Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006db) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008add) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009r) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (44) (14/8/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt (Collins, J., 2009) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Scientific name Gyrostemon reticulatus [8491]
Family Gyrostemonaceae:Batales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author A.S.George
Infraspecies author  
Reference Flora of Australia 8 (9 Dec. 1982) 393.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Gyrostemon reticulatus A.S. George (1982)

Common name: Net-veined Gyrostemon (Brown et al. 1988)

The Net-veined Gyrostemon is an erect shrub growing to approximately 1 m tall with crowded, persistent linear leaves 11 to 35 mm long. The leaves are circular in cross section and sometimes have hooked tips. Male and female flowers are on separate plants. The solitary flowers have pointed calyx lobes. Male flowers have 9 to 12 stamens, which end in a sharp point, and are arranged in a whorl. The female flowers have 5 to 7 carpels with narrow, flattened stigmas about 1 mm long. The stalked solitary fruit is spherical, and the 3 mm long carpels are semi-circular and narrow towards the margin with patterned surfaces (Brown et al. 1998; CALM 2005; Stack & English 2002).

The Net-veined Gyrostemon is endemic to Western Australia. It is known from two populations south-east of Mullewa near the locality of Tardun (north of Canna) in the northern Wheatbelt, approximately 350 km north of Perth and 100 km east of Geraldton (CALM 2005; George 1982). The species has previously been found at Canna and further south in the Wubin to Kalannie area (CALM 2005).

The distance between the two known populations of Net-veined Gyrostemon is approximately 2 km. Therefore the extent of occurrence is estimated to be less than 2 km². The original extent of occurrence of this species is unknown (CALM 2005).

The area of occupancy for this species is unknown. However it would be less than the current area of extent (less than 2 km²) (CALM 2005).

The two known populations of this species are considered to be highly fragmented. Much of the Western Australian wheatbelt has been cleared for agriculture (Shepherd et al. 2002) and the two populations occur in remnant vegetation on private property with cleared paddocks between them. The main population, which consists of about 160 plants was burnt in 2000, but has since regenerated from seed. This population is restricted to an area of about 500 m x 10 m, with the greatest proportion of plants occurring on the window of a firebreak (CALM 2005).

The species is only known from two populations that would be considered two locations under IUCN criteria. Surveys in similar adjacent habitat have failed to locate any additional populations (CALM 2005).

There are no translocated populations of the Net-veined Gyrostemon, but a limited amount of seed has been collected from population 1 and is stored at the West Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC 2005).

Gardner first collected the Net-veined Gyrostemon near Canna in 1933. The species was then collected from near Wubin and Kalannie by Blackwall in 1938. This species was Presumed Extinct until collected again in 1990 at Tardun and a specimen was lodged at the West Australian Herbarium. CALM has conducted extensive and follow-up surveys since 2001 (CALM 2005; Stack & English 2002).

The total population size for this species is approximately 163 mature plants across two known populations. The limited survey data suggests that the Net-veined Gyrostemon has undergone a reduction in population size.

There is evidence to indicate that the Net-veined Gyrostemon matures quickly and increases in numbers following disturbances such as fire. A local land manager has indicated that prior to a fire at population 1 during July 2000, there were 3 to7 plants in the area but 13 months after the fire a survey on 28/8/01 indicated that there were 500+ plants, most of which were in flower or early fruit. Two years later, a survey on 9/12/03 indicated the population had reduced to 160 mature plants. Hence, the species appears to be disturbance responsive, and undergoes natural fluctuations in population size in response to disturbances such as fire and soil movement (CALM 2005).

The generation length for this species is unknown. However, a local land manager indicated that the plants at population 1 were at least 10 years old (possibly much older) prior to the fire in July 2000. A large number of seedlings were recorded 13 months after the fire and most, if not all, were flowering or in early fruit indicating that these plants reach sexual maturity within 12 months. These plants were found to be healthy but drought affected when surveyed 2 years later in 2003 (CALM 2005).

Given there are only two known populations of the Net-veined Gyrostemon, these known populations would be considered important for this species recovery and long term survival (CALM 2005).

None of the known populations of the Net-veined Gyrostemon are located within the reserve system, nor managed specifically for conservation purposes. The property owners of the land parcels containing the known populations are aware of the conservation status of the Net-veined Gyrostemon and are willing to protect it (CALM 2005).

The species grows in dense shrubland in brown/yellow loamy sand on sloping topography (Brown et al. 1998; CALM 2005).

Species associated with the Net-veined Gyrostemon include: Melaleuca cordata, M. uncinata, Acacia acuminata and Allocasuarina campestris (CALM 2005).

Details of the life expectancy and natural mortality of this species are unknown, although plants at population 1 were known to be at least 10 years old prior to a fire in 2000 and seedlings reached sexual maturity within one year of the fire event (CALM 2005).

Flowering in this species has been recorded during August and September and immature and mature fruit have been recorded during surveys in August and December. Little is known about the pollination mechanism and the requirements for flower and seed production. However, the seed has a relatively large aril, which suggests that the seed is ant dispersed (CALM 2005; Stack & English 2002).

The Net-veined Gyrostemon is dioecious (male and female flowers occur on separate plants). A large amount of fruit is set per plant, with six or seven seeds per fruit. This ripens progressively, with some fruit maturing while the plant still bears fresh flowers (Stack & English 2002).

Net-veined Gyrostemon can be distinguished from Camel Poison (Gyrostemon australasicus) by its reticulate carpels with narrow keels, and by the generally higher number of stamens (usually 9 to 12 or 14 in Camel Poison) (Brown et al. 1998).

Additional survey efforts should focus on remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types (very dense shrubland on yellow-brown sandy soils) (CALM 2005).

Population Past Present
1 Land Clearing Firebreak maintenance, drought, salinity, rabbit grazing, inappropriate fire regimes
2a Land Clearing Physical destruction,lack of appropriate disturbance to stimulate regeneration
2b Land Clearing Drought, physical destruction, lack of appropriate disturbance to stimulate regeneration

In the past land clearing was the main threat to the Net-veined Gyrostemon. All populations are currently subject to drought conditions although Population 2a receives supplementary water from leakage from a nearby water tank (CALM 2005).

Population 1 was grazed by stock until fenced in 1995 but there is still evidence of grazing by rabbits. This population is also quite close (approx. 500m) from a saline creek line so salinity is a potential threat (CALM 2005).

Inappropriate fire regimes (i.e. too frequent to allow for adequate seed accumulation, or not frequent enough to ensure survival of populations) is also a potential threat. These pressures combined may limit future seedling and juvenile recruitment in the future (CALM 2005).

Populations 2a and b are located close to infrastructure on a private property (tanks and a proposed house site) and therefore may be subject to physical destruction. These plants are older than population 1 and one plant has already died at Population 2a, so appropriate management may be required in the future to maintain this population (CALM 2005).

Continuing drought and possible climate change are identified as catastrophic threats that will impact negatively on the remaining populations (CALM 2005).

A land manager who has looked for this plant in the past has observed that it occurs on the edges of vegetation, near tracks or firebreaks, not within dense bush. However, plants at Population 1 have germinated throughout much of the patch of vegetation that was burnt. This suggests that the Net-veined Gyrostemon is likely to be a fire ephemeral species as it produces extremely large quantities of seed very quickly after fire, declines in numbers as the surrounding vegetation matures and becomes denser, and remains primarily as a long-term seed store in the soil. In addition, a few plants appear to have survived near the firebreak and have kept producing seed (Stack & English 2002).

Population 1 was known to have a few old but still fruiting plants prior to the fire in 2000. There were over 500 plants in the population when surveyed in 2001 and 160 plants when surveyed in 2003. Population 2a and b occurs on sites that experienced soil disturbance several years ago. While these observations suggest germination of this species is triggered by soil disturbance (Population 2a and b) and fire (Population 1), seed did not respond within two months to smoke water or seed coat nicking in the laboratory situation even though the seed appeared viable (TFSC 2005). It is thought that there is an unknown dormancy trigger, which has been observed in other species of the same family (Stack & English 2002).

Identified recovery actions for this species include; notifying all relevant land managers of the location and threatened status of the species, the notification details of the Declared Rare status of Gyrostemon reticulatus and the associated legal responsibilities. Continued pubic awareness to promote the significance of the rediscovery of the species (CALM 2005).

Other recovery efforts include; installing Yellow Declared Rare Flora markers on the track near Population 1. Their purpose is to alert people working in the vicinity to the presence of Declared Rare Flora and the need to avoid work that may cause damage to plants or habitat (CALM 2005).

Population 1 has been fenced by the land owner. The site was grazed prior to 1995, but the area is still well vegetated. In addition, the land owner is also re-establishing vegetation in areas of the paddock that is adjacent to the Net-veined Gyrostemon population (CALM 2005).

Approximately 1040 seeds were collected in November 2001 and are stored in the Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) at 18°. Staff of the TFSC tested the viability of seed soon after collection and again after one year in storage. The initial germination rate of Net-veined Gyrostemon seed was nil after two months, which is thought to be due to unbroken dormancy (unpublished data A. Cochrane). Research into the nature of dormancy in the Gyrostemonaceae is in progress (TFSC 2005).

The Kalannie area was surveyed unsuccessfully for the Net-veined Gyrostemon by Frans Molleman in 1990. However, this was before habitat information was available (Stack & English 2002).

Staff from CALM's Geraldton District regularly monitors both populations of this species. The Geraldton District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (GDTFRT) will be overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include information on progress in its annual report to the Department's Corporate Executive and funding bodies (Stack & English 2002).

Additional recovery actions which have been recommended in the IRP for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Stack & English 2002) include; seeking long term protection for the habitat, conducting further survey; monitoring populations; promoting community awareness; stimulating germination of soil-stored seed at population 2a and b; collecting additional seed and cutting material; obtaining additional biological information; developing and implementing a fire management strategy; undertaking and monitoring a translocation program if required and reviewing the need for a full recovery plan (Stack & English 2002).

This species was originally described by A.S. George (1982).

Interim Recovery Plan 19, Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulates) IRP 2002-2007 outlines the recommended recovery actions for this species (Stack & English 2002).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008add) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008add) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006db) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009r) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006db) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008add) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Gyrostemon reticulatus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006lc) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009r) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009r) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009r) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009r) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008add) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Pollution:Declining water quality (salinity, nutrient and/or turbitity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008add) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gyrostemon reticulatus (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006db) [Listing Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Environment and Conservation (2009r). National recovery plan for the Net-veined Gyrostemon (Gyrostemon reticulatus). [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/gyrostemon-reticulatus.html.

George, A.S. (1982). Gyrostemonaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 8. Canberra: AGPS.

Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.

IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. IUCN, Gland Switzerland.

Shepherd, D.P., G.R. Beeston & A.J.M. Hopkins (2002). Native vegetation in Western Australia : extent, type and status. Resource management technical report 249, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth.

Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) (2005). Records held in the Department of Conservation and Land Management's Threatened Flora Seed Centre database. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Gyrostemon reticulatus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 17:45:14 +1000.