In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
Listed migratory - Bonn, CAMBA, JAMBA, ROKAMBA
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005c) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012y) [Admin Guideline].
Draft Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebirds Draft EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009aj) [Admin Guideline].
Draft background paper to EPBC Act policy statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bc) [Admin Guideline].
Shorebirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Listed Migratory Species - Approval of an International Agreement (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007h) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Calidris tenuirostris |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Other names: Slender-billed Knot; Stripe-crowned Knot; Eastern Knot; Large Sandpiper; Great Sandpiper (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Conventionally accepted as Calidris tenuirostris (Christidis & Boles 2008).
The Great Knot is the largest of the calidrid birds and grows to 26–28 cm long, with a wingspan of approximately 58 cm. Females are slightly larger than males. The bill is black, and slightly downward curved and tinged green at the tip. The eye is brown, legs and feet dark greenish-grey. The bird has noticeable breeding, non-breeding and juvenile plumages (Higgins & Davies 1996).
When breeding, the head and neck feathers are blackish-brown in the centre, giving a streaked pattern over a whitish background. The cap is dark, supercillum (area above eye) poorly marked and lores (area below eye) are white above with a diffuse area of brown. The chin, throat, belly, vent area and underwing are white; breast and flanks are white with a central band of black at each feather end forming an almost solid black centre to the breast. The flanks and undertail can show heart-shaped black spots. The back is blackish-brown with pale grey tips. Across the scapular feathers, central feathers have large chestnut ovals forming a chestnut band across the wings when folded. Covert feathers over primary wing feathers are grey with dark streaks and whitish fringes. The rump and upper tail coverts are white and sparsely marked with black and the tail is dark grey (Hayman et al. 1986; Higgins & Davies 1996).
During the non-breeding season, the Great Knot is paler and greyer above and on the breast. The breast is more finely streaked than spotted, flanks become sparsely streaked and the undertail is white. The head and upper parts have clear streaks of blackish-grey; most evident on crown and hindneck. Scapulars, wing coverts and mantle feathers are grey-brown with black-brown shaft streaks and edged in white giving a scalloped appearance (Geering et al. 2007; Hayman et al. 1986; Higgins & Davies 1996).
Juveniles are darker and more brown than non-breeding adults; the mantle and scapulars being darkish brown with narrow whitish-buff fringes, giving a scalloped pattern similar to non-breeding adults. Coverts and tertial feathers are paler brown, with whitish-buff fringes and dark brown subterminal bands on the larger feathers. The crown is darker forming a distinct cap. There is no clear supercillum, and the breast is washed buff-brownish and streaked and spotted dark brown (Geering et al. 2007; Hayman et al. 1986; Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Great Knot has been recorded around the entirety of the Australian coast, with a few scattered records inland. It is now absent from some sites along the south coast where it used to be a regular visitor (Garnett et al. 2011). The greatest numbers are found in northern Australia; where the species is common on the coasts of the Pilbara and Kimberley, from the Dampier Archipelago to the Northern Territory border, and in the Northern Territory from Darwin and Melville Island, through Arnhem Land to the south-east Gulf of Carpentaria. Other important sites include the Broad Sound-Shoalwater Bay area, the Mackay region and Moreton Bay in Queensland. The species is much less common in south-west Australia, South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania (Higgins & Davies 1996). Sites of significance within Australia include (Bamford et al. 2008; Minton 2002 pers. comm.):
|State||Location||Highest recorded number of birds|
|Western Australia||Eighty Mile Beach||169 044|
|Roebuck Bay||22 600|
|Queensland||South-east Gulf of Carpentaria||72 333|
|Shoalwater Bay and Broad Sound||4200|
|Mackay town beach||4000|
|Northern Territory||Roper River area||21 400|
|Fog Bay and adjacent islands||10 000|
The Great Knot breeds in north-east Siberia but the breeding distribution is poorly known. The species has been recorded from the mouth of the Kolyma River and the Gorelovy Mountains (possibly from Verkhoyanskii Ranges), and from the eastern Anadyr and Koryatsky Ranges (Higgins & Davies 1996). Tomkovich (1997) identified the bays and estuaries of the north-east and north-west parts of the Sea of Okhotsk and northern Sakhalin Island (Russia) as important staging areas for the species southward migration.
During migration common resting areas include east China, Korea and Japan. The Yellow Sea supports about 80% of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (the Flyway) Great Knot population on its northward migration. Fifteen sites of international importance for the northward migration have been identified there, compared to nine for the southern migration. The area provides a rich feeding source for the birds prior to their flight to Russian breeding grounds which may be still covered in ice and snow making foraging difficult (Bamford et al. 2008). In addition, the Dongjin and Mangyeung estuaries (South Korea) are important during both north and south migrations (Barter 2002).
Less common resting areas include the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Guinea (Higgins & Davies 1996; Barter 2002). The species is also a vagrant in New Zealand, the Arabian Peninsula, the islands of the Indian Ocean, Morocco, north-west Europe and Alaska.
During the non-breeding season, most of the Great Knot population occurs in Australia; though small numbers are also known to winter from Burma and Bangladesh, west to the Bay of Bengal, and occasionally to the Persian Gulf. The extent of occurrence of the Great Knot is estimated to be in the order of 1 490 000 km² (Birdlife International 2009a).
Populations in Australia are regularly surveyed during the Population Monitoring Program that has been carried out by the Australasian Wader Studies Group since 1981. Under this program, sites that regularly support good numbers of shorebirds are surveyed twice a year (winter and summer) in coordinated counts (Skewes 2002; 2007).
During the non-breeding period, approximately 360 000 Great Knot occur within Australia (Geering et al. 2007). The number utilising the East Asian-Australasian Flyway is approximately 375 000, with a total global population of 380 000–390 000 (Birdlife International 2009a). Approximately 90 000 birds were lost following the reclamation of tidal flats at Saemangeum in the South Korean Yellow Sea (Garnett et al. 2011).
A number of sites have exhibited Great Knot declines, including a 24% decline at Eighty-mile Beach between 2000–2008 (Garnett et al. 2011; Rogers et al. 2009), a 6% decline per year at Moreton Bay between 1998–2008 (Fuller et al. 2009; Garnett et al. 2011) and a 34% decline accross 49 sites between 1983–2007 (AWSG database cited in Garnett et al. 2011).
The numbers of birds present in Victoria has shown a marked decline from 810 to 167 birds. This may reflect patterns of the population that arriving in Australia, rather than habitat changes in Victoria (Wilson 2001a). It is now absent from some sites along the south coast where it used to be a regular visitor (Garnett et al. 2011).
In Australasia, the species typically prefers sheltered coastal habitats, with large intertidal mudflats or sandflats. This includes inlets, bays, harbours, estuaries and lagoons. They are occasionally found on exposed reefs or rock platforms, shorelines with mangrove vegetation, ponds in saltworks, at swamps near the coast, saltlakes and non-tidal lagoons. The Great Knot rarely occurs on inland lakes and swamps (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Typically, the Great Knot roosts in large groups in open areas, often at the waters edge or in shallow water close to feeding grounds (Higgins & Davies 1996; Rogers 2001). It is known that in hot conditions, waders prefer to roost where a damp substrate lowers the local temperature (Rogers 1999b). A group of approximately 8610 birds have been recorded roosting at an inland claypan near Roebuck Bay in north-west Western Australia (Collins et al. 2001).
The Great Knot breeds in alpine and sub-alpine vegetation in north-east Siberia and the far north-east of Russia. Nesting colonies are usually at or above upper tree lines, at altitudes below 1000 m above sea level (asl) in the east and usually above 1000 m asl in the western half of the breeding range (Tomkovich 1997).
Individuals can live to at least 17 years of age and first breed at approximately 2–3 years of age (Minton 2002 pers. comm.).
The Great Knot shows a high fidelity to breeding sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and is monogamous (Battley et al. 2004). Nests are on flat to gently sloping ground of broken rocks, often lichen covered. Sites are usually highly exposed, with the only covering vegetation being sparse, dwarf shrubs (Snow & Perrins 1998).
The Great Knot usually lays four eggs, though sometimes three, from late May to late June. Incubation takes around 21 days, and the female parent departs the breeding grounds after the eggs hatch, leaving the male to tend to the chicks (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Around 47%–57% of chicks survive to fledge, and fledging takes approximately 20–25 days. Young are independent a few days after fledging. Around 2.3–2.8 fledglings are raised per brood (Tomkovich 1996).
The Great Knot is migratory, moving south from Russia to non-breeding areas in Australia. It is thought that most adults congregate in the western and southern Sea of Okhotsk, then fly direct to northern Australia, while some others move south to Korea before flying direct to Australia from there (Antonov & Huettmann 2004; Higgins & Davies 1996). Birds found on other Asian coasts are most likely juveniles (Minton 2002 pers. comm.). Birds show strong fidelity to non-breeding sites as well as breeding sites (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Post-breeding migration starts in late June and seems to occur in three waves up to early September. Birds fly towards the northern Sea of Okhotsk, though individuals have been recorded in inland Ussuriland, Russia. Non-breeders, failed breeders and females migrate southward first, followed by males which have bred successfully. The final wave consists of young birds.
The Great Knot passes through south-east Siberia, and along the coasts of the Sea of Okhotsk, southern Ussuriland (from early August to early September), Sea of Japan, South Korea (late August to mid October), East China Sea (late July to late October, but mostly August to September), Taiwan (September-October) and Hong Kong (late August-November) (Barter 2002; Higgins & Davies 1996; Tomkovich 1997).
Other stop-overs occur in Burma, Thailand, the Philippines, western Micronesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Wallacea, Borneo, Bali, Timor and Papua New Guinea (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Arrival in Australia
In Australia, large numbers arrive in the north-west in late August-early September (Lane 1987), though juveniles and many males may not arrive till October-November (Barter 1986). Some move through the Torres Strait (Draffan et al. 1983). Most birds stay in northern Australia (Lane 1987), though some move further south and birds occasionally reach New Zealand (Higgins & Davies 1996).
After arriving in Australia, most birds probably remain at or close to their arrival destinations throughout the non-breeding season, and those few that move to southern Australia probably do so in a single flight from northern Australia (Minton 2002 pers. comm.). Some birds do move from north-west Australia by November with some arriving at the Gulf of Carpentaria in September-December and some arriving on the east coast September-November. A few birds may move through inland Queensland, NSW and Victoria from September-February (Higgins & Davies 1996). Usually Great Knots arrive in South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania from October-November (Lane 1987; Thomas 1970b). Some appear to move from north-west to south-west Australia along the western coast, sometimes moving into south-west Australia in October. At Eyre Bird Observatory, the Great Knot generally arrives late August-December.
In New Zealand, the species has been recorded from September to April (Brown 1980).
Return to breeding grounds
Most birds leave Australia directly from the north coast in March-April (Lane 1987) with some moving through the Torres Strait (Draffan et al. 1983). However, most probably fly directly to the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea, with a few to Japan (Minton 2002 pers. comm.).
Smaller numbers leave southern Australia from February and may move through South Australia and eastern Queensland (Higgins & Davies 1996). Thousands have been recorded in south-east Irian Jaya in February-April. The Great Knot is also recorded from Bali in March; Sumatra in March-April; and Olango Island, Philippines in February-May. Some also move through Vietnam, Hong Kong and Taiwan (Higgins & Davies 1996). Many move through the Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Siberia, on the northern migration (Gerasimov & Gerasimov 2000).
Birds arrive in the breeding grounds from late May with males arriving before females (Tomkovich 1996).
First-year birds generally remain in the non-breeding range (Hayman et al. 1986) and have been recorded in Borneo, Java, Papua New Guinea and in Australia (Higgins & Davies 1996). At the Gulf St Vincent, South Australia, there is sometimes an influx of birds in March-April that remain for several months (Close & McCrie 1986).
The Great Knot is similar to the Red Knot (Calidris canutus), but with markedly different breeding plumage and is larger and bulkier with a longer bill. The Great Knot is known to roost in dense flocks of thousands in association with other waders including the Red Knot and godwits (Limosa spp.) (Higgins & Davies 1996).
There are a number of threats that affect all migratory waders, including the Great Knot, that occur in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.
Reclamation and development
The greatest threat facing waders is habitat loss, both direct and indirect (Melville 1997). Staging areas used during migration through eastern Asia are being lost and degraded by activities which are reclaiming the mudflats for future development (Barter 2002, 2005b, 2005c; Ge et al. 2007; Moores 2006; Rogers et al. 2006; Round 2006). In many suitable staging areas along the East Asia Flyway many intertidal areas have been reclaimed, and the process is continuing at a rapid rate and may accelerate in the near future (Barter 2002, 2005b, 2005c). Twenty-eight percent of Yellow Sea tidal flats existing in the 1980s had disapeared by the late 2000s (1.2% annually) (Murray et al. 2014). Moreover, reference to historical maps suggests that up to 65% of tidal flats were lost since the 1960s (Murray et al. 2014).
The Great Knot is probably more vulnerable to reclamation activities than most other waders, due to the very specific species and sizes of shellfish that they eat (Minton 2002 pers. comm.). Wetland degradation in the Yellow Sea is a particluar threat as 80% of the population stages on the northward migration (Garnett et al. 2011). About 90 000 individuals disappeared following the reclamation of tidal flats in the South Korean Yellow Sea in 2006 (Garnett et al. 2011; Moores et al. 2008).
In addition to that noted above, intensive oil exploration, water regulation and diversion infrastructure in the major tributaries have resulted in the reduction of water and sediment flows, which compound the problem of habitat loss (Barter 2002, 2005b; Barter et al. 1998; Melville 1997).
Climate change and associated changes in sea level are likely to have a long-term impact on the breeding, staging and non-breeding grounds of migratory waders (Harding et al. 2007; Melville 1997). Iwamura and colleagues (2013) found that rises in sea level could cause a dramatic collapse of population flow of this species caused by intertidal habitat loss. Taking into account upshore movements of intertidal habitat, their modelling indicates that this species population flow could reduce by 35% with a 200 cm sea level rise (Iwamura et al. 2013).
Disturbance from construction, recreation, shellfish harvesting, fishing and aquaculture is likely to increase significantly in the future (Barter 2005b; Barter et al. 2005; Davidson & Rothwell 1993; Rogers 2001). Hunting is still a very serious problem for waders in China, and the Great Knot is sometimes caught (Ming et al. 1998).
Migratory shorebirds are adversely affected by pollution, such as organochlorines or heavy metals discharged into the sea from industrial or urban sources, both on passage and in non-breeding areas (Barter 2005b; Blomqvist et al. 1987; Harding et al. 2007; Huettmann & Gerasimov 2006; Melville 1997; Schick et al. 1987).
Causes of disturbance in Roebuck Bay included birds of prey (39%), people or vehicles (18%) and false alarms (10%, i.e. no cause for disturbance), with the remaining disturbance (33%) being from unknown causes (Rogers 2001).
Governments and conservation groups have undertaken a wide range of activities relating to migratory shorebird conservation (AGDEH 2005c) both in Australia and in cooperation with other countries associated with the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.
The Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (AGDEH 2006f) outlines national activities to support flyway shorebird conservation initiatives and provides a strategic framework to ensure these activities and future research and management actions are integrated and remain focused on the long-term survival of migratory shorebird populations and their habitats.
Since 1996–97, the Australian Government has invested approximately $5 000 000 of Natural Heritage Trust (NHT) funding in projects contributing to migratory shorebird conservation (DEWHA 2007g). This funding has been distributed across a range of important projects, including the implementation of a nationally coordinated monitoring program that will produce robust, long-term population data able to support the conservation and effective management of shorebirds and their habitat; migration studies using colour bands and leg flags; and development of a shorebird conservation toolkit to assist users to develop and implement shorebird conservation projects.
Birds Australia is currently co-coordinating the Shorebirds 2020 project, which aims to monitor shorebird populations at important sites throughout Australia; and Birdlife International is identifying sites and regions which are important to various species of birds, including shorebirds, and the processes that are affecting them. The aim is to inform decisions on the management of shorebird habitat. It may be possible to rehabilitate some degraded wetlands or to create artificial wader feeding or roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development, such as by creating artificial sandflats and sand islands from dredge spoil and by building breakwaters (Dening 2005; Straw 1992a, 1999).
The Draft Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebirdsprovides guidelines for determining the impacts of proposed actions on migratory shorebirds. The policy statement also provides mitigation strategies to reduce the level and extent of those impacts. The policy aims to promote ecologically sustainable development that allows for the continued ecological function of important habitat for migratory shorebirds (DEWHA 2009aj).
Australia has played an important role in building international cooperation to conserve migratory birds. In addition to being party to international agreements on migratory species, Australia is also a member of the Partnership for the Conservation of Migratory Waterbirds and the Sustainable Use of their Habitats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (Flyway Partnership), which was launched in Bogor, Indonesia on 6 November 2006. Prior to this agreement, Australia was party to the Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy and the Action Plan for the Conservation of Migratory Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and the East Asian-Australasian Shorebird Site Network. The East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, which is part of the broader Flyway Partnership, promotes the identification and protection of key sites for migratory shorebirds.
It may be possible to rehabilitate some degraded wetlands (Morris 2002) and it may also be possible to create artificial wader feeding or roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development (Harding et al. 1999; Straw 1999). However, it may not be possible to create feeding habitat for the Great Knot, due to the very specific species and sizes of shellfish they require (Minton 2002 pers. comm.).
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The Great Knot has been identified as a conservation value in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the North-west Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012y) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for great knot in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds & migratory shorebirds" for the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region provides additional information.
There is a detailed summary of all that is known of the Great Knot in Higgins and Davies (1996), and international summaries in del Hoyo and colleagues (1996). There are also general discussions and summaries of the ecology, conservation and threats of this species and other shorebirds in Barter (2002) and Watkins (1993).
Management documents relevant to the Great Knot are at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Annual and Perennial Non-Timber Crops:Expansion of agriculture including cotton farming||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for recreational purposes||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Global warming and associated sea level changes||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:climate change|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Exploration drilling|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Production of oil and gas resources|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alterations to hydrology through water extraction|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity|
|Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Loss and damage of intertidal areas due to land reclamation|
|Pollution:Industrial and Military Effluents:Habitat degradation due to industrial discharge|
|Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution|
|Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Tourism and Recreation Areas:Habitat modification, fragmentation and/or changed boat traffic caused by the construction and operation of marinas and wharves|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Shipping Lanes:Collision with shipping infrastructure|
Antonov, A. & F. Huettmann (2004). On the southward migration of Great Knot in the western sea of Okhotsk: Results and conclusions from coordinated surveys of Northern Sakhalin Island and Schastia Bay, 2002. Stilt. 45:14-20.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005c). Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/pubs/shorebird-plan-background.pdf.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006f). Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebird-plan.html.
Bamford M., D. Watkins, W. Bancroft, G. Tischler & J. Wahl (2008). Migratory Shorebirds of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway: Population estimates and internationally important sites. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Wetlands International-Oceania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebirds-east-asia.html.
Barter, M. (1986). Great Knots partly undone. Stilt. 9:5-20.
Barter, M.A. (2002). Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea: Importance, Threats and Conservation Status. Wetlands International Global Series No. 8, International Wader Studies 12. Canberra, ACT: Wetlands International.
Barter, M.A. (2005b). Keeping the common shorebirds common: Action planning to save the Dunlin. In: Straw, P, ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. Page(s) 183-187. Sydney: Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Barter, M.A. (2005c). Yellow Sea-driven priorities for Australian shorebird researchers. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. Sydney, NSW: Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Barter, M.A., D. Tonkinson, J.Z. Lu, S.Y. Zhu, Y. Kong, T.H. Wang, Z.W. Li & X.M. Meng (1998). Shorebird numbers in the Huang He (Yellow River) Delta during the 1997 northward migration. Stilt. 33:15-26.
Barter, M.A., K. Gosbell, L. Cao & Q. Xu (2005). Northward shorebird migration surveys in 2005 at four new Yellow Sea sites in Jiangsu and Liaoning Provinces. Stilt. 48:13-17.
Battley, P.F., T. Piersa, D.I. Rogers, A. Dekinga, B. Spaans & J.A. Van Gils (2004). Do body condition and plumage during fuelling predict northwards departure dates of Great Knots Calidris teuirostris from north-west Australia?. Ibis. 146:46-60.
Birdlife International (2009a). Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris factsheet. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=3040&m=0.
Blomqvist, S., A. Frank & L.R. Petersson (1987). Metals in liver and kidney tissues of autumn-migrating Dunlin Calidris alpina and Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea staging at the Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 35:1-13.
Brown, B. (1980). A Great Knot in Manukau Harbour. Notornis. 27:91.
Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Close, D.H., & N. McCrie (1986). Seasonal fluctuation of waders in Gulf St Vincent, 1976-85. Emu. 86:145-54.
Collins, P., A. Boyle, C. Minton & R. Jessop (2001). The importance of inland claypans for waders in Roebuck Bay, Broome, NW Australia. Stilt. 38:4--8.
Davidson, N. & P. Rothwell (1993). Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin. 68.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, D.A. Christie & J. Sargatal (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World: Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Dening, J. (2005). Roost management in south-East Queensland: building partnerships to replace lost habitat. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003. Page(s) 94-96. Sydney, NSW. Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2012y). Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region. [Online]. Prepared under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/marineplans/north-west/index.html.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007g). Migratory Waterbirds Informaton Page, Departmental Website. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/waterbirds/index.html#conservation.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009aj). Draft Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebirds Draft EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.21. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/migratory-shorebirds.html.
Draffan, R.D.W., S.T. Garnett & G.J. Malone (1983). Birds of the Torres Strait: an annotated list and biogeographic analysis. Emu. 83:207-234.
Fuller, R.A., H.B. Wilson, B.E. Kendall & H.P. Possingham (2009). Monitoring shorebirds using counts by the Queensland Wader Study Group. Report to the Queensland Wader Study Group and the Department of Environment and Resource Management.
Garnett, S., J. Szabo & G. Dutson (2011). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing.
Ge, Z.-M., T-H. Wang, X. Zhou, K.-Y. Wang & W.-Y. Shi (2007). Changes in the spatial distribution of migratory shorebirds along the Shanghai shoreline, China, between 1984 and 2004. Emu. 107:19-27.
Geering, A., L. Agnew, S. Harding & eds (2007). Shorebirds of Australia. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calidris tenuirostris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 1 Oct 2014 18:58:06 +1000.