In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
Listed migratory - Bonn, CAMBA, JAMBA, ROKAMBA
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005c) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft background paper to EPBC Act policy statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bc) [Admin Guideline].
Shorebirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Seagrass - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011k) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Listed Migratory Species - Approval of an International Agreement (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007h) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Numenius madagascariensis |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Numenius madagascariensis
Common name: Eastern Curlew
Other common names: Australian or Sea Curlew, Far Eastern Curlew, Curlew
The Eastern Curlew is a large wader with a long neck, long legs, and a heavy bill that curves downwards. The wingspan is 110 cm and the birds weigh approximately 900 g. The head and neck are dark brown, streaked with darker brown. The chin and throat are whitish and there is a prominent white eye-ring; the iris is dark brown. The feathers of the upper parts of the body are brown, with blackish centres, and have broad pale rufous or olive-brown edges or notches. The tail is grey-brown with narrow dark banding on the feathers. The underside of the bird is dark brownish-buff, becoming paler on the rear belly. There is fine dark-brown streaking on the foreneck and breast, which becomes thicker arrow-shaped streaks and barring on the foreflanks. The upper belly and rear flanks have finer and sparser dark streaking. The underneath of the wing is whitish, but appears darker due to fine dark barring. The bill is dark brown with a pinkish base and the legs and feet are blue-grey. The sexes are similar, but the female is slightly larger and has a longer bill (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Within Australia, the Eastern Curlew has a primarily coastal distribution. The species is found in all states, particularly the north, east, and south-east regions including Tasmania. Eastern Curlews are rarely recorded inland. They have a continuous distribution from Barrow Island and Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, through the Kimberley Division and along Northern Territory, Queensland, and NSW coasts and the islands of Torres Strait. They are patchily distributed elsewhere.
In Victoria, they are mostly found around the Gippsland Lakes, from Corner Inlet to Port Phillip Bay, and on the far west coast. Eastern Curlews are found on islands in Bass Strait and the north and east coasts of Tasmania. In South Australia, the species is scarce between the Victorian border and Cape Jaffa and patchily distributed from the Coorong north-west to the Streaky Bay area, and has previously been recorded in Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert, South Australia. In southern Western Australia, Eastern Curlews are recorded from Eyre, and there are scattered records from Stokes Inlet to Peel Inlet. The species is a scarce visitor to Houtman Abrolhos and adjacent mainland, and is also recorded around Shark Bay. It is also recorded on Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Eastern Curlew breeds in Russia and north-eastern China but its distribution is poorly known. It is known to breed in southern Ussuriland, Iman River, scattered through south, west and north Kamchatka, lower and middle Amur River basin, Lena River basin, between 110° E and 130° E up to 65° N, and on the Upper Yana River, at 66° N. It is not known to breed in northern Mongolia. The Eastern Curlew is a common passage migrant in Japan, Korea, China and Borneo, and is rarely recorded moving through Thailand and the Malay Peninsula. During the non-breeding season a few birds occur in southern Korea and China, but most spend the non-breeding season in north, east and south-east Australia. Eastern Curlews are regular non-breeding visitors to New Zealand in small numbers, and are also known from Kermadec Island and Chatham Island (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Eastern Curlew's world population is estimated at 38 000 (Bamford et al. 2008; Barter 2002). In the non-breeding season there are estimated to be 5000 in Indonesia, 3000 in China and 2000 in Papua New Guinea.
Populations in Australia are regularly surveyed during the Population Monitoring Program carried out by the Australasian Wader Studies Group, in which sites that regularly support good numbers of shorebirds are surveyed twice a year (winter and summer) in co-ordinated counts; these surveys began in 1981, forming a good data set (for example, Skewes 2002, 2007).
During the non-breeding season it is estimated that 28 000 Eastern Curlews occur in Australia (Barter 2002; Birdlife International 2001).
There are several sites of international importance for the Eastern Curlew in Australia. Sites of significance, maximum counts, and the period at which the sites are used are as follows (adapted from Bamford et al. 2008):
|Site||Max Count||Date|| Southern
|Great Sandy Strait||6018||1/01/1993|||||
|Shoalwater Bay and Broad Sound||2986||1/12/1995|||
|SE Gulf of Carpentaria||1811||1/03/1999|||
|Western Port Bay||1294||2/01/1987|||
|Eastern Port Phillip Bay||808||2/09/1986|||
|Mackay Town Beach||710|||
|Eighty Mile Beach||709||17/10/1998|||||
|Shallow Inlet/Sandy Point||622||12/02/1983|||
The population was previously recorded as declining in some areas of Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and New Zealand over a period of 3060 years to the early 2000s (Close & Newman 1984; del Hoyo et al. 1996; Marchant & Higgins 1993). However, the population estimate has been steadily increasing from 19982008 due to additional count information (Bamford et al. 2008).
The Eastern Curlew is most commonly associated with sheltered coasts, especially estuaries, bays, harbours, inlets and coastal lagoons, with large intertidal mudflats or sandflats, often with beds of seagrass. Occasionally, the species occurs on ocean beaches (often near estuaries), and coral reefs, rock platforms, or rocky islets. The birds are often recorded among saltmarsh and on mudflats fringed by mangroves, and sometimes use the mangroves. The birds are also found in saltworks and sewage farms (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The numbers of Eastern Curlew recorded during one study were correlated with wetland areas (Dann 1994b).
The Eastern Curlew mainly forages on soft sheltered intertidal sandflats or mudflats, open and without vegetation or covered with seagrass, often near mangroves, on saltflats and in saltmarsh, rockpools and among rubble on coral reefs, and on ocean beaches near the tideline. The birds are rarely seen on near-coastal lakes and in grassy areas (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Eastern Curlew roosts on sandy spits and islets, especially on dry beach sand near the high-water mark, and among coastal vegetation including low saltmarsh or mangroves. It occasionally roosts on reef-flats, in the shallow water of lagoons and other near-coastal wetlands. Eastern Curlews are also recorded roosting in trees and on the upright stakes of oyster-racks (Marchant & Higgins 1993). At Roebuck Bay, Western Australia, birds fly from their feeding areas on the tidal flats to roost 5 km inland on a claypan (Collins et al. 2001). In some conditions, waders may choose roost sites where a damp substrate lowers the local temperature. This may have important conservation implications where these sites are heavily disturbed beaches (Rogers 1999b). It may be possible to create artificial roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development (Harding et al. 1999). Eastern Curlews typically roost in large flocks, separate from other waders (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Eastern Curlew does not breed in Australia.
Eastern Curlews nest on small mounds in swampy ground, often near areas where wild berries are growing. The nest is lined with dry grass and twigs. Eastern Curlews nest in the Northern Hemisphere summer, from early May to late June, often in small colonies of two to three pairs. The birds may delay breeding until three to four years of age (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
The Eastern Curlew is carnivorous, mainly eating crustaceans (including crabs, shrimps and prawns), small molluscs, as well as some insects. There are no detailed studies of this species' diet in Australia. In Roebuck Bay, Western Australia, the birds feed mainly on large crabs, but will also catch mantis shrimps and chase mudskippers (Rogers 1999b).
The Eastern Curlew is extremely wary and will take flight at the first sign of danger, long before other nearby waders become nervous. The birds are both diurnal and nocturnal. Eastern Curlews find the burrows of prey by sight during the day or in bright moonlight, but also locate prey by touch. The sexual differences in bill length lead to corresponding differences in diet and behaviour (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Eastern Curlews usually feed singly or in loose flocks. Occasionally, this species is seen in large flocks of hundreds (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Eastern Curlew is migratory. After breeding, they move south for the Northern Hemisphere winter. The birds migrate by day and night at varying altitudes, usually along coasts approximately 100 m from shore (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Within Australia, immature birds, which do not migrate, move northward in winter.
Departure from breeding grounds
Eastern Curlews leave Kamchatka Peninsula (Eastern Russia) from mid-July. There is a weak migration through Ussuriland, Russia, from mid-July to late September and birds pass through Kurile Island and Sakhalin, (Eastern Russia), from mid-July to late August (P.S. Tomkovich pers comm. in Marchant & Higgins 1993). Fewer birds appear in continental Asia on the southern migration than on the northern migration (Dement'ev & Gladkov 1951). Eastern Curlews are commonly seen in Korea, Japan and China during August-October, but also migrate through Thailand, the Malaysian Peninsular, Singapore, the Philippines, and Borneo, broadly between August and December (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The birds arrive in north-west and eastern Australia as early as July (Lane 1987). In north-west Australia, 1992, the maximum arrival was recorded between mid-August and the end of August (Minton & Watkins 1993). There is an onward movement from north-west Australia by October (Lane 1987). The Eastern Curlew is an uncommon passage migrant, mainly from October onwards, in the Torres Strait (Draffan et al. 1983) and arrives from August in northern Queensland. Most birds arriving in eastern Australia appear to move down the coast with influxes occurring on the east coast from mid-August to late December, particularly in late August. Counts suggest there is a general southward movement until mid-February (Alcorn 1988). Records from Toowoomba, Broken Hill and the Murray-Darling region in August and September suggest that some birds move overland (Marchant & Higgins 1993) and arrival along the east and south-east Australian coasts suggests some fly directly to these areas (Alcorn 1988). In Victoria, most birds arrive in November, with small numbers moving west along the coast as early as August (Lane 1987). In southern Tasmania, most arrive in late August to early October and a few until December (Marchant & Higgins 1993). When Eastern Curlews first arrive in Tasmania they are found at many localities before congregating at Ralphs Bay or Sorell (Thomas 1968). Eastern Curlews arrive in New Zealand from the second week of August until mid-November with median date mid-October (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
During the non-breeding season small numbers of Eastern Curlew occur in southern Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan and Indonesia. Occasionally, they are recorded in New Guinea, Borneo, and possibly Peninsular Malaysia and the Philippines (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The majority of the Eastern Curlew population is found in Australia during the non-breeding season (Bamford et al. 2008), mostly at a few sites on the east and south coasts and in north-western Australia (Lane 1987). Population numbers are stable at most sites in November or between December-February, indicating little movement (Alcorn 1988; Lane 1987). Eastern Curlews move locally between the high-tide roost-site and the intertidal feeding zone (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Return to breeding grounds
In Australia, most Eastern Curlews leave between late February and March-April (Marchant & Higgins 1993), departing from the eastern coast (Bamford et al. 2008). Apparently, Eastern Curlews fly over the northern coast (Alcorn 1988; Lane 1987). The birds depart New Zealand from mid-March to mid-May (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The species has been recorded on passage elsewhere mostly between March and May, arriving at Kamchatka, Russia, during May (Marchant & Higgins 1993). A large proportion of the population winters in Australia, mostly in the northern regions (Blakers et al. 1984). In larger waders, most if not all birds spend their second austral (southern) winter in Australia, and some or all may also spend their third winter here before undertakingt heir first northward migration to the breeding grounds (Wilson 2000c).
Descriptions of migratory pathways and important sites
Internationally, the Yellow Sea is extremely important for Eastern Curlews. It supports about 80% of the estimated flyway population on the northern migration, but fewer seem to use the region during the southern migration. Relatively few Eastern Curlews pass through Japan. Thirteen sites of international importance have been identified in the Yellow Sea (six in China, six in South Korea and one in North Korea). Twelve sites are important during the northern migration and seven during the southern migration, with six sites (Dong Sha, Shuangtaizihekou National Nature Reserve, Ganghwa Do, Yeong Jong Do, Mangyeung Gang Hagu and Dongjin Gang Hagu) important during both (Barter 2002).
The Eastern Curlew is most often counted using ground-based surveys within Australia. Population monitoring counts were able to illustrate the northward movement of many immature birds in winter within Australia (Wilson 2000c). At Moreton Bay, Queensland, the constancy of numbers within-season across sites suggests that short surveys can give reliable results (Finn et al. 2001).
Human disturbance can cause waders to interrupt their feeding or roosting and may influence the area of otherwise suitable feeding habitat that is actually used. Eastern Curlews take off when humans approach to within 30–100 m (Taylor & Bester 1999), or even up to 250 m away (Peter 1990). Moreton Bay, Queensland, a feeding area and internationally important site for this species, is at the centre of Australia's fastest-growing region for human population (Finn et al. 2001). This is a potential threat, given that the species is easily disturbed by people at feeding and roosting sites (Close & Newman 1984; Thompson 1993b). Land reclamation, construction of barrages and stabilization of water levels can also destroy feeding habitat (Close & Newman 1984). Formerly, Eastern Curlews were shot for food in Tasmania (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Pollution around settled areas may have reduced the availability of food (Close & Newman 1984). The species has been hunted intensively on breeding grounds and at stopover points while on migration (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Major environmental issues in the Yellow Sea include the loss of biodiversity and migratory bird habitat, water quality deterioration, harmful algal blooms, pollution, hunting and disturbance (Barter 2002; UNDP 2000). Intensive oil exploration and extraction, and reduction in river flows due to upstream water diversion, are also significant threats in this region where this species is present in internationally significant numbers (Barter et al. 1998). Two internationally important sites in South Korea (the Dongjin and Mangyeung estuaries) are currently being reclaimed as part of the Saemangeum Reclamation Project (Barter 2002). Twenty-eight percent of Yellow Sea tidal flats existing in the 1980s had disapeared by the late 2000s (1.2% annually) (Murray et al. 2014). Moreover, reference to historical maps suggests that up to 65% of tidal flats were lost since the 1960s (Murray et al. 2014).
Iwamura and colleagues (2013) found that rises in sea level could cause a dramatic collapse of population flow of this species caused by intertidal habitat loss. Taking into account upshore movements of intertidal habitat, their modelling indicates that this species population flow could reduce by 15% with a 150 cm sea level rise (Iwamura et al. 2013).
Governments and conservation groups have undertaken a wide range of activities relating to migratory shorebird conservation (AGDEH 2005c) both in Australia and in cooperation with other countries associated with the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.
The Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (AGDEH 2006f) outlines national activities to support flyway shorebird conservation initiatives and provides a strategic framework to ensure these activities and future research and management actions are integrated and remain focused on the long-term survival of migratory shorebird populations and their habitats.
Since 199697, the Australian Government has invested approximately $5 000 000 of Natural Heritage Trust (NHT) funding in projects contributing to migratory shorebird conservation (DEWHA 2007e). This funding has been distributed across a range of important projects, including the implementation of a nationally coordinated monitoring programme that will produce robust, long-term population data able to support the conservation and effective management of shorebirds and their habitat; migration studies using colour bands and leg flags; and development of a shorebird conservation toolkit to assist users to develop and implement shorebird conservation projects.
Birds Australia is currently co-ordinating the Shorebirds 2020 project, which aims to monitor shorebird populations at important sites throughout Australia; and Birdlife International is identifying sites and regions which are important to various species of birds, including shorebirds, and the processes that are affecting them. The aim is to inform decisions on the management of shorebird habitat. It may be possible to rehabilitate some degraded wetlands or to create artificial wader feeding or roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development, such as by creating artificial sandflats and sand islands from dredge spoil and by building breakwaters (Dening 2005; Harding et al. 1999; Straw 1992a, 1999).
Australia has played an important role in building international cooperation to conserve migratory birds. In addition to being party to international agreements on migratory species, Australia is also a member of the Partnership for the Conservation of Migratory Waterbirds and the Sustainable Use of their Habitats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (Flyway Partnership), which was launched in Bogor, Indonesia on 6 November 2006. Prior to this agreement, Australia was party to the Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy and the East Asian-Australasian Shorebird Site Network (DEWHA 2007e).
The East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, which is part of the broader Flyway Partnership, promotes the identification and protection of key sites for migratory shorebirds. Australia has 17 sites in the network:
The Queensland Environmental Protection Agency has produced a Bird Disturbance on Beaches information sheet to raise awareness of human threats to waders, including the Eastern Curlew, and actions that can be taked to minimise those threats (Queensland EPA 2007).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Direct exploitation by humans including hunting||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Exploration drilling||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Production of oil and gas resources|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology due to water diversion|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers|
|Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Loss and damage of intertidal areas due to land reclamation|
|Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution|
|Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution)|
|Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants|
Alcorn, R. (1988). Australasian Wader Study Group Regular Wader Counts Project. Interim report to June 1987: migratory waders. Stilt. 12:7-23.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005c). Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/pubs/shorebird-plan-background.pdf.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006f). Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebird-plan.html.
Bamford M., D. Watkins, W. Bancroft, G. Tischler & J. Wahl (2008). Migratory Shorebirds of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway: Population estimates and internationally important sites. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Wetlands International-Oceania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebirds-east-asia.html.
Barter, M.A. (2002). Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea: Importance, Threats and Conservation Status. Wetlands International Global Series No. 8, International Wader Studies 12. Canberra, ACT: Wetlands International.
Barter, M.A., D. Tonkinson, J.Z. Lu, S.Y. Zhu, Y. Kong, T.H. Wang, Z.W. Li & X.M. Meng (1998). Shorebird numbers in the Huang He (Yellow River) Delta during the 1997 northward migration. Stilt. 33:15-26.
Birdlife International (2001). Threatened Birds of Asia: International Red Data Book. Cambridge: Birdlife International.
Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.
Close, D.H. & O.M.G. Newman (1984). The decline of the Eastern Curlew in south-eastern Australia. Emu. 84:38--40.
Collins, P., A. Boyle, C. Minton & R. Jessop (2001). The importance of inland claypans for waders in Roebuck Bay, Broome, NW Australia. Stilt. 38:4--8.
Dann, P. (1994b). The distribution and abundance of Palearctic and Australasian Waders (Charadrii) in coastal Victoria. Corella. 18:148-154.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott & J. Sargatal, eds. (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3, Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Dement'ev, G.P. & N.A. Gladkov (Eds) (1951). Birds of the Soviet Union, Volume 3. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
Dening, J. (2005). Roost management in south-East Queensland: building partnerships to replace lost habitat. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003. Page(s) 94-96. Sydney, NSW. Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007e). Migratory Waterbirds Information Page, Departmental Website. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/waterbirds/index.html#conservation.
Draffan, R.D.W., S.T. Garnett & G.J. Malone (1983). Birds of the Torres Strait: an annotated list and biogeographic analysis. Emu. 83:207-234.
Finn, P.G., C.P. Catterall & P.V. Driscoll (2001). The low tide distribution of Eastern Curlew on feeding grounds in Moreton Bay, Queensland. Stilt. 38:9-17.
Harding, J., S. Harding & P. Driscoll (1999). Empire Point Roost: a purpose built roost site for waders. Stilt. 34:46-50.
Higgins, P.J. & S.J.J.F. Davies, eds (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Three - Snipe to Pigeons. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Iwamura, T., H.P. Possingham, I. Chades, C. Minton, N.J. Murray, D.I. Rogers, E.A. Treml & R.A. Fuller (2013). Migratory connectivity magnifies the consequences of habitat loss from sea-level rise for shorebird populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
Lane, B.A. (1987). Shorebirds in Australia. Sydney, NSW: Reed.
Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 2 - Raptors to Lapwings. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Minton, C. & D. Watkins (1993). The 1992 North-west Australia Wader Expedition. Stilt. 22:10--12.
Murray, N.J., R.S. Clemens, S.R. Phinn, H.P. Possingham & R.A. Fuller (2014). Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. doi:10.1890/130260.
Peter, J.M. (1990). Bird Study in the Nooramunga: The Possible Effects of Oyster Farming. RAOU Report Series. 74:1--18.
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Queensland EPA) (2007). Bird Disturbance on Beaches. [Online]. Brisbane: Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/publications/p02173aa.pdf/Bird_disturbance_on_beaches.pdf.
Rogers, D. (1999b). Roost choice in the waders of Roebuck Bay: is avoiding heat stress their main consideration?. Stilt. 35:65.
Skewes, J. (2002). Report on the 2001 population monitoring counts. Stilt. 41:55-61.
Skewes, J. (2007). Report on population monitoring counts, 2005 and 2006. Stilt. 52:20-32.
Straw, P. (1992a). Relocation of Shorebirds. A Feasibility Study and Management Options. Sydney, NSW: Unpublished report by the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union for the Federal Airports Corporation.
Straw, P. (1999). Habitat remediation - a last resort?. Stilt. 35:66.
Taylor, I.R. & A. Bester (1999). The response of foraging waders to human recreation disturbance at Rhyll, Phillip Island, Victoria. Stilt. 35:67.
Thomas, D.G. (1968). Waders of Hobart. Emu. 68:95-125.
Thompson, J. (1993b). Patterns of shorebird abundance in eastern Moreton Bay, Queensland. Wildlife Research. 20:193-201.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2000). PRC National Report for the Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis of the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (PDF-B). New York: United Nations Development Programme.
Wilson, J.R. (2000c). The northward movement of immature Eastern Curlews in the austral winter as demonstrated by the population monitoring project. Stilt. 36:16-19.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Numenius madagascariensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 2 Oct 2014 13:24:11 +1000.