In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
Listed migratory - Bonn, CAMBA, JAMBA, ROKAMBA
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005c) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebirds Draft EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009aj) [Admin Guideline].
Draft background paper to EPBC Act policy statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bc) [Admin Guideline].
Shorebirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Seagrass - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011k) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Listed Migratory Species - Approval of an International Agreement (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007h) [Legislative Instrument].
|Scientific name||Calidris acuminata |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper is a small-medium wader. The bird has a length of 17–22 cm, a wingspan of 36–43 cm and a weight of 65 g. It is a portly sandpiper with a flat back, pot belly and somewhat drawn-out rear end. It has a small flat head on a short neck with a short and slightly decurved bill. The species has medium length legs. At rest, the primaries are level with or slightly short of the tip of the tail. The primary projection is short in adults and moderately long in juveniles. The sexes are similar and there is marked seasonal variation (Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper spends the non-breeding season in Australia with small numbers occurring regularly in New Zealand. Most of the population migrates to Australia, mostly to the south-east and are widespread in both inland and coastal locations and in both freshwater and saline habitats. Many inland records are of birds on passage (Cramp 1985; Higgins & Davies 1996).
In Queensland, they are recorded in most regions, being widespread along much of the coast and are very sparsely scattered inland, particularly in central and south-western regions (Higgins & Davies 1996). They are widespread in most regions of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria, especially in coastal areas, but they are sparse in the south-central Western Plain and east Lower Western Regions of NSW, and north-east and north-central Victoria (Higgins & Davies 1996). In Tasmania, they mostly occur in coastal areas in the east from George Town to Hobart, with scattered records on the north-west coast, and west coast from Henty River and Port Davey. They also occur occasionally inland and on Bass Strait islands (Higgins & Davies 1996).
In South Australia (SA), they are widespread in the eastern half, east of a line from Streaky Bay, north-east to Pandiburra Bore and Coonchera Waterhole. They may also be found north of Lake Eyre, north-west to Oolgawa Waterhole, south-west to Mintabie and south-east to Nunn's Bore. Further west, they are recorded at Twin Rocks and Cook, east Nullarbor Plain (Higgins & Davies 1996).
In Western Australia (WA), scattered records occur along the Nullarbor Plain and the southern areas of the Great Victoria Desert. They are widespread from Cape Arid to Carnarvon, around coastal and subcoastal plains of Pilbara Region to south-west and east Kimberley Division. Inland records indicate the species is widespread and scattered from Newman, east to Lake Cohen, south to Boulder and west to Meekatharra (Higgins & Davies 1996).
In the Northern Territory (NT) they mostly occur in the north coastal regions, generally east to Groote Eylandt and Gove Peninsula, but also around McArthur River and east of Borroloola. Widely but sparsely scattered inland records occur south to northern Tanami Desert, and in south Northern Territory, from Alice Springs, north to Napabie Lakes and south to Uluru National Park (Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper breeds in northern Siberia, from the delta of the Lena River, east to Chaun Gulf and east of the Kolyma River delta. They are a passage migrant through eastern Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, Micronesia, Philippines and south-east Asia, and less so in the Philippines, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Melanesia. Small numbers occur in North America, mainly in west Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, and occasionally further south along the Pacific coast. They are a casual visitor elsewhere in North America, including a rare passage migrant in Hawaii. They are vagrant to Scandinavia, western Europe, India, Sri Lanka, Fiji and Tristan da Cunha (Higgins & Davies 1996).
During migration to the non-breeding grounds, the following important sites have been identified (Bamford et al. 2008):
|Yancheng National Nature Reserve (NNR)||China||3125|
|Nakdong Estuary||South Korea||3100|
|North-west Bo Hai Wan||China||2855|
|South Bo Hai Wan||China||1262|
|Namyang Bay||South Korea||1139|
|Stebbins-St Michael Wetlands||USA||1000|
|Chongming Dongtan NNR||China||978|
|Dongjin Estuary||South Korea||650|
An estimated 160 000 Sharp-tailed Sandpipers occupy the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF). During the non-breeding season approximately 91% of the EAAF population occurs in Australia and New Zealand (Bamford et al. 2008). During the non-breeding season, 39 important sites have been identified in Australia. Note that an important site is calculated using the 1% criterion (i.e. a site is considered important if it is occupied by more then 1% of the bird's total population). Important international sites in Australia and their populations are listed below (Bamford et al. 2008):
|Lake Cawndilla||New South Wales||37 552|
|Eighty Mile Beach||Western Australia||25 000|
|Port Hedland Saltworks||Western Australia||20 000|
|The Coorong and Coorong National Park||South Australia||17 067|
|Lake Buloke||Victoria||12 000|
|Tullakool Evaporation Ponds||New South Wales||10 000|
|Lake Gregory||Western Australia||10 000|
|Yantabulla Swamp||New South Wales||7000|
|Yantara Lake||New South Wales||6266|
|South-east Gulf of Carpentaria||Queensland||6073|
|Lake Gol Gol||New South Wales||6000|
|Eastern Port Phillip Bay||Victoria||5971|
|Lake Hawdon south||South Australia||5100|
|Kakadu National Park||Northern Territory||4900|
|Lake Tutchewop, Kerang||Victoria||4562|
|Lake George||New South Wales||4500|
|Peel-Harvey system||Western Australia||4030|
|Lake Eyre||South Australia||4000|
|Nericon Swamp||New South Wales||3545|
|Torry Plains Station||New South Wales||3250|
|Kangaroo Island||South Australia||3150|
|Chambers Bay||Northern Territory||2500|
|Lake Yamma Yamma||Queensland||2329|
|Vasse Wonnerup Estuary||Western Australia||2300|
|Tuckerbil Swamp||New South Wales||2253|
|Port Wakefield - Webb Beach||South Australia||1970|
|Western Port Bay||Victoria||1856|
|Fivebough Swamp||New South Wales||1844|
|Port McArthur||Northern Territory||1841|
|Price Saltfields-Clinton Conservation Park||South Australia||1734|
|Tuggerah lakes||New South Wales||1690|
|Ocean Grove to Barwon Heads||Victoria||1684|
International populations during the non-breeding season, and their percentage of the EAAF population is listed below (Bamford et al. 2008):
|Country||Sum Country Estimates||% of EAAF population|
|Papua New Guinea||5000||3|
In Australasia, the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper prefers muddy edges of shallow fresh or brackish wetlands, with inundated or emergent sedges, grass, saltmarsh or other low vegetation. This includes lagoons, swamps, lakes and pools near the coast, and dams, waterholes, soaks, bore drains and bore swamps, saltpans and hypersaline saltlakes inland. They also occur in saltworks and sewage farms. They use flooded paddocks, sedgelands and other ephemeral wetlands, but leave when they dry. They use intertidal mudflats in sheltered bays, inlets, estuaries or seashores, and also swamps and creeks lined with mangroves. They tend to occupy coastal mudflats mainly after ephemeral terrestrial wetlands have dried out, moving back during the wet season. They may be attracted to mats of algae and water weed either floating or washed up around terrestrial wetlands, and coastal areas with much beachcast seaweed. Sometimes they occur on rocky shores and rarely on exposed reefs (Higgins & Davies 1996).
They forage at the edge of the water of wetlands or intertidal mudflats, either on bare wet mud or sand, or in shallow water. They also forage among inundated vegetation of saltmarsh, grass or sedges. They forage in sewage ponds, and often in hypersaline environments. After rain, they may forage in paddocks of short grass, well away from water. They may forage on coastal mudflats at low tide, and move to freshwater wetlands near the coast to feed at high tide. Occasionally they forage on wet or dry mats of algae and among rotting beachcast seagrass or seaweed, and sometimes they are recorded foraging around the edges of stony wetlands or among rocks in water, and rarely on exposed reef (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Roosting occurs at the edges of wetlands, on wet open mud or sand, in shallow water, or in short sparse vegetation, such as grass or saltmarsh. Occasionally, they roost on sandy beaches, stony shores or on rocks in water (Higgins & Davies 1996). They have also been recorded roosting in mangroves (Minton & Whitelaw 2000).
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper forages on seeds, worms, molluscs, crustaceans and insects (Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper is recorded to eat the following plant seeds: Paspalum spp.; clover (Trifolium spp.); Medicago sp., Lucerne (M. sativa); Ruppia spp.; goosefoot (Chenopodium spp.) and knotweed (Polygonum spp.) (Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper is recorded to eat various insects, including the larvae, and molluscs and crustaceans. They also ingest grit, sand and charcoal. They are also reported to eat arachnids and dead fish (Barker & Vestjens 1989; Higgins & Davies 1996).
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper is migratory, breeding in northern Siberia and moving in flocks of less than a thousand, to non-breeding areas south of the Equator (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Migration to Australia
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper departs the breeding grounds from late June, with most leaving during July. Adult males leave before females which, in turn, depart before juveniles. The main migration of adults occurs directly south across Transbaikalia, with small numbers on a broad front from eastern Kazakhstan, east to the Sea of Okhotsk. In Russia, they pass through Anadyr Territory and the Kamchatka Peninsula during September, many probably being juveniles. They pass through Commander Island between September and October, and are found on Kurile Island until late October. They move overland through Mongolia, China and Manchuria to coastal Asia, with large numbers occurring in Korea between August to October and they are a regular on passage in Japan. They are abundant in north-east China between late July to September. From north-east China and Korea, most apparently fly directly to Micronesia and New Guinea. Only small numbers pass through southern China, moving through Hong Kong between late August to late October. Juvenile birds have been noted moving from the breeding grounds across the Bering Strait, through Alaska from mid-August to late October, to North America (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Migration throughout Australia
During the non-breeding season, most of the world population of Sharp-tailed Sandpipers occurs in Australia. Small numbers arrive in north-west Australia during mid-August, with large numbers in early September. Small numbers pass through the Torres Strait, and can occur on the coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria during September and December and on the coast of north-east Queensland from late August. After arriving in Australia, most birds move slowly south across the continent to south-east Australia. Temporary influxes occur in Darwin, north-west Queensland, and the inland wetlands of arid and east Australia between August and December. In the Sydney region, the main influx occurs during September. In SA and Victoria, numbers are generally highest between January and early February. In Gulf St Vincent, SA, some arrive during September–October, with the greatest numbers during December. In Tasmania they arrive between September to November. In south-west WA, they mainly arrive in November (Higgins & Davies 1996). Movements occur during the non-breeding period where birds appear to be dispersive, moving to temporary or flooded wetlands and leaving them when they dry. Numbers are generally not stable in southern Australia where they are found on intertidal mudflats between December to March, possibly because inland wetlands are dry (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Departure from non-breeding grounds
The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper departs non-breeding grounds in Australia by April, being one of the first waders to leave. Very few are reported to remain to winter in Australia. They depart from Tasmania between January and February and begin leaving southern mainland Australia during mid-February, most departing in March, with a few remaining till early May in the south-east. Many, apparently, cross inland with records from the arid inland region between February to April. At least some move north from south-east Australia via the coast of Queensland, during March and April. In south-west Australia they sometimes occur in large numbers between January and March. In Victoria birds are not capable of flying non-stop out of Australia. Instead, most birds from south-east Australia are thought to fly to seasonal swamps on the coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, occurring at least as far north as Edward River and possibly Watson River, where they fatten before moving north. Some birds from south-east Australia head north-west and move through south-east Asia, others apparently overfly New Guinea and Micronesia to south and east China. The passage north occurs through Papua New Guinea generally between March to early May (Higgins & Davies 1996).
Sharp-tailed Sandpipers are rarely seen on passage west from the Philippines, though they are locally common in Bali between mid-March to early April. They move north through Hong Kong between late March to early June and along the Chinese coast during April and May. Some move through Taiwan between March to May and large numbers occur in Korea and Japan between April to May. They arrive in breeding grounds during late May (Higgins & Davies 1996). Long distance movements from Victoria to the breeding grounds are confirmed by banding records. Birds banded in Victoria have been recovered in eastern Siberia, east China and Taiwan (Higgins & Davies 1996). One bird banded in Darwin, Northern Territory, was recovered dead in North Yakutia, Russia, 9332 km north, whilst another banded in Werribee, Victoria, was recovered in Abiyski Region, Yakut Assr, Russia, 11796 km north.
On migration, they forage and roost on rocky and sandy beaches, freshwater habitats and inland saltwater habitats (Higgins & Davies 1996).
There are a number of threats that affect migratory shorebirds in the EAAF. The greatest threat is direct and indirect habitat loss (Melville 1997). Staging areas used during migration through eastern Asia are being lost and degraded by activities which are reclaiming the mudflats for development including aquaculture (Barter 2002, 2005c; Ge et al. 2007; Round 2006). This is especially evident in the Yellow Sea, where at least 40% of intertidal areas have been reclaimed. This process is continuing at a rapid rate and may accelerate in the near future (Barter 2002, 2005c). For example, in South Korea, the Mangyeung and Dongjin River estuaries each supported 5% of the combined estimated EAAF populations (and are the most important sites for this species on both northern and southern migration) and will be reclaimed as part of the ongoing Saemangeum Reclamation Project (Birds Korea 2010; Barter 2002, 2005c). As part of the project, a 33 km sea-wall across these two estuaries was completed in April 2006, significantly affecting the 40 100 ha area used by the species (Barter 2005c). Reclamation is also a threat in other areas of the EAAF, such as in Malaysia (Wei et al. 2006).
Reduction in water quality and quantity
Water regulation and diversion infrastructure in the major tributaries have resulted in the reduction of water and sediment flows (Barter 2002; Barter et al. 1998). For example, reduction in river flows in parts of China, due to upstream water diversion, represents potentially significant threats to the species which is present in internationally significant numbers (Barter 2005c; Barter et al. 1998). Migratory shorebirds are also adversely affected by pollution, both on passage and in non-breeding areas. As a result, intensive oil exploration and extraction in China are other potentially signficant threats (Harding et al. 2007; Melville 1997; Round 2006; Wei et al. 2006).
Disturbance can result from residential and recreational activities including fishing, power boating, four wheel driving, walking dogs, noise and night lighting. While some disturbances may have only a low impact, it is important to consider the combined effect of disturbances with other threats. Roosting and foraging birds are sensitive to discrete, unpredictable disturbances such as loud noises (for example, construction sites) and approaching objects (for example, boats). Sustained disturbances can prevent shorebirds from using parts of the habitat (DEWHA 2009aj). It is likely that human related disturbances will increase significantly in the future (Barter et al. 2005; Davidson & Rothwell 1993).
Global warming and associated changes in sea level are likely to have a long-term impact on the breeding, staging and non-breeding grounds of migratory waders (Harding et al. 2007).
Hunting is still a very serious problem for waders in China, and this species is sometimes caught (Ming et al. 1998).
The loss of important habitat reduces the availability of foraging and roosting sites. This affects the ability of the birds to build up the energy stores required for successful migration and breeding. Some sites are important all year round for juveniles who may stay in Australia throughout the breeding season until they reach maturity. A variety of activities may cause habitat loss. These include direct losses through land clearing, inundation, infilling or draining. Indirect loss may occur due to changes in water quality, hydrology or structural changes near roosting sites (DEWHA 2009aj).
As most migratory shorebirds have specialised feeding techniques, they are particularly susceptible to slight changes in prey sources and foraging environments. Activities that cause habitat degradation include (but are not restricted to):
- loss of marine or estuarine vegetation, which is likely to alter the dynamic equilibrium of sediment banks and mudflats
- invasion of intertidal mudflats by weeds such as cord grass
- water pollution and changes to the surface water regime
- changes to the hydrological regime
- exposure of acid sulphate soils, hence changing the chemical balance at the site (DEWHA 2009aj).
Direct mortality is a result of human activities around the migration pathways of shorebirds and at roosting and foraging sites. Examples include the construction of wind farms in migration or movement pathways, bird strike due to aircraft, hunting, chemical and oil spills (DEWHA 2009aj).
Governments and conservation groups have undertaken a wide range of activities relating to migratory shorebird conservation (AGDEH 2005c) both in Australia and in cooperation with other countries associated with the EAAF.
EAAF shorebird conservation initiatives
The Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (AGDEH 2006f) outlines national activities to support the Flyway shorebird conservation initiatives and provides a strategic framework to ensure these activities and future research and management actions are integrated and remain focused on the long-term survival of migratory shorebird populations and their habitats.
Natural Heritage Trust
From the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s, the Australian Government invested approximately $5 000 000 of Natural Heritage Trust (NHT) funding in projects contributing to migratory shorebird conservation (DEWHA 2007e). This funding was distributed across a range of projects, including: the implementation of a nationally coordinated monitoring programme that aimed to produce robust, long-term population data to support the conservation and effective management of shorebirds and their habitat: migration studies using colour bands and leg flags: and development of a shorebird conservation toolkit to assist users to develop and implement shorebird conservation projects.
Birds Australia is currently co-ordinating the Shorebirds 2020 project, which aims to monitor shorebird populations at important sites throughout Australia. Birdlife International is identifying sites and regions which are important to various species of birds, including shorebirds, and the processes that are affecting them. The aim of these activities is to inform decisions on the management of shorebird habitat. It may be possible to rehabilitate some degraded wetlands or to create artificial wader feeding or roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development, such as by creating artificial sandflats and sand islands from dredge spoil and by building breakwaters (Dening 2005; Straw 1992a, 1999).
Significant Impact Guidelines
The Commonwealth government has prepared Draft Significant Impact Guidelines for 36 Migratory Birds (DEWHA 2009aj). This policy statement is designed to assist any person who proposes to undertake an action(s) to decide whether or not the action may be significant and whether they should submit a referral under the EPBC Act. In addition, the document provides mitigation strategies to reduce the level or extent of those impacts. More generally, it promotes sustainable development that allows for the continued ecological functioning of important habitat for migratory shorebirds. The policy statement applies to the 36 species wherever they occur within Australia or its territories, but does not apply to migratory shorebirds when they are outside Australia.
Australia has played an important role in building international cooperation to conserve migratory birds. In addition to being party to international agreements on migratory species, Australia is also a member of the Partnership for the Conservation of Migratory Waterbirds and the Sustainable Use of their Habitats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (Flyway Partnership), which was launched in Bogor, Indonesia on 6 November 2006. Prior to this agreement, Australia was party to the Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy and the Action Plan for the Conservation of Migratory Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and the East Asian-Australasian Shorebird Site Network.
The East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, which is part of the broader Flyway Partnership, promotes the identification and protection of key sites for migratory shorebirds. Australia has 17 sites in the network (Partnership EAAF 2008):
- Kakadu National Park, NT (1 375 940 ha)
- Parry Lagoons, WA (36 111 ha)
- Thomsons Lake, WA (213 ha)
- Moreton Bay, Queensland (113 314 ha)
- Bowling Green Bay, Queensland
- Shoalwater Bay, Queensland
- Great Sandy Strait, Queensland
- Currawinya National Park, Queensland
- Hunter Estuary, NSW (2916 ha)
- Corner Inlet, Victoria (51 500 ha)
- The Coorong, Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert, SA (140 500 ha)
- Orielton Lagoon, Tasmania (2920 ha)
- Logan Lagoon, Tasmania (2320 ha)
- Western Port, Victoria (59 297 ha)
- Port Phillip Bay (Western Shoreline) and Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria (16 540 ha)
- Shallow Inlet Marine and Coastal Park, Victoria
- Discovery Bay Coastal Park, Victoria.
Management documents for the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper are at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005c). Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/pubs/shorebird-plan-background.pdf.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006f). Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebird-plan.html.
Bamford M., D. Watkins, W. Bancroft, G. Tischler & J. Wahl (2008). Migratory Shorebirds of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway: Population estimates and internationally important sites. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Wetlands International-Oceania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebirds-east-asia.html.
Barker, R.D. & W.J.M. Vestjens (1989). The Food of Australian Birds. 1 Non-Passerines. Lyneham, ACT: CSIRO.
Barter, M.A. (2002). Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea: Importance, Threats and Conservation Status. Wetlands International Global Series No. 8, International Wader Studies 12. Canberra, ACT: Wetlands International.
Barter, M.A. (2005c). Yellow Sea-driven priorities for Australian shorebird researchers. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. Sydney, NSW: Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Barter, M.A., D. Tonkinson, J.Z. Lu, S.Y. Zhu, Y. Kong, T.H. Wang, Z.W. Li & X.M. Meng (1998). Shorebird numbers in the Huang He (Yellow River) Delta during the 1997 northward migration. Stilt. 33:15-26.
Barter, M.A., K. Gosbell, L. Cao & Q. Xu (2005). Northward shorebird migration surveys in 2005 at four new Yellow Sea sites in Jiangsu and Liaoning Provinces. Stilt. 48:13-17.
Birds Korea (2010). Saemangeum Reclamation Area September 2010. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdskorea.org/Habitats/Wetlands/Saemangeum/BK-HA-Saemangeum-September-2010.shtml.
Cramp, S. (1985). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davidson, N. & P. Rothwell (1993). Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin. 68.
Dening, J. (2005). Roost management in south-East Queensland: building partnerships to replace lost habitat. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003. Page(s) 94-96. Sydney, NSW. Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2009). Shorebrids of the Yellow Sea: Threats to Shorebirds. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/yellow-sea/chapter6.html.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007e). Migratory Waterbirds Information Page, Departmental Website. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/waterbirds/index.html#conservation.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009aj). Draft Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebirds Draft EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.21. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/migratory-shorebirds.html.
Ge, Z.-M., T-H. Wang, X. Zhou, K.-Y. Wang & W.-Y. Shi (2007). Changes in the spatial distribution of migratory shorebirds along the Shanghai shoreline, China, between 1984 and 2004. Emu. 107:19-27.
Harding, S.B., J.R. Wilson & D.W. Geering (2007). Threats to shorebirds and conservation actions. In: Geering, A., L. Agnew & S. Harding, eds. Shorebirds of Australia. Page(s) 197-213. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Higgins, P.J. & S.J.J.F. Davies, eds (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Three - Snipe to Pigeons. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.
Melville, D.S. (1997). Threats to waders along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. In: Straw, P., ed. Shorebird conservation in the Asia-Pacific region. Page(s) 15-34. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.
Ming, M., L. Jianjian, T. Chengjia, S. Pingyue & H. Wei (1998). The contribution of shorebirds to the catches of hunters in the Shanghai area, China, during 1997-1998. Stilt. 33:32-36.
Minton, C., & J. Whitelaw (2000). Waders roosting on mangroves. Stilt. 37:23-24.
Partnership for the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (Partnership EAAF) (2008). East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network: October 2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.eaaflyway.net/documents/Flyway-Network-Sites-Oct-08.pdf.
Round, P.D. (2006). Shorebirds in the Inner Gulf of Thailand. Stilt. 50:96-102.
Straw, P. (1992a). Relocation of Shorebirds. A Feasibility Study and Management Options. Sydney, NSW: Unpublished report by the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union for the Federal Airports Corporation.
Straw, P. (1999). Habitat remediation - a last resort?. Stilt. 35:66.
Wei, D.L.Z., Y.C. Aik, L.K. Chye, K. Kumar, L.A. Tiah, Y. Chong & C.W. Mun (2006). Shorebird survey of the Malaysian coast November 2004-April 2005. Stilt. 49:7-18.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2013). Calidris acuminata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 6 Dec 2013 22:57:18 +1100.