Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Acacia bynoeana
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Acacia bynoeana (Bynoe's Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013fm) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Acacia bynoeana.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Acacia bynoeana (a shrub) - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1999) [Internet].
NSW:Bynoe's Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Information: Acacia bynoeana (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1999ah) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Acacia bynoeana
Scientific name Acacia bynoeana [8575]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Benth.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Linnaea 26: 614 (May 1855).
Other names Acacia pumila [33576]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Bynoe's Wattle, Acacia bynoeana, under Australian and State legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

NSW: Listed as Endangered under the Threatened species Conservation Act 1995.

Scientific name: Acacia bynoeana Benth.

Common name: Bynoe's Wattle, Tiny Wattle

Synonym: Acacia pumila Maiden & R.Baker
There is an old and presumably erroneous reference to Acacia bynoeana from the Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland. This specimen is described as 'nearly resembling A. wilhelmsiana' (Bailey 1900).

Bynoe's Wattle, or Tiny Wattle, is an erect or spreading shrub growing to 0.2–1 m high. It can also form a low prostrate shrub to 50 cm across (Tame 1992; Benson & McDougall 1996). It has light cream to golden yellow globular flower heads (Harden 1991; Orchard & Wilson 2001a).

The species has been recorded in the Blue Mountains NP, Royal NP, Marramarra NP and Tarlo River NP. It is also conserved in Castlereagh, Dharawal and Agnes Banks NRs and Lake Macquarie SRA (Briggs & Leigh 1996; NSW NPWS 1999ah; NSW Scientific Committee 2002). Recent vegetation surveys in the Royal and Ku-ring-gai Chase have not located the species (NSW Scientific Committee 2002).

Bynoe's Wattle has been recorded in 12 reserves (Driscoll 2006).

Reserve Number of records Number of Individuals* Number of Populations
Bargo SCA 1 2 1
Berowra Valley RP 4 8 3
Blue Mountains NP 8 16 8
Castlereagh NR 4 8 1
Colymea SCA 1 2 1
Jilliby SCA 1 5 1
Ku-ring-gai Chase NP 4 8 4
Lake Macquarie SCA 1 1600 1
Maroota Ridge SCA 4 8 1
Marramarra NP 9 18 1
Wollemi NP 1 2 1
Yengo Np 10 94 1

Modified from Driscoll (2006). *Best estimate.

This species grows in heath and dry sclerophyll forest (Orchard & Wilson 2001a). Broadly, Bynoe's Wattle is recorded in open woodland with a heath understorey or open woodland with a sparse shrub cover and a grass/sedge ground cover (Driscoll 2006).

It is found in open and sometimes slightly disturbed sites (Benson & Mc Dougall 1996) such as trail margins, edges of roadsides, grading spoil mounds and in recently burnt patches (S. Douglas pers. comm. in NSW NPWS 1999ah). The ridge-top habitat has been lost through residential development (Benson & McDougall 1991).

The habitat where it occurs includes Castlereagh Woodland (James 1997). Associated overstorey species include Eucalyptus gummifera, E. haemastoma, E. parramattensis, E. sclerophylla, Banksia serrata and Angophora bakeri (Benson & McDougall 1996; Wimming 1992 in NSW NPWS 1999ah). Associated shrubs include Banksia spinulosa, Acacia oxycedrus, A. myrtifolia and Kunzea spp. (Wimming 1992 in NSW NPWS 1999ah).
The substrate is typically sand and sandy clay, often with ironstone gravels and is usually very infertile and well-drained (NSW NPWS 1999ah). The species often grows among rock platforms (NSW NPWS 1999ak). Sites are found at 0–1000 m asl, and receive more than 600 mm annual rainfall (Benson & McDougall 1996). The species is mostly recorded on flat to low-relief topography and 0–200 m AHD. The majority of the species occurs over Triassic or Permian age geology (Driscoll 2006).

Bynoe's Wattle is often associated with road/trail edges and disturbed ground. This association could be due to a preference for flat topography, a preference shared by road and trail developers. It is likely that a trail was built through a pre-existing population, which then becomes more visible along the trail edge (Driscoll 2006).


The flowers are borne in the summer from September to March, and the pods occur from November to January (Benson & McDougall 1996; NSW NPWS 1999ah). It is not known whether the species is capable of self-pollination or purely outcrossing. Bynoe's Wattle is likely to be pollinated by small native bees and wasps (Bernhardt 1987).

Seed production is minimal and seedlings are rare (S. Douglas pers. comm. in NSW NPWS 1999ah), and there is little local dispersal of seed (Benson & McDougall 1996). Plants are not always apparent and appear periodically, perhaps in response to local disturbance (Benson & McDougall 1996; NSW NPWS 1999ah).

The species is clonal and is capable of spreading vegetatively via underground stems, and as a result, populations have a clustered form with various levels of clonality (Driscoll 2006).

Threats to Bynoe's Wattle are related to its inclination towards flat/low topography, as this is also the preferred location for roads and land development (Driscoll 2006). The main threats are habitat disturbance (from road, trail and powerline maintenance; and recreational vehicle use), clearing, weed invasion and frequent fire. Populations are small and in close proximity to urban development, making the species susceptible to catastrophic events and localised extinction (NSW Scientific Committee 1998 in NSW NPWS 1999ah). The species may be affected by activity associated with bushrock removal (NSW NPWS 1999ak).

Persistent browsing by herbivores is a potential threat; plants appear to have been heavily browsed in several areas, possibly by the European Hare (Driscoll 2006).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering natural materials:Removal of bush rocks Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:unspecified Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006aa) [Internet].

Bailey, F M (1900). The Queensland Flora. Qld Government.

Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1991). Rare and threatened plants of western Sydney. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1996). Ecology of Sydney plant species Part 4: Dicotyledon family Fabaceae. Cunninghamia. 4(4):553-756. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Bernhardt, P. (1987). A Comparison of the Diversity, Density, and Foraging Behavior of Bees and Wasps on Australian Acacia. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 74 No. 1:42-50. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

CSIRO Plant Industry & Threatened Species Unit (1999). National Threatened Flora Database (NTFD).

Driscoll, C. (2006). Acacia bynoeana: a review of species information. Unpublished Report prepared for the Deparment of Environment and Conservation. EcoBiological. Newcastle.

Fairley, A. & P. Moore (2000). Native Plants of the Sydney District, An Identification Guide. Roseville, NSW; Kangaroo Press.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

James, T. (1997). Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey. Stage 1: Western Sydney: Native Flora. Hurstville: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (1999ah). Threatened Species Information: Acacia bynoeana. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10006.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999ak). Table 1: An indicative list of species which may be affected by Bushrock Removal. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW Scientific Committee (2002). Final Determinations of the NSW Scientific Committee 1999-2002. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/npws.nsf/Content/List+of+Scientific+Committee+determinations.

Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson, eds. (2001a). Flora of Australia, Volume 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2. In: Flora of Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABRS & CSIRO.

Register of the National Estate Database (RNEDB) (2001). Register of the National Estate Database.

Tame, T. (1992). Acacias of Southeast Australia. Kenthurst, Kangaroo Press.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia bynoeana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:31:04 +1000.