10)(Dieback)
23Waychinicup (Cheyne Beach West)Waychinicup NP1993 - 187Good
24 & 25Niggerhead RockTorndirrup NP1987 - 112Undisturbed
26 (31)Poison HillWalpole-Nornalup NP1992 - 300
Disease
27Herald PointGull Rock NP1993 - 4 dead (0)Dieback
28Mermaid PtWaychinicup NP1993 - 133Fair
(29)(Ben Dearg Pt)(Gull Rock NP)(7)(Dieback nearby)
(30)(Channel Pt)(Waychinicup NP)(108)(Undisturbed)
(32)(Waychinicup West)(Waychinicup NP)(<10)(?canker, 50+ dead)

Banksia verticillata is clearly related to B. littoralis but differs in having a spreading, bushy habit; shorter, entire, coriaceous (tough and pliable) adult leaves; and longer, more hairy bracts. B. littoralis inhabits damper habitats and flowers later. B. verticillata is also closely related to B. seminuda, a tree which can be distinguished by its thin, usually serrate leaves, strongly recurved styles, perianths with hairless limbs, and a winter flowering period (Atkins 1998).

This is apparently the only Banksia confined to granitic soils (George 1981; Taylor & Hopper 1988; Hopper et al. 1990; George 1999). The species is largely restricted to very exposed granite outcrops near the coast (George 1981; Taylor & Hopper 1988; George 1999). There it occurs immediately above the rocks beside the ocean (mostly growing in cracks in the rock) (Robinson & Coates 1995). It usually grows in shallow rocky sands and loams over granite, in permanently wet, moist, dry and saline conditions (Atkins 1998). Annual rainfall in the region is 800-1000 mm (Taylor & Hopper 1988).

Agonis marginata, A. flexuosa, Andersonia sprengelioides and Hakea species dominate the associated scrub and heath (Taylor & Hopper 1988; Kelly & Coates 1995). Occasionally, the species is also found in tall shrubland or coastal heath (Atkins 1998).

Flowering occurs from Jan. to Apr. (George 1981; Hopper et al. 1990; Kelly & Coates 1995). The flowers often open in an irregular order (George 1981; Hopper et al. 1990) or with opening commencing at the base of the inflorescence (Kelly & Coates 1995).

The major bird pollinator is the New Holland Honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae), with White Cheeked Honeyeaters (Phylidonyris nigra) and Western Spinebills (Acanthorhyncus superciliosis) and Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) being minor contributors. Pollen transfer between neighbouring populations and between plants within populations may be common. The New Holland Honeyeaters were considered to be transients, suggesting long distance pollen dispersal between neighbouring populations was possible. Small mammals are not significant pollinators (Rees & Collins 1994; Kelly & Coates 1995).

Numbers of flowers and fruit are correlated to plant size, with high levels of fruiting success (38-43% of inflorescences form follicles). About 8% of flowers develop into follicles, which is higher than for many related species (Kelly & Coates 1995). Similarly high (for a Banksia sp.) reproductive success was reported by Rees and Collins (1994) with around 40% of inflorescences developing follicles and a mean fruit set of 9.5% for fertile inflorescences. The follicles were concentrated in the middle third of the inflorescence (Kelly & Coates 1995). Mean viable seed production per plant was 299 and 149 at two separate populations with the total viable seed production at these populations estimated to be approx. 23 950 and 15 617 respectively. However, over 80% of the seed was non-viable: 17.0% damaged by insects; 2.4% diseased/ decayed; 58.1% aborted; 1.7% firm but non-viable (Rees & Collins 1994). Seed viability was reported by Kelly & Coates (1995) to vary from 4.2-19.7%, with a high (30-40%) abortion rate.

Plants are usually killed by fire and regenerate from seed (Robinson & Coates 1995).The majority of recruitment thus occurs after fire. There is a long juvenile stage, requiring a fire-free environment of more than 20 years to build adequate seed banks, but the granite outcrop habitat offers some protection from fires (Kelly & Coates 1995). Most follicles will open without fire after several years (George 1999).

No information on production of lignotubers (George 1981; Hopper et al. 1990). Occasional observations of resprouting after fire have been made (Taylor & Hopper 1988).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia verticillata (Granite Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008au) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Aerial Canker disease Banksia verticillata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006cz) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia verticillata (Granite Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008au) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia verticillata (Granite Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008au) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Vegetation and habitat mortality caused by dieback Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].

Atkins, K.J. (1998). Conservation Statements for threatened flora within the regional forest agreement region for Western Australia. Page(s) 1-95. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

George, A.S. (1981). The genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Nuytsia. 3(3):239-473. Perth, Department of Agriculture.

George, A.S. (1996b). The Banksia Book. Sydney: SGAP.

George, A.S. (1999). Banksia. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S. Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:175-251. Canberra: ABRS and Melbourne: CSIRO.

Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.

Kelly, A. & D.Coates (1995). Population dynamics, reproductive biology and conservation of Banksia brownii and Banksia verticillata. ANCA ESP Project No. 352. WA, Como, CALM.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Rees, R.G. & B.G. Collins (1994). Reproductive biology and pollen vectors of the rare and endangered Banksia verticillata R.Br. Page(s) 1-35. School of Environmental Biology. Curtin University of Technology, Perth.

Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates (1995). Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20. [Online]. Como, Western Australia: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Taylor, A. & S.D. Hopper (1988). The Banksia Atlas. In: Australian Flora and Fauna Series. 8. Canberra: AGPS.

Wrigley, J.W. & M. Fagg (1989). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Sydney, NSW: William Collins Publishers.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia verticillata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 19 Apr 2014 18:07:41 +1000.