Australia's international marine conservation engagement
Australia is a world leader in the management, conservation and sustainable use of the marine environment. Australia maintains an active presence and participation in international marine fora to promote Australia's interests by ensuring effective and complementary approaches to marine conservation, on a regional and global level.
Engagement in regional fora
Australia actively participates in a number of environmental fora and agreements with neighbouring countries in the Asia-Pacific region. These include:
The Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI)
The CTI is a recently formed partnership between Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor Leste. The CTI is focussed on improving marine conservation and management and through this, sustainable livelihoods, food security and economic development. Australia is a strong supporter of the CTI and has official partner status. The department leads Australian Government engagement which includes provision of financial, technical and administrative support for the establishment of the permanent Regional Secretariat and support for national scale activities in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Timor Leste.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
Through the APEC Marine Resource Conservation Working Group (MRCWG), Australia supports the development and implementation of projects that lead to improved sustainability of the marine and coastal environment.
The Arafura and Timor Seas Expert Forum (ATSEF)
ATSEF was established to support the sustainable management and use of the resources of the Arafura and Timor Seas through collaboration between government and non-government stakeholders in Australia, Indonesia and Timor Leste. ATSEF operates under a non-binding memorandum of understanding between the three counties. ATSEF also supports the $3 million Global Environment Facility Arafura and Timor Seas Ecosystem Action (ATSEA) program. The department leads Australian Government engagement with ATSEF and ATSEA and also currently acts as National Coordinator for ATSEF Australia.
Australia - France/New Caledonia Coral Sea Transboundary Collaboration
Through collaboration with France-New Caledonia and France under the Coral Sea declaration Australia is working with the research community and other stakeholders to generate a shared understanding of transboundary environmental interests in the Coral Seas as an input to transboundary management. To this end Australia and France-New Caledonia hosted a workshop in March 2013 to provide a scientific foundation for working towards the establishment of complementary management arrangements in relation to trans-boundary interests between Australia and New Caledonian waters in the Coral Sea.
Areas beyond national jurisdiction
‘Areas beyond national jurisdiction’ include the high seas water column and seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea –“UNCLOS”.
Marine areas cover around two thirds of the planet’s surface – and waters beyond national jurisdiction cover 64 per cent of the surface of oceans and seas. Marine areas and biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction are also the least known and least protected areas on Earth.
The use of areas beyond national jurisdiction has grown exponentially over the past decades, presenting risks to biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction. Established activities have intensified, while the longer-term impacts of new and emerging activities in areas beyond national jurisdiction are difficult to predict with any certainty.
At present, there is no global, comprehensive international agreement on how biodiversity and marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction should be managed, conserved or exploited.
At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), held in June 2012, UN Member States agreed to make a decision by the end of the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on whether to start negotiations on “an international instrument under UNCLOS” to address the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction.
The United Nations Working Group
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) provides the international legal framework for the utilisation of the resources of the world's oceans. Australia is a State Party to UNCLOS and its associated implementing agreements and engages in a number of UN fora to strengthen multilateral frameworks for the conservation of biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
The group responsible for addressing BBNJ is the Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction
This Working Group has been tasked with making recommendations to UNGA on whether to commence negotiations for an international instrument to address biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction.
Three meetings of the Working Group have been scheduled over 2014 and 2015; the first meeting was held on 1-4 April 2014, the second was held on 16-19 June 2014 and the final meeting will be held on 20-23 January 2015. The meetings of the Working Group allow UN Member States to exchange views on the scope, parameters and feasibility of a prospective international instrument and to formulate recommendations to UNGA on the prospective commencement of negotiations.
As a major coastal nation, Australia has an interest in ensuring the sustainable conservation and use of oceans, including the management of the high seas areas above and adjacent to its continental shelf.
It is in Australia’s national interest to promote effective management of areas beyond national jurisdiction. Australia has a significant maritime jurisdiction which is bordered by the high seas in parts of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans.
Australia has submitted its views on the scope, parameters and feasibility of an international instrument to the Working Group.
Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs)
The Department of Agriculture leads Australia's engagement on international fisheries issues, including RFMOs. The department works with the Department of Agriculture, with a particular focus on species conservation issues.
Protecting marine species
In addition to domestic measures to protect threatened marine species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, Australia engages with the international community to protect threatened marine wildlife.
Regulating international trade in marine species
Australia is one of more than 150 countries that are a party to Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Each member country controls the import and export of an agreed list of species that are endangered, or at risk of becoming endangered, due to inadequate controls over trade in them or their products.
Agreements for protecting migratory species
Through the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), Australia is signatory to a number of multilateral agreements and memoranda of understanding that promote the conservation of migratory marine species and seabirds.
- More about the Convention on Migratory Species
- Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks
International action to protect whales
The key forum for progressing Australia's agenda on whale conservation is the International Whaling Commission (IWC).